Fascism and Religion

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Review of Faschismus, Religion und Gewalt in Südosteuropa: Die Legion Erzengel Michael und die Ustaša im historischen Vergleich by Radu Harald Dinu

Review of Faschismus, Religion und Gewalt in Südosteuropa: Die Legion Erzengel Michael und die Ustaša im historischen Vergleich by Radu Harald Dinu

dysfunctional political systems combined with the Hungarian takeover of Northern Transylvania and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia catapulted these groups into power. Instead, Dinu’s ‘theory of practice’ tries to explain why fascists behaved as they did. ‘Moving the dynamic of violent actions to the center of analysis, without ignoring structural or cultural factors’, he explains, should tell us something new about the sociology of fascist movements (p. 10). Dinu studies the relationship between violence and fascism, but he is careful to remind us that the Russian Bolsheviks also relied on ‘violence, camaraderie, and a paramilitary habitus’ so we should not imagine that violence in itself defines fascism (p. 14). After finding fault with comparativists who look for ‘ideal types’, Dinu concludes that the important thing is not to define fascism, but to interpret it.
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The Power of Carl Schmitt: Fascism, Dualism and Justice 1

The Power of Carl Schmitt: Fascism, Dualism and Justice 1

wholly spiritual person, a person who from the perspective of politics and political activism is purely private. Church and State do not meet, as spiritual and material do not meet. Thus Christians should love their enemies, if they have enemies, but such enemies can never be, or can only coincidentally be political enemies. Political enemies, in contrast, must be hated politically – such is the obverse or dark side of Christian dualism. Ethics and religion, then, have no say in politics. What Schmitt neglects to mention is the totalitarian impulse of fascism, which because unbridled power is essentially restless and expansionist in fact conflates the private/public distinction, making everything a public affair, requiring allegiance to the State in all things, from cradle to grave, from procreation to conscience. Christianity, even willingly succumbing to the most radial Gnostic dualism, can never be otherworldly enough! No wonder Nazi German’s Lutherans came to worship an Aryan Jesus. 22
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Religion and the Cold War

Religion and the Cold War

Frank Coppa ('Pope Pius XII and the Cold War: Confrontation between Catholicism and Communism') examines the Pope's stance in relation to Bolshevism and Fascism, concluding that the Vatican's alliance with the Western bloc contributed towards the post-war triumph of Christian Democratic parties in Italy and Germany, as well as the containment of the Soviet Union. The Pope's warning that it was not possible to be both a Catholic and a communist struck home. Peter Kent ('The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII') puts forward a different view. While acknowledging that the Catholic Church was 'among the first ranks of the Cold Warriors' (p. 67), he raises the question of how close and effective a working alliance there was between the American government and the Holy See and argues that, although the Vatican contributed towards Cold War ideological rhetoric, it had little direct influence on the course of events in the years that followed the Second World War. Its main success was in persuading the USA not to impose a punitive peace settlement on Germany and Italy that would drive them into the arms of the communists.
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Religion, Tolerance and Discrimination in Malta

Religion, Tolerance and Discrimination in Malta

Should there be a distinction of a “cult” or religion “accepted” by the law and those that are not? And what is the criterion? Is this a distinction between a religion and a sect or are we referring to something more fundamental than that, such as those cults or small communities practising deviant, sinister and eccentric rites that are also detrimental to the members of the community? The terminology used is significant in a way, and yet any religion or belief comes under the notion of a cult. But “cult” means something less than established religion, and very often the term includes sects within the same or established religion. A cult that is not tolerated by the law should therefore be one that violates fundamental social values both as a matter of belief as well as a matter of actual practice. And then how does a cult become accepted or tolerated by the law? What would be the case for example, when a sect such as the Jehovah Witnesses, embracing most of the Judeo-Christian philosophy and teaching, but then prohibiting blood transfusion even when such and intervention can save lives? Such a practice obviously offends human dignity guaranteed by the law.
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Is Europe Cascading into Fascism?: Addressing Key Concepts including Gender and Violence

Is Europe Cascading into Fascism?: Addressing Key Concepts including Gender and Violence

