From the finding of the present work it is evident that till now the objective of good population policy and health and family welfare programme prevailed in the area of family planning has not been attained upto the mark.Certain improvement has been found for general caste in regard to literacy status and birth control, but in case of scheduled tribes the situation is very grave. In their case, scores of knowledge attitude and methods about family planning programme are poor than other castes. This is corporate by observations of some Education Commission’s Report on family planning which gives an comprensive description of the education and family planning scenario in West Bengal. It is observed that the literacy rate and acceptance of family planning are very lower than national rate in the study area. Economically backward Scheduled tribes parents used to produce more children not only because their ignorancy, but because they need them for the source of income in thejr family. Among the Scheduled tribes of Sandeshkhali block, the researchers has also found out this affected scenario.
2. India’s family welfare programme placed heavy emphasize on sterilization as the major method of family planning. Many other Asian countries started their family planning programmes with spacing methods and then gradually introduced sterilization services requires well-trained medical personnel and well equipped facilities. A permanent method may not be preferred when levels of infant and child mortality are high, or because of religious beliefs. Therefore, sterilization should be the last resort than the first one in the contraceptive choices given to the public. So there is a need to expand the range of choices of contraceptives as well as to improve the quality of services provided to couples, both in rural and urban areas.
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The future family planning programme should be a movement of the people, for the people and by the people. The planning of the family should begin from the grass root level and each family should be considered as a basic unit. The family planning slogan should move into the kinds of the people making them understand that its purpose is to help the individual, the family and the nation to survive and prosper. They are denied rightful share of food, shelter, learning and love. Child bearing should be a joy, not a burden, and since it is the mother who bears and rears the child. Family planning is a proof of our love for children or a test of our claim to be a good mother, good father and a good society. 16
In late 1960’s, National Family Welfare Programme of India has introduced condoms as one of the prevalent family planning methods and promoted it through social marketing. It is promoted as a dual method of protection against unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections (STI’s). In 1992, National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up to manage and oversee policy and programme related to prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and introduced National AIDS Control Programme (NACP). The prevention services of the programme included condom promotion and increased condom use which is also done through targeted intervention projects (peer-lead projects). These projects are funded, contracted and monitored by the State AIDS Control Societies (SACS). NACO and SACS provide the vital role in stewardship of condom promotion at National and at States and Union territories level respectively. The various programme and its impact on condom distribution, sales and usage is as follows:-
The programme entered into the present phase with the adoption of a Population Welfare Planning Plan 1981-84, based on past experience. The plan has now been extended to the entire sixth plan period (1983-88). Administrative districts having family planning programme are shown in Figure 1-1. The programme has been renamed the "Population Welfare Programme" and is now project oriented . It has a core programme which aims at providing population planning facilities through its network of Reproductive Health and Family Welfare Centres. The Family Health Manpower Development project provides clinical training facilities. Complementary projects are designed to seek coordination with other nation-building departments, disseminate information and education on population welfare, involve NGOs in this effort, and create awareness and demand for planned parenthood. Support activities include evaluation, research, training/orientation, and logistics of supply and distribution systems. The plan lends itself to critical evaluation and modification without disrupting continuity. In essence, the plan is not a single purpose birth-control or family planning programme with a clinical orientation but focusses essentially on the social issue of 'population welfare' (Population Division, 1982; Pakistan , 1984) .
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The success of the family planning programme has been constrained by several factors such as lack of support from all the section of society, lack of inputs and integrated approach including literacy, nutritional health care and welfare of people, especially women and children. It is realized that people will respond to the family planning programmme more readily, if they are assured of the survival of two children. This all would require a sustained and consistent effort towards motivation supported by practical programmes of improving health and socio- economic conditions of the people.
