Modelling work corroborates Lazzarato’s description of immaterial labour in several ways. Modelling is part of the process of defining fashions, particularly through the practice of the fashion show; it fixes cultural standards through advertising; and guides consumer norms through representing a lifestyle grounded in luxury consumption. Models arguably work with codes: dress codes, gender codes, and fashion codes. They project personality and are valued for what many respondents referred to as ‘attitude’; the products of their labour include advertising campaigns, fashion, and cultural images. Their labour is organized on a project by project basis, and teams are assembled around specific jobs, which are then dispersed after the project is finished. These teams consist of many players whose relationships with each other represent complex productive networks. Thus, in the modelling industry, it is quite common to find that “small and sometimes very small ‘productive units’ (often consisting of only one individual) are organized for specific ad-hoc projects, and may exist only for the duration of those particular jobs,” which Lazzarato claims are typical of immaterial production (1996: 137). This complex web of relations is not readily evident in the typical image of a fashion model; models are usually depicted as if they are alone, staring out of a magazine page in a solitary moment of fashionable repose. This iconic image (think of Kate Moss, clutching a purse to her breast, or Linda Evangelista caught in the rain under a plaid umbrella) belies the teams of workers surrounding the model at any given photo shoot. Take a step back, outside of the frame, and there are crowds of people working with the model, organized in teams: the photographer and her or his assistants; the stylist(s) and their assistants; the make-up artist; hairstylist; the client whose product is being advertised; advertising agency personnel; the shoot’s producer and assistants; possibly a set designer; a manicurist; a prop stylist; and perhaps personnel from the venue where the shoot is taking place. These are just the people in the room.
Theodore Levitt was one of the first researchers that made the term of globalisation popular under researchers. Levitt (1983) described globalisation as a process driven by technology. “It has proletarianized communication, transport, and travel (Levitt, 1983, p. 1).” Meaning that technology has made people curious for the charms of modernity. Now, everyone wants the things or products that they have heard about, seen, or experienced through the use of technology. Which has led to the emergence of global markets that meet the requirements of the people (Levitt, 1983). In addition, the United Nations (2017) state that due to the fast changes in technology, and the growing mobility of goods, services, capital and labour, globalization has changed economies, societies, and the environment over the past years. Which has resulted in a world that has never been so interconnected, also globalisation has led to an increased market competition (United Nations, 2017). As a result, globalisation has made it possible for companies to outsource their work to developing countries that offered the lowest wages, and countries where companies had to deal with little to no restrictions on human and workers’ rights. (Fashion Revolution, 2015; Lipschutz, 2004). Furthermore, globalisation has contributed to the disappearance of national or regional preferences of the consumers, which led to a world’s preference that is standardized (Levitt, 1983). To illustrate this, Levitt (1983) states that McDonalds restaurants are everywhere, the same food is being sold all over the world, just as Coca-Cola. Additionally, Levi Jeans as well; jeans that are being made in a few garment factories, but that are being sold, online and in stores, all over the world, from the Netherlands to Japan to the US, all to meet the people’s requirements.
If, as Adam Smith once famously suggested, Britain was a nation of shopkeepers then it is now a nation of shopworkers. Retail is now a significant part of the UK economy, accounting for £256 billion in sales and one-third of all consumer spending (Skillsmart, 2007). It is the largest private sector employer in the UK, employing 3m workers, or 1 in 10 of the working population. For future job creation in the UK economy retail is also similarly prominent and the sector is expected to create a further 250,000 jobs to 2014 (Skillsmart, 2007). The centrality of retail to economic success and job creation is apparent in other advanced economies. For example, within the US, retail sales is the occupation with the largest projected job growth in the period 2004-2014 (Gatta et al., 2009) and in Australia retail accounts for 1 in 6 workers (Buchanan et al., 2003). Within the UK these workers are employed in approximately 290,000 businesses, encompassing large and small organizations and also a number of sub-sectors. This variance suggests that retail should not be regarded as homogenous in its labour demands. Hart et al. (2007) note how skill requirements and the types of workers employed may differ across the sector. This chapter further opens up this point, providing an analysis of the labour supply and skills demands for the sub-sectors of clothing, footwear and leather goods, which are described by Skillsmart (2007: 48) as being ‘significant categories in UK retailing’.