Violence has been increasing in Europe in recent years: the increased practice and salience of violence are part of the changes in Europe under assessment. Within the varieties of societal forms discussed in the previous sec- tion, violence might be considered core to fascism, rou- tine in authoritarianism, collateral damage for neoliberal- ism, and less common in social democracy. Variations in society are constituted by variations in violence as well as in political economy. The assessment of the form of society is significantly dependent upon the extent and significance of violence. Violence is a constituent part of the gender regime; so, changes in gendered violence are changes in gender inequality. The increase in violence is one part of the threat to the feminist project of gender equality. Violence concerns not only crime, but also war, peace and security. The response of the state to violence and to perceptions of violence is part of the institution of violence. Integrating the insights from gender analysis about violence into the theorisation of macro changes in society is challenging. It requires addressing: the con- ceptualisation of violence, the link between violence and gender; and the link between variations in violence and other institutional domains.
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Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement

Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement

Venetian financiers, essentially controlled Mussolini, but in the eyes of the world he was perceived as Duce of the Fascists and Head of Government. For Mussolini, the fascist Italian was to be created on a par with the Renaissance Italian (Smith, 1975: p. 174). The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) was a very important organ and ostensibly idiomatic of the Fascist Party, the government ministers including the Presidents of the Senate and the Chamber and the commander of the Squadristi militias. A number of Fascist candidates were to be voted for and voters had to either accept or reject the no- tion of a unitary state. It was the Grand Council which was also tasked with submitting to the King the names of suitable can- didates who could be elected as Head of Government. There were wide-ranging parliamentary limitations in Italy and the power of the fascist dictatorship grew as the independence of the judiciary became severely compromised. All political par- ties in Italy, other than the Italian Fascist Party were gradually abolished and the independent trade unions were replaced by fascist syndicates. Any other political groups were allowed to exist only if they remained uncritical of fascism and Mussolini. The media were very strictly monitored and censured and used predominantly as a puppet of fascist propaganda which pro- moted the idea that true identity could be found in the commu- nity of the nation and the nation preceded the individual. All class struggles could be counterbalanced by nationalism which was vehemently opposed to the liberal bourgeois conception of life, and both Germany and Italy as nations transcended divi- sion. It was nationalism that would prepare the nation for self- sacrifice, heroism and conflict. The bourgeois by comparison, tended to undermine these ambitions and wasted time and effort on the pursuit of materialistic desires and petty parliamentary politics. In Nazi Germany, the nation was imbued with a quasi- religious aura, but this was not the case in Italian fascism. Ironically, it was the Grand Council which initially supported Mussolini that decided to oust him in July 1943. Mussolini tried to justify his ruthless regime through the requirement for effi- ciency and getting things done effectively in a weakening Ital- ian state, but the Second World War soon exposed the vast military and logistical limitations of the fascist corporate state.
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The 'right' side of the law: state of siege and the rise of fascism in interwar Romania

The 'right' side of the law: state of siege and the rise of fascism in interwar Romania

Far from being purely a reaction to the features of modern times, fascist move- ments are to be treated by historians as pertaining to the project of modernity and to be understood as proposing their own alternative modern worldview,6 albeit one built on the use of violence and the exclusion of otherness. By approaching the history of generic fascism through the lenses of a Weberian ideal type, ‘contributors to fascist studies are finally in a position to treat fas- cism like any other political ideology rather than as a “special case”’.7 Through a new consensus, fascism would be analysed not only under a new light, unhin- dered by the open ideological biases of the past, but also as a form of moder- nity in its own right, as a virtual response to the crisis of liberal capitalism in the world of the interwar.8 Fascism is thus opened to be read as ‘the faulty diagnosis of a genuine malfunction’ pertaining to the ways in which liberal societies address the question of identity and belonging in times of crisis.9 In this sense, the new consensus between historians of fascism tries to link this moment to various aspects of modernity such as the cult of progress and the politics of time10 or the appropriation of the past to modern uses of mass politics.11
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Judging the Conducător: fascism, communism and legal discontinuity in post war Romania

Judging the Conducător: fascism, communism and legal discontinuity in post war Romania

espoused fascism and who bore the political responsibility for allowing German troops to enter Romania; and b) persons who had given their support to the above deeds, either in speech, writing or by any other means. Article 2 proclaimed those ‘guilty of the disaster brought on the country through the commission of war crimes’ as persons who had taken the decision to declare war on the Soviet Union and the United Nations, who had treated prisoners in an inhuman manner, who had ordered or carried out acts of terror or cruelty against the population in the war zones, who had taken repressive measures against civilians out of racial or political motives, and who had ordered forced labour or the deportation of people. Conviction under article 1 carried imprisonment for a term of between five years and life, while that under article 2 attracted forced labour for life or the death penalty: Statute no. 312 of the 24th of April 1945.
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Pinocchio, a political puppet: the Fascist adventures of Collodi's novel