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Our results show that women who reported having at least one child were less likely to use traditional methods but more likely to use short-term or long-term methods. Further, our results show that the likelihood to use a long-term method increased with the number of children. This is an indication of the influence of number of children ever born on the choice of contraceptive method to adopt. Elsewhere, contraceptive use has been found to increase with parity, where women who had achieved their desired family size used contraceptives to limit births . Women with three or more three children were more likely to use long term methods but less likely to use traditional or short-term methods compared to those with fewer children. Number of surviving children is a key determining factor in contraceptive use. Women who achieve the desired family size are therefore more likely to use long-term methods of contraception. According to the Kenya DHS survey, the re- ported ideal family size was 4 children and our results are a possible indication that women are more inclined towards that family size [15, 36]. Additionally, with the decrease in child mortality, more women are likely to use long-term contraception since they do not anticipate the need to re- place a child . On the other hand, women who had never been pregnant were using no methods; a finding similar to those from studies in western Europe [38, 39].
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Many women described fear of others finding out about their use of family planning. Initially in interviews women expressed these concerns in highly broad terms. For example, because others “will criticize me,” “think badly of me,” “look at me,” “make me feel badly,” or “talk about me.” When probed about what others will say, more specific critiques were articulated. For example, others will say, “she doesn’t want to give children to her husband,” “she can’t maintain a family,” “she’s not a woman … because she can’t have lots of children,” “she does not have the will to receive her children,” or even “she must be looking to go with another” (ie, have an affair). Most of these comments allude to the identity and worth of women, at least in a traditional sense, being highly bound with providing many children to her husband. The opinion of others holds great weight because this is a communal community with shared resources and high respect for elders. There are several ways women justified how they break with restrictive expecta- tions relating to women’s worth being bounded closely by her exhibited ability to bear children for her husband. Participants expressed wanting a better life for themselves and their chil- dren, often describing this in relation to difficult upbringings they had, particularly as girls who faced gender-based dis- crimination. One participant thus said she thought using family planning was good “so the girl does not suffer, nor the mother.” Another participant spoke of using family planning as being about protecting her body and her “self.” Further ways women spoke of being able to resist criticism related to understanding others’ harsh comments as being routed in jealousy. Some did not worry about others finding out about their family planning status since they figured “the majority” of others were also using family planning or that, over time, the spacing between their children would make it obvious they are using family planning anyways. One woman delineated temporally her deci- sion as different from that of her mother-in-law because she had “already lived her life and we haven’t; we are just starting, so the conversation is just between us [her and her husband].” Interestingly, this same couple chose to relieve pressure from the husband’s mother through him telling her they would be using natural methods, which they believed she would find less objectionable than using the modern method of the pill. Several women were able to insulate themselves from critique because they felt that although others, particularly in-laws, tried to involve themselves in the couple’s decision to use family planning, this was really a decision they make as a couple.
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The Government of Uganda has pledged to increase uptake of modern contraception to 50% and reduce the unmet need to 10% by increasing access to family plan- ning information, targeting youth, and addressing the so- cial and cultural misconceptions about contraception . With support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the government is implementing youth friendly corners—designated spots for youth support—at health facilities to increase uptake of sexual and reproductive health services, including contraception . The early results from this program suggest an increase in the pro- portion of youth with access to contraception, especially among informal workers such as waitresses and hair dressers [6, 9, 10].
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to know more than one method of contraceptive than those who were illiterate. Also, women who were government employees and worked outside the home were more likely to be knowledgeable about modern contraceptive methods than their housewife coun- terparts. Women’s educational and occupational status was found to be associated with current contraceptive practice. Kaba (2000) documented similar results. Hogan et al. (1999) showed that in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region of Ethio- pia women’s literacy and autonomy were the most important fac- tors for the adoption of contraceptive and the accompanying reduction in fertility rates. However, as in most developing coun- tries, women in Ethiopia are limited mainly to household respon- sibilities such as child rearing and feeding the family. They may have no say in decisions on whether to use contraception, when to have a child or how many children she should have.
Article about theory that do appear in the financial planning literature, plus the topics tested on the examination for CFP certification and suggested topics for the curriculum for education programs registered with the CFP Board of Standarts are a good starting point for discovering the basics of the fundamental body of theoretical knowledge of the profession. One reason for the absence of a theoretical body of knowledge in the scholarly literature, is because there has been limited academic interest in the profession as separate from finance in general,as evidenced by few degree programs and few scholarly publications dedicated to personal financial planning for corporations and other large organizations.
