Scholars have operationalized romantic relationship quality with a variety of measures that typically capture overlapping dimensions of intimacy (e.g., the intensity and frequency of intimacy, closeness) and/or attachment (e.g., affection, connectedness, warmth, and emotional support; Crockett & Randall, 2006; Seiffge-Krenke, Shulman, & Kiessinger, 2001). There is a body of empirical work with primarily European American samples that has found links between the family context and adolescents’ romantic relationship quality. Findings have shown that adolescents are more likely to have higher quality romantic relationships in late adolescence if their earlier interactions with parents were supportive and accepting (Auslander, Short, Succop, & Rosenthal, 2009), their parents used more effective discipline strategies (e.g., lower levels of harsh and inconsistent discipline) to manage youth behavior (Conger, Cui, Bryant, & Elder, 2000), they experienced less conflict in their relationships with their parents (Reese-Weber & Kahn, 2005), their parents’ experienced less conflict with each other (Cui, Fincham, & Pasley, 2008), and their parents were married as compared to being single parents or divorced (Seiffge-Krenke et al., 2001). Together these findings illustrate that familyinfluences can operate through direct socialization experiences, indirect observational learning, or the detrimental effects of family stress on youth development (Conger et al., 2000; Crockett & Randall, 2006).
Though it is apparently more common now for transracial adoptive parents to engage in some form of cultural socialization with their children, it is still unclear the quality of these experiences, as well as which kinds of experiences are most effective in helping children establish an integrated identity. Some studies show that there is a discrepancy between parent and child perspectives of socialization (Kim et al., 2013; Shiao & Tuan, 2008; Song & Lee, 2009). For example, in one study comparing self- reports from adoptive parents and adolescents in Korean TRA families, Kim et al. (2013) found that parents reported greater socialization engagement than what was perceived by their children. Also, it appeared that most parents believed they were comfortable speaking about race and ethnicity with their children, yet this was not always reflected in observed family conversations (Kim et al., 2013). This is a concern when addressing these issues, because it may mean that many adoptive parents do not understand the ways that TRAs’ experiences with race and culture are different from their own.
Family structures are changing globally and in Brazil, with an increasing number of non-nuclear and non- biological parents , studies have shown that family structure can have an impact on the oral health status, oral health-related quality of life, and self-perceived oral health of children and adolescents [2,29,45,46]. It was observed that underprivileged children living with both biological parents was a protective factor, as they presented fewer restorative dental treatment needs than those from non-nuclear families. The literature provides evidences that nuclear families were more likely to have a supportive eco- nomic and psychological environment for performing bet- ter health behaviors than the environment provided by single or separated parents. The latter are generally more stressed to earn enough income to sustain their children, resulting in negligent attitudes towards monitoring oral health and using dental services for both themselves and their children [29,34,45-47].
children's physical activity  and that indicators of parental support for fruit and vegetable consumption, such as encouragement and facilitation, were positively associated with children's fruit and vegetable intakes [23- 25]. In addition, parental modelling of fruit and vegetable consumption has been shown to be positively associated with children's fruit and vegetable consumption  and parental physical activity modelling has been shown to be positively associated with children's physical activity, though the latter was evident only amongst boys . Although there is a growing body of literature examining influences on children's physical activity [22,26] and chil- dren's fruit and vegetable consumption [23,27], studies examining influences on multiple health behaviours are lacking. Examining combinations of children's health behaviours (for example, those children with high physi- cal activity levels and low fruit and vegetable consump- tion) and influences on these, is potentially useful as these behaviours do not occur in isolation in the real world and such data will provide a first step towards the develop- ment of effective primary prevention strategies . To our knowledge there is currently no published research examining associations between parental modelling and support and children's combined physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption (e.g. is parental physical activity modelling associated with 'high physical activity and high fruit and vegetable consumption'?). The aim of the present study, therefore, is to examine cross-sectional associations between a) parental modelling and support and children's physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption individually, and b) between parental mod- elling and support and children's combined physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption.