Pinocchio, a political puppet: the Fascist adventures of Collodi's novel

It is therefore clear how Petrai’s story is informed by an early meta-narrative of Fascism, 36 seeking to legitimize Mussolini’s rule as the solution to Italy’s national ills and the natural outcome of its history. Such a narrative is activated mainly through ‘relationality’, described by Baker as the necessity for an event to be interpreted, ‘to be conceived of, as an episode, one part of a larger configuration of events’. 37 The narrative activated by Avventure e spedizioni punitive di Pinocchio Fascista presents Fascism as a revolutionary movement which signalled discontinuity with the past, while also claiming the legacy of Roman splendour and of the Risorgimento, as a ‘rivoluzione mancata’ which Fascism only could accomplish. 38 The idea of Fascism as a force of national renovation, which also found legitimacy in the past, is mainly evident in the relationship between Geppetto and Pinocchio described above. The latter clearly serves a meta-narrative of Fascism as a revolutionary, forward-looking movement, where old people, and by extension the old liberal Italy, should transfer their ambitions to their children and make way for the young, fascist movement. 39
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Other politics, other prejudices; the failure of the British Union of Fascists in Scotland

Other politics, other prejudices; the failure of the British Union of Fascists in Scotland

Equally, Mosley's close Labour colleague, John Wheatley, who was to die before Mosley's move to fascism, shared much of Mosley's analysis of the slump. These strong Scottish connections were partly maintained following the creation of the New Party in February 1931, with two of its MPs coming from Scotland. Yet the NP failed badly in Scotland, as elsewhere, in the October 1931 general election, and the resulting new Mosleyite movement, the BUF, made a weak start in Scotland after its birth in October 1932.

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Religion, religion! Wherefore art thou, religion? Enactment in interreligious encounters as walking the talk

Religion, religion! Wherefore art thou, religion? Enactment in interreligious encounters as walking the talk

honors of various kinds. But Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi does not value gifts and honors as much as he values this – that there should be growth in the essentials of all religions. Growth in essentials can be done in different ways, but all of them have as their root restraint in speech, that is, not praising one’s own religion, or condemning the religions of others without good cause. And if there is cause for criticism it should be done in a mild way. But it is better to honour other religions for this reason. By so doing, one’s own religion benefit[s] and so do other religions, while doing otherwise harms one’s own religion and the religions of others. Whoever praises his own religion, due to excessive devotion and condemns others with the thought ‘Let me glorify my own religion’, only harms his own religion. Therefore contact between religions is good. One should listen to and respect the doctrines professed by others. Beloved-of-the- Gods, King Piyadasi desires that all should be well learned in good doctrines of other religions. Those who are content with their own religions should be told this: Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does not value gifts and honors as much as he values that there should be growth in the essentials of all religions. (p. 51)
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RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

This course examines the role, current revival, and the socio-political implications of the practice of religion in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) both from a legal and socio- historical perspective. Students will read and discuss primary Chinese documents in translation and secondary works about the five officially recognized religions in China (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Islam) and explore the controversy around popular religions and illegal congregations. Furthermore, this course will look at the way religion, ethnicity, and politics intersect in China through an analysis of the case the Muslim Uyghurs of Xinjiang and Tibetan Buddhists of Western China.
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Religion and legal spaces: in Gods we Trust; in the Church we Trust, but need to verify

Religion and legal spaces: in Gods we Trust; in the Church we Trust, but need to verify

Relying on Articles 8 and 14 of the ECHR, FM alleged that the non-renewal of his contract because of his personal and family situation had infringed his right to respect for his private and family life before the ECtHR. He complained that he had been discriminated against and that the public disclosure of his status as a married priest with several children formed part of his freedom of expression. 54 The ECtHR framed the question as whether the State was required to give precedence to FM’s right under Article 8 (right to respect for private life) over the rights of the Church under Articles 9 (right to freedom of religion) and 11 (freedom of association) and whether it had afforded him sufficient protection. The ECtHR observed that under Spanish law the concept of autonomy of religious communities was accompanied by the principle of State neutrality in religious matters. This approach prevented the State from expressing a position on issues such as celibacy for priests. The ECtHR acknowledged that this obligation of neutrality was not unlimited. The Constitutional Court had confirmed on 4 June 2007 that restrictions could be imposed in this sphere through judicial review of decisions by the Bishop, who was required to respect fundamental rights and freedoms. However, the definition of the religious or moral criteria that served as a basis for not renewing a candidate’s contract was the exclusive prerogative of the religious authority. The domestic courts could weigh up the competing fundamental rights at stake and examine whether the decision not to renew the contract had been based on anything other than strictly religious factors, those being the sole aspects protected by religious freedom. FM had had the opportunity to bring his case before the employment tribunal and the Murcia High Court of Justice, and had ultimately been able to lodge an amparo appeal with the Constitutional Court. Moreover, the decision dispensing him from celibacy had specified that anyone granted such a dispensation was barred from teaching the Catholic religion in public institutions except by permission of the bishop.
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RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