We argue then that the retail sector has significant variety with regard to the type of work, workers employed and the required elements of skill. More specifically, in fashion retail we argue, drawing on and extending the work of Gatta (2011), Pettinger (2004) and Williams and Connell (2010), that there are differences in price, service model and the type of employees deemed to best represent that model. With regard to price, we distinguished between cheap; affordable/mid-range; high-end and luxury. In terms of service model, there are differences between the high street (where there is some service if customers seek it, but little requirement for product knowledge – mirroring Pettinger’s self- or routine service) and high-end, where there are raised expectations regarding quality of service, product knowledge and levels of employee discretion (mirroring Pettinger’s personal service). This latter model may contain elements synonymous with skill. Employees in high-end fashion retail are expected to have soft elements of skill encompassing aesthetic and emotional labour (i.e. having the ‘right’ look, an appropriate personality and selling ability) as well as harder, technical elements of skill (i.e. having a high level of product knowledge). That is not to say that we can unproblematically and objectively analyse skill, as who is considered suitable for certain jobs, and the true nature of skill involved will be affected by managers’ and workers’ politicised social constructions.
In every buoyant fashion industry, the chain of fashion workers works hand in hand. The business of fashion is a mega industry on its own that employs thousands of workers based on its market size. The workers include fashion designers, technicians (machinists), fashion coordinators, fashion models, cosmetologists, illustrators, stylists, photographers, costume designers, fashion educators (historians, teachers), writers (journalists, bloggers, editors) and merchandisers (Career in Focus, 2007). Each has a role to play in the sustainability of the industry. Where there is unavailability of some of these labour force the industry does not progress as it is supposed to. For instance, when a fashion designer envisions his/her designers, s/he shares it with the fashion illustrator who will develop several illustrations to create consistent collections. The pattern maker then converts the designs into patterns, for the cutters to do the cutting and the machinists to do the sewing. Even when the whole design and construction process is done and the collections hit the runway, the work of the fashion writers and photographers is so crucial for the publicity of the designs. To the designers (75%) this cohort of fashionlabour force is scarce with some totally non-existent. This, they believe, also negatively affects the business of fashion in Ghana. A typical instance the designers cited was the lack of professionally trained fashion journalists/press with in-depth knowledge in fashion operations to render aesthetic commentary on the creation of designers.
My purpose in this article has been to discuss what happens when, in predictable postmodern fashion, yet one more ‘binary opposition’ is supposedly ‘deconstructed’: In this case, the opposition for work to play. This is not to argue that the categories of ‘play’ and ‘work’ have ever been stable entities as opposed to variously constructed concepts. On the contrary, the very slippery categories of play and work and what they mean are perhaps best recalled by Pip’s attitude – that one cannot be commanded to play because play must be voluntary and have no end outside itself – and that of Tom Sawyer, namely that what is perceived as being fun and playful is a function of how a given activity is framed rather than anything essential to the activity itself. As a means of elucidating this question, along with the notion of when play becomes more akin to work and why, I have cited a number of examples from a wide range of topics – management, videogames, fan culture – precisely to illustrate the scope of this phenomenon. To that end, I have also provided a backward glance at the history of thinking about play beginning with the enlightenment and the industrial revolution and how, until recently, play has been jealously guarded in a sphere kept separate from work, at least in the west. What remains to be seen of course, is what happens when work becomes fused with play, or play with work, and subjects are engaged in interactive, immersive, repetitive actions that often result in an experience of flow, as in digital worlds. Can such a flow experience ever be qualified as play since it is hardly voluntary, whether or not one is paid for actions carried out while in flow?
The textile industry inaugurates the factory system of exploitation (curlicues of etymology mean that the German word for factory – Fabrik – is the English word for woven or otherwise processed cloth - fabric.). The significance, alongside steam power and iron founding, of textile manufacture and processing in the first Industrial Revolution - automated cotton, worsted and yarn spinning, the building of factories - is testament to the central role within industrial capitalism of cloth manufacture, prerequisite for the emergence of fashion. Engels knew the textile industry well, as his father was a cotton manufacturer. In the cotton mills of mid-nineteenth century Britain, men, women, and children laboured cheaply, six days a week, spinning materials harvested by slaves in the US. 6 In the silk mills child labour was even more grinding: ten-hour shifts and exemption from otherwise compulsory education. The need for a light touch when working with delicately textured silk was apparently only acquired by early introduction to this work. 7 Marx details how, in 1850, the Factory Acts attempted to
Some of the contributions here respond directly to this challenge. Elizabeth