Abstract: The number of children with hearing loss with additional disabilities receiving cochlear implantation has increased dramatically over the past decade. However, little is known about their auditory and speech and language development following implantation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of cochlear implantation on the most common genetic and developmental disorders in children with hearing loss. Benefits of cochlear implantation for children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, CHARGE syndrome, cere- bral palsy, learning disorders, Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Our review indicates that children with hearing loss and additional disabilities benefit from cochlear implantation, especially when implanted early. Thus, early interventions seem as important for these children as for deaf children without additional disabilities. Comparisons of outcomes across these disabilities indicate that children with little to no cognitive impairment (eg, Waardenburg sydrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) have better outcomes than those with greater deficits in intellectual functioning (eg, autism, CHARGE syndrome). In addition, parents of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities report higher levels of parenting stress and greater child behavior problems than those without comorbid diagnoses. However, these parents are as sensitive when interacting with their children as parents with typically developing children using cochlear implantation. Given these results, it is critical to evaluate these children’s developmental milestones to provide early implantation and intervention, appropriately counsel families regarding realistic expectations for the implant, and facilitate family adaptation.
As has been described in the previous sections, academic approaches to under- standing reproductive behaviour shifted from a focus on macro-level oriented phe- nomena, such as culture or modernization, towards decision-making at the level of the individual and couple (Jayakody et al., 2008; Madhavan et al., 2003; Math- ews & Sear, 2013b,a; Balbo et al., 2013). Recent studies in demography have furthermore highlighted the role of social relations and interactions that connect individuals to one another, focussing on the role of family, peers and other relevant others (Bongaarts & Watkins, 1996; Bras & Van Tilburg, 2007; Coall & Hertwig, 2010). A large number of – both older and more recent – empirical studies have demonstrated for example that parents and children show correlations in terms of children ever born (Pearson et al., 1899; Duncan et al., 1965; Murphy & Wang, 2003; Murphy & Knudsen, 2002; Johnson & Stokes, 1976; Zimmer & Fulton, 1980; Anderton et al., 1987) or in age at first birth (Steenhof & Liefbroer, 2008; Barber, 2001). Since fertility decisions are not made in a social vacuum, recent studies also take the context, including social networks, in which fertility decisions are made into account (Kok, 2009; Bras et al., 2013; Bras, 2014; M¨ onkediek, 2016; Hilevych, 2016; Hilevych & Rotering, 2013). Fertility outcomes may be responsive to macro-level socio-economic or cultural conditions, but are also guided by other aspects such as knowledge about how to control family size, the availability of support of relevant others, social acceptance and the organisation of kinship.
It is difficult to determine what are the precise causal mechanisms linking family factors— such as parental criminality, young mothers, family size, parental supervision, child abuse, or disrupted families—to the delinquency of children. This is because these factors tend to be related not only to each other but also to other risk factors for delinquency such as low family income, poor housing, impulsiveness, low intelligence, and low school attainment. Just as it is hard to know what are the key underlying family constructs, it is equally hard to know what are the key underlying constructs in other domains of life. It is important to investigate which family factors predict delinquency independently of other family factors, independently of genetic and biological factors, and independently of other factors (e.g., individual, peer, neighborhood, and socioeconomic). In the Oregon Youth Study, Bank and Burraston (2001) found that child maltreatment predicted arrests for violent crimes after controlling for unskilled discipline, academic performance, and deviant peers.
community influences and obstacles figure was intended by the researcher to allow for changes such as those described for demonstration of the most commonly expressed family and
community situations described by the mothers. “Now we live with ten people—my best girlfriend and her kids, my family, a puppy and a turtle. Now we also have a backyard.” Another consideration for the researcher in designing and depicting the differences between family and community influences, resources, and obstacles among the different mothers was that although the community is technically larger and a more enveloping entity, to many of the struggling mothers, their vantage points were often more focused on their immediate family as their primary (survival) reality. For example, Gigi was sent away to another state to be raised by her aunt when her father passed away and her mother could not keep her or support her. This was depicted by Gigi as a family problem or obstacle (the death of her father and her mother’s inability to support and raise her) as well as a positive family influence (her auntie raising her). The researcher created the family and community influences and obstacles figure to show the various situations mentioned as accurately as possible, while not overly confining or restricting categories. The intention was to as accurately as possible allow flexibility between quadrants— familyinfluences, community influences, family obstacles, community obstacles. As with the mother’s situations and stories, one size did not fit all, but the most commonly discussed influences and obstacles were depicted.