This course examines the cultural history of American religion and sex. Special attention is devoted to pivotal formations of the early American period and to recent shifts and developments in the American religious imaginary concerning sexuality, morality, and the "culture wars." Regarding the early American period, students will learn about Native American sexual ethics; sexual regulation in the European Christian settler colonies; the influence of slavery ideologies on American sexual practices; and the linkage between theological and social-scientific anxieties over American sex. Regarding more recent historical developments, students will study the significance of sex in religious restoration movements such as Promise Keepers; the role of sexuality in reshaping Catholic-Protestant relations; religious responses to same-sex rights; and the increasing influence of religion and sexuality American electoral politics. The course emphasizes readings in history and culture theory. Students also read primary texts in the form of missionary documents, theological tracts, and legal precedents from early and contemporary periods. Students write weekly response papers and take a midterm and final exam (essay format).
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The History of Italian Cinema: a Guide to Italian Film from its Origins to the Twenty First Century

The History of Italian Cinema: a Guide to Italian Film from its Origins to the Twenty First Century

The book is divided into five chapters, and aims to give a chronological account of the development of Italian cinema, from its earliest manifestation in popular travelling shows to its current attempts to compete with a media landscape transformed by TV and internet. In the book’s first two chapters, on early cinema and cinema under Fascism, Brunetta is quite successful at relating texts, genres, practitioners and technicians to social and industrial changes, writing interestingly, if all too briefly, on the evolution of the travelling cinema or the role of the cinema barker; he is able both to detail Fascism’s instrumentalization of cinema through its institutions, and yet shows how Italian Jewish directors and émigrés from Germany and Austria still found work in the film industry of Fascist Italy . He gives a brief but fascinating account of film
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Radicalization of religion, ethnicity and sectarian conflicts in the Middle East

Radicalization of religion, ethnicity and sectarian conflicts in the Middle East

As the prominent American expert on the Middle East Anthony H.Cordesman underlines, ISIS/ISIL did not suddenly materialize in Iraq in December 2013. For years, as expert argues, the group exploited growing Sunni and Shi’ite sectarian divisions and steady drift towards civil war. According to him, for at least the last three years, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al-Maliki’s actions of building his own power structure around a Shi’ite dominated state with close ties to Iran alienated Sunnis and exacerbated tensions (Anthony H. Cordesman, 2014). However, the different mixes of religion, ethnicity and language in each country help explain their current internal instability and struggles for power, and the limits of any effort to create a stable pattern of Iranian influence, Pan-Arab influence, or any other form of regional stability. They also help explain why the strategic map of this part of the Middle East has produced so much tension, conflict, and change over time (F.Gregory Gause III, 2014). At least for the present, the rise of ISIS/ISIL has shown there is nothing approaching a continuing Iranian zone of influence – or Shi’ite crescent – from Iran to Lebanon, but rather a divided Arab Lebanon, a Persian Shiite Iran and now Sunni Islamists extremist protostate located between and Alawite- controlled bloc in Syria and largely Shi’ite blocs in Iraq and Iran. In practical terms, however, the idea of some form of stable Shi’ite crescent and zone of Iranian influence that extended from Lebanon through Iran has always ignored the different characters of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, and their different national interests (Robert Lee and Lihi Ben Shitrit).
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Religion and architecture in anatolia, Turkey