However, in contrast to H2, the family’s emotional attachment stemming from shared experiences, values, and wealth, shows the strongest positive effect on family SME innovativeness. This positive relationship may derive from the family’s desire to preserve its heritage over a long time. It could be argued that family members with strong emotional attachment to the firm tend to feel more responsible and committed to the firm and its long- term success, which outweigh the potential risks of innovation, including the risk of business failure due to unsuccessful innovations. This finding is in line with research suggesting that responsibility and commitment can motivate family members to act in the firm’s best interests (Corbetta and Salvato, 2004), which can support the fulfillment of organizational goals and improve firm performance (Davis, Schoorman, and Donaldson, 1997). As innovativeness is known for its positive effect on firm performance (Hult et al., 2004), firm-owning families with strong emotional attachment to the business may recognize the importance of their capacity to engage in innovation.
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Abortion was not exempted from legal regulation, but the control was usually loose. Hence it is justifiable to affirm that Eastern European countries embarked in the late 1950s on a broadly 'permissive1 policy on abortion; the legitimacy of such labelling is readily apparent in the tone of the revised laws.29 However, within the overall pattern of easily available legal abortion, a good deal of variation existed between individual countries. Czechoslovak, Hungarian, Polish, and Yugoslav codes required that a woman present specific indications and that abortions were authorized by special commissions, but the criteria were not difficult to meet. The Romanian law, like that of the Soviet Union, simply did away with all legal requirements for the woman under 12 weeks of pregnancy and allowed her to go directly to an outpatient clinic. Hungary and Bulgaria required that women go to hospitals, and in Poland a woman was permitted to go to her family doctor or a private outpatient clinic. Second trimester abortions were allowed only on medical indications, except in Hungary where the limit for minors was 18 weeks. In all these countries, the ultimate decision on abortion rested with the doctor who was to perform the operation. In each, the acceptable indications for abortion were very broad, ranging from medical to socio-economic. Abortions done on request or on social indications had usually to be paid for by the applicant, but the charges requested covered only part of the cost of the operation and hospitalization, or were included in the health insurance systems, thus making abortion services generally cheap. In short, almost all the imaginable indications for abortion became acceptable in principle, and the corresponding conditions were in practice easy to meet. Contraindications to abortion were similar in all countries: a period of gestation in excess of twelve weeks, an induced abortion within the preceding six months,
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Many studies have been conducted all over the world to study about the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning and contraception. The result of the present study showed that 95% of them heard about the family planning and 82% heard about the contraceptives, these finding where similar to the study conducted in Sikkim by Renjhen P et al. 13 where 98% of the students had knowledge about family planning and 86% of them had heard about contraceptives. Nansseu JR et al. 15 conducted a study in Mbouda health district, Cameroon found that 96% heard about the family planning. Similar study conducted in North Gondar in 1995 by Fantahun MI et al. 16 showed the level of knowledge of contraception was 75%. Araoye et al. 17 conducted a study in Nigeria found that 97.7% of males and 98.4% females respectively knew at least one method of contraception. A study conducted in Delhi by Aggarwal O et al. 18 showed that knowledge regarding, contraception was 83.5%. The study conducted in Ludhiana by Benjamin et al. 19 shows that 87% were aware of contraception. The result of our study was in contrast to study conducted in Northwest Ethopia by Semachew et al. 20 where only 42.3% of study participants had good knowledge of contraceptives.
Although a wide target group was included in this study, there are some sampling limitations. Only one region in Pakistan was covered, and the setting was a healthcare institution (although in case of the latter point, patients, visitors and staff were approached). The sample size used for the survey limits the ability to extend the results of the study to Pakistan as a whole. Furthermore, the questionnaires used were non-validated and therefore the exact reproducibility has not been established. Nevertheless, tThis study still provides an insight into the status of family planning, and the clear influence that education has, from a woman’s perspective in a large city and surrounding rural communities in South-East Pakistan.
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7 schedule of observations of family planning consultations there were 26 items that were not specific to particular family methods. These items were used to construct the scale for ‘provision of care’. Items included whether enquiry was made about reproductive history, breast feeding and fertility intentions, whether the blood pressure was taken, whether visual aids were used and how fully documentation was completed (Appendix 1). These items had ‘yes/no’ response options and ‘yes’ responses were summed to generate the score. For presentation of results this scale was expressed as a percentage with 100% representing an optimal consultation.