Results: The amount of using the Internet for befriending, downloading pictures and films, chatting, music, games and sexual clips in order of appearance are: 37/8, 40, 31, 42, 31 and 31 percent. Also the rate of family members’ acquaintance with the Internet, the relationship between the family members and the family’s monitoring in respect of the amount of chatting, the amount of befriending websites’ usage, secretive chat, downloading music, using the Internet secretly, seeing pictures secretly and Internet befriending is statistically significant.
This theme explains the contribution of extended family to the development of conflict and subsequent IPV by the interference and instigation of problems between husband and wife. With regards to the husband’s family, participants i dentified mother-in-law and sister-in-law as the most usual people to instigate problems between husband and wife. Participants felt that they did this by making complaints to their son/ brother about his wife. These complaints could be viewed as false or true, but either way generated tension between the couple. Participants asserted that such complaints could contribute to conflict. These could annoy the husband and, as a result, he could get aggressive and use IPV to discipline his wife or to rectify her behavior. It was interesting to note that all participants, men and women, and even the mothers in law in the sample, elaborated the negative role of mother-in-law and sister-in-law in instigating problems between husband and wife. Naureen (British Pakistani female participant) exemplified this problem while sharing her own experiences:
To understand family as an explanatory factor in entrepreneurial family firms in transi- tional economies requires looking at the relationship between two systems (family and firm). Here is where the concept of family influence (Habbershon et al. 2003) can pro- vide both a theoretical basis and research evidence. This concept can be of use in un- derstanding women-led family firms and the attractiveness of such firms in terms of social, human, and financial capital (Carter and Rosa 1998). While such an approach has its merits, it still suffers from the attempt to turn essentially a loosely defined demographic variable (family) into a causal factor. Is family really a unitary concept or is it in fact a multi-faceted term that serves as a quick reference for a variety of factors such as generations, values, religion, ethnicity, culture, etc.? In other words, when one uses the term family, one is subsuming a number of factors within that term. Is the im- pact of family or family influence due to values, cultural background, organizational structure, the number of family members in the firm, who leads it, or the number of generations involved (Carsrud and Brännback 2012)? To advance social science, one needs to add precision to the definition of family influence and family as they are most likely multi-dimensional variables for purposes of research studies. The current study is limited to the definition provided by the subjects' self-reports. While this may limit the generalizations and explanations available from the current study, if individuals self- identify as a family firm, then one can assume they perceive family to be an important influence, or identity, in the firm.
There are several limitations of the present study that need to be considered. First, the sample only consisted of Nigerian adolescent twins attending public schools in Lagos State. Prior studies (e.g., Chao, 2001) have shown that par- enting styles are related to youth outcomes in different ways in various ethnic groups, thus, it remains to be seen whether or not the present findings extend to other ethnic groups. Second, English versions of the PB and FC scales were given to the participants in the present study. Although English is an official language used for education in Nigeria, many indigenous languages are still widely spoken by children at home (United States Library of Congress, 2008). Thus, somewhat lower internal consistency reliabilities of the two scales found in the present sample may reflect twins’ de- veloping skills in reading English. Finally, our measures of FC and PB are self-reported, which requires an assump- tion that both are veridical reports. However, a systematic review of self-report measures of the family environment scales has shown that the FC scale used in the present study is a suitable instrument for the evaluation of family func- tioning both in clinical and research settings (Hamilton & Carr, 2016). Additionally, the mean (7.81) and standard de- viation (2.2) of PB in our total sample were very close to those (mean = 8.1 and SD = 2.0) found in another sample of randomly selected secondary school students in Ibadan in Nigeria (Stevanovic et al., 2015). These similarities in de- scriptive statistics of PB ensure validity of the responses of our participants.