Religion and architecture in anatolia, Turkey

This is the way to address the history and the value of reviewing their creation of components, demonstrate clearly their creation environment Architecture is known that factors that affect physical of the formation and organization of these factors is Architectural space is seen, heard, sensed, measurable, among the factors that can be felt, we effectively identify the remodeling, we cannot see, cannot feel, but Belief, the architecture consists of belief, there in the creation of thought, space, to the construction, decoration, structure effect sufficiently be unprocessed, of beliefs originating from architecture to reveal it was Religious architecture is one of the most important factors shaping. To examine the effect of the architecture of religious concepts, architectural structures of meaning attached, forms, by proportion will contribute to the explanation of these factors is likely quite be useful for determination of parameters will be the guide for new designs. For this purpose, a wide from the history of civilization in Anatolia and contains the required architecture composed, so that the window is open to the influence of religion on Anatolia take as a work area, in terms of our experience on the practice, it is extremely Anatolia, which bears on the many cultural riches, civilization dating back thousands of years into the past, where there are also beliefs that make up the
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Fascistville: Mussolini's New Towns and the Persistence of Neo Fascism

Fascistville: Mussolini's New Towns and the Persistence of Neo Fascism

Notes: Observations are at the individual level. The coe ffi cients displayed are the aver- age marginal e ff ects from a Probit regression weighted using sample weights. The vari- able “Lived under Fascism” is a dummy taking value one if the respondent was born be- fore the end of the Fascist Regime (= 1 for 307 respondents in the sample). The variable School-Aged in Fascism is a dummy taking value one if the respondent was school-aged (age ∈ [6,13]) during the Fascist Regime (= 1 for 166 respondents in the sample). All re- gressions control for whether the respondent is in the same region in which his or her father was at the age of 14. Municipality controls include the log of population in 2001, distance to the closest capital of the province, a dummy for the presence of malaria in 1870, a measure of market access in 1921. Migrant dummy takes on value one if the respondent is in the same region in which his or her father at the age of 14. Individual controls in- clude age, years of education, gender, a dummy for married, number of children, a dummy for employed, and dummy variables for salaried, self employed, and atypical job. Addi- tional individual controls include a set of dummies for the sector in which the respondent is employed (agriculture, service, industry, public administration), a set of dummies for the sector in which his or her father was employed when the respondent was 14 years old, and a set of dummy for the sector in which the head of the household is employed. See the main text and appendices for variables definitions and sources. Robust standard errors clustered at the municipality level in brackets.
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Denmark: The Rise of Fascism and the Decline of the Nordic model

Denmark: The Rise of Fascism and the Decline of the Nordic model

The relationship between fascism and capitalism is certainly not an uncomplicated one. While most Marxist literature argues that fascism is an attempt to ensure the rule of monopoly capitalism in its least vulnerable form (Eagleton, 1976; Renton, 1999: 16), others have pointed out that fascist regimes have, in many ways, challenged the autonomy of large- scale capitalism by imposing state control of the economy and nationalising industry (Payne, 1980: 162; Eatewell, 1996; Berend, 2016). In this sense, fascism is primarily opposed to the laissez faire form of international finance capitalism, and is with its focus on welfare and community, in fact, closer in nature to state capitalism (Berend, 2016). With its ability to cater to the interests of the marginalised working classes by promising to preserve the welfare state, while at the same time challenging failed ideologies of liberalism and multiculturalism, fascism presents itself as the ultimate solution to the problems of neoliberal globalisation, and a useful compromise between labour and capital (Renton, 1999).
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‘Ultra-left’ anarchists and anti-fascism in the Second Republic

‘Ultra-left’ anarchists and anti-fascism in the Second Republic

Although for many CNT activists the lesson from Germany was related to the inefficacy of electoral politics rather than the need for anti-fascist alliances, in the wider libertarian milieu calls for unity of action in opposition to fascism had been heard even before the uprising of December 1933. The syndicalist Marín Civera had founded the ideologically pluralist review Orto in 1932, which discussed fascism from a variety of perspectives: as a new and specific threat and as an authoritarian strain of capitalism that could be identified in, for example, Roosevelt’s New Deal and US state racism as well as in the policies of the continental far right. The review called for a united front against fascism in September of 1933 (Orto [1933] 2002: 1017–19). Such calls for unity were becoming increasingly common in the ranks of the labour movement at this time, and led to heated discussions at national assemblies of the CNT, with disagreement owing to considerations of an ideological and geographically specific character (Gutiérrez Molina 1994: 31–41). In Catalonia, the Workers’ Alliance was founded on the initiative of the dissident communist Workers’ and Peasants’ Bloc (BOC), although its efforts towards an anti-fascist and revolutionary united front were undermined from the first by the organization styling itself as an alternative to the CNT (Durgan 1996: 241). 4 The federal functioning of the CNT meant that its Asturian section was
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