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The goal of implementing a family planning program is to reduce population growth through the increased use of contraceptives and reduced fertility. However, there is not much consensus on the effectiveness of such a program in achieving its goal (Desai and Tarozzi 2008). The available literature shows mixed results on the association between family planning programs and women’s contraceptive behavior. While Gupta, Katende, and Bessinger (2003) consider exposure to a message broadcast through a variety of channels as the most effective way to change contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, Desai and Tarozzi (2008) argue that access to contraceptives and exposure to family planning programs are largely ineffective in changing reproductive behavior. Evaluating the impact of the family planning program is also complicated by the fact that both program placement and individual participation are correlated with location.
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of Multidisciplinary Residency was recognized, especially by your role in the critical perception of management in health, in the dialogue between different knowledge and practices and rapprochement between the Academy and health services (Lima, 2015). As a health professional and experiences in management, through the coordination of primary health care, especially in the family health strategy, I had the opportunity in the year of 2012 to get in touch with the Multiprofessional Residency Program in the Health Family – RMSF, University of the State of Pará, being invited to develop activities of Preceptorship. During the experience as a preceptor, identified the difficulty of students about the work process development of family health teams, in particular the achievement of the health planning based on Territorialization. In this way the health planning is essential to the achievement of the proposed objectives, and "constitutes a continuous instrument for diagnosing the reality and propose alternatives to transform it, the means to provide that happen and the opportunities to perform the actions planned, which may require a restart of the cycle " (Lacerda, Botelho e Colussi, 2016). Based in the understanding submitted on health planning main objective of the study was to analyze the students ' knowledge of the Multi professional Residency in family health, about the planning of health and your relationship with the dimensions political, social and economic planning, in virtue of the Multi professional Residency in Family Health, by using innovative technologies to the teaching service, be a strategy to achieve this professional training and health system needs.
Now-a-days, population explosion is a severe problem. The world population as well as population of our country is rapidly increasing day by day. To check this explosion we need appropriate knowledge about family planning programme. Therefore, measurement of knowledge about family planning programme is essential. From this point of view, the present study aims to focus on the Construction of knowledge scale regarding family planning programme of Muslim women of Murshidabad District, West Bengal. In this study questionnaire was constructed for collection of the data. In the present study, self made questionnaire regarding knowledge scale was used as appropriate tool for collecting data in order to achieve the pre-determined objectives of this study. During construction of this knowledge scale/questionnaire items/statements were prepared on ten (10) dimensions viz. education, population, economic condition, equality, child and mother care, small family norm, Governmental facilities, superstitions, contraceptive method and religion. It was a “5-points Liker Scale”. Although, initially there were thirty six (36) items/statements in the prepared knowledge scale/questionnaire but, finally twenty five (25) items/statements were retained. In this questionnaire there are twenty five (25) statements. Among them eighteen (18) are favourable and seven (7) are unfavourable statements. It is assumed that the scale was highly valid as the investigators selected the most differentiating statements for the final form of the knowledge scale through the opinion of experts in this field. The test–retest co-efficient of the scale was found as 0.94 which is significant.
Family planning is a conscious activity of the people of reproductive age who want not only to regulate the number and time of birth, but to have a healthy child who will meet expectations throughout the life cycle. Family planning involves different aspects - biological, medical, demographic, sociological, psychological, economic, ethical, political and other. In terms of the carriers occurs on three levels: as individual practice, as a movement of social groups and as a program for family planning at the national level. Basic right of all couples and individuals is to decide freely and responsibly about the number and timing of births of children and to be informed and educated about it. The concept of "family planning" has replaced the concept of "birth c as a modern approach to the development of the family and the population in a country. The preparations for a healthy pregnancy are result of the general progress of modern society. The reason for this is the increased birth control, family planning, and thereby increasing concern about the birth of a live and healthy child. Preparations for a healthy pregnancy may have prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic nature. The goal is to determine the health status of the mother, to anticipate possible complications during pregnancy and ensure