Interactions with significant others greatly influence children's perceptions of themselves (Brookover and Gottlieb, 1964). Gambrell (1996) proposes that "social interactions with others about books and stories foster wide, frequent reading" (p. 22). She also maintains that "opportunities for sharing and talking with others about books is an important factor in developing engaged, motivated readers" and supports the contention that social interactions have a positive influence on reading achievement (p. 22). Daniels (2002) also supports the idea of literature discussions: "what real readers actually do is find someone to talk to, ASAP. We need to enthuse about the book, to grieve the lost characters, revisit the funniest lines, savor the beautiful language" (p. 90). However, this study has shown that these strategies seem to work best for young people who are already engaged readers. Self-defined non-readers do not appear to have, or at the very least do not perceive themselves to have, the same opportunities for social interactions around reading compared to their reading peers. One of the consistent findings in the present study has been that non-readers are more likely to say that they do not know what their family thinks about their reading, that they do not feel that they get family encouragement to read, that they do not know whether their friends are reading or, indeed, what their friends are reading, and that they do not know what materials are being promoted by adults in their school.
When interviewing participants for the qualitative study component of this thesis, the following terms were used constantly: ‘us’, ‘we’ and ‘our’, rather than ‘I’ or ‘me’. The author listened closely to the participating women’s stories of strength, resilience and cohesiveness, stories underpinned by pride and a strong identity about who they were, their community and where they came from. This was particularly apparent when the women narrated how well they juggled hectic workplace responsibilities with ensuring their children were cared for and elderly parents had had lunch or been taken to their appointments. The author also heard compelling stories of rejection, family violence, homelessness, grief, loss, despair and drug abuse and how these experiences had affected them and their families. Throughout these conversations, repeated stories of incarceration and the negative impact of this on families, stories of intergenerational domestic and family violence, along with stories of helplessness, death and loss were told.
necessary. For example, Mike experiences a challenge that if he reacts the way one parent wants, he will upset the other, and will experience disappointment either way. The power of these influences in the microsystem again contradicts each other, making for a stressful situation for the child. The child then makes sense of where the situation happens and what would be acceptable responses from the parents. For instance, Liam, who may be bullied at school will react differently to how he would react at home because he is taught to be physical at home, but not at school. The child reacts by going outside of the school to be psychical with the bully. That being said, the cycle of violence continues, when children could have possibly dealt with the problem through proven anti-bullying strategies through the school. The influence of the home is quite powerful in determining how to react with bullying. The hesitation a student experiences or even immediate reactions could be more peaceful if students are able to make the decision according to what is taught to them by researched strategies.
Psychological studies of loneliness are comparatively new. This study exam- ined influences of attachment style, family functions and gender differences on loneliness in Japanese university students. The following questionnaires were administered: University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneli- ness Scale, Internal Working Model Scale for assessing attachment, and Fam- ily Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III. Stepwise multiple regres- sion analyses were employed to examine relationships between loneliness as the dependent variable, and gender, attachment style and family functions as independent variables. Results showed that gender differences significantly in- fluenced loneliness. Furthermore, loneliness was positively influenced by avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles and negatively influenced by stable attachment style and family cohesion. A significant interaction was also ob- served between secure attachment style and family cohesion. These results in- dicated that a stable attachment style might reduce loneliness. On the other hand, in spite of an unstable attachment style, loneliness can be decreased if family cohesion is high.
Athletes were recruited through e-mails that were sent to the head coaches of varsity teams, and they forwarded information about the study to their athletes. Interested athletes took part in an interview procedure, which was based on a retrospective timeline approach outlined by Adriansen (2012). To begin the interview, participants worked collaboratively with the interviewer to co- create a visual timeline of the athlete’s sport involvement. Using a large sheet of paper and writing utensils (e.g., pens and markers), the participant guided the researcher in recording the sport activities, important moments, and major life experiences or milestones experienced by the participant in relation to his or her athletic development and family life. Subsequently, a semi- structured interview guide was used to elicit key information associated with the participant’s development into a varsity athlete. Based on the PAF (Côté et al., 2014), the interview guide was divided into three sets of questions aligning with the three dynamic elements considered to influence the quality of youths’ development in sport: activities (e.g., “In addition to the structured activities we are placing on the timeline, in what ways were you involved in less formal sport and physical activity – led by yourself, your peers, or your siblings?”), relationships (e.g., “How has your relationship with [family member] influenced your sport involvement?”), and settings (e.g., “How do you think your environment – at home or in sport – has affected your development in sport over time?”). Questions concerning the participant’s relationships formed the bulk of the interview guide, as we aimed to explore the role of parents and siblings within each athlete’s personal sport history. The timeline was used as a tool to facilitate recall and stimulate discussion during the interview (Adriansen, 2012).
The observations from the family literacy workshops also lend support to finding #1. The workshop attendees came to workshops in the evening and spent about an hour learning reading strategies to help their children at home. This willingness to invest their time shows their commitment to work with the school/teacher and gain resources and strategies to help their children’s learning. In addition, the attendees asked the facilitator, who is their children’s reading specialist, questions about their children’s challenges with reading during the Q & A sessions. For example, at the first workshop, Susan, a parent, expressed concerns about her son’s lack of interest in reading overall, and that his selection of comic books are his only reading materials. Upon receiving a suggestion from the facilitator to use comic books and any topic of her son’s interest as a way to “hook his interest,” Susan agreed to try it with her son. Similarly, Robert voiced concerns to the facilitator about his son, who can read words but has difficulty comprehending what he reads, and who views reading as a task to complete. The facilitator then recommended ways to help Robert with his son’s reading challenges. The facilitator provided many helpful ideas and strategies to attendees during the Q & A sessions. These Q & A sessions exemplified the willingness of attendees to collaborate with and implement strategies from professional educators in order to provide a continuity of supports for children across settings (Sheridan et al., 2012).
When a child is born the life of the family changes significantly and each of its members must adapt to the new situation. However, when the child is born with a disability, in addition to regular adaptation, the family must cope with stress, grief, disappointments, and challenges, which may lead to a serious crisis or even disruption of family life. Parents must coordinate assessments, evaluations and various treatments while maintaining contact with many professionals and numerous institutions or services. They find themselves faced with important decisions on behalf of the child, decisions on management of the child with disability, and economic decisions that will affect the whole family. To sum up, birth of a disabled child or a child with special need becomes an additional source of stress for not only the parents but also for other members of the family. The event of a child born with a disability is always a tragedy for the family, but early intervention and support may help the family to adjust and become positively involved in the care and development of the child, even if that child is different and in need of special treatment. The presence of the child with ID & CP can cause financial hardships for families by increasing the family’s consumptive demands and decreasing its productive capacity
used to test the effects of the LIPE C-60G poly- morphism, physical activity and gene – physical activity interaction on the adjusted phenotypes (residuals). The MIXED procedure was used for carrying out these regression analyses because it provides flexibility for modelling the covariance in the data resulting from the fact that the experimen- tal units (in this case the subjects) can be grouped into clusters (the families) and that data from a common cluster are correlated. By using this procedure, it is thus possible to take into account the non-independence of family members in the association analyses. Variables showing significant evidence of gene – physical activity interaction were then tested for association with the LIPE C-60G polymorphism separately in men and women, using the same MIXED model procedure, but this time the association analyses were performed separ- ately in each of the four physical activity – genotype groups (low and high physical activity groups based on the sex-specific median values of physical activity score and carriers versus non-carriers of the G-60 allele) using age-adjusted data. Least square means were extracted and tested for differences between the groups using t-tests (Figure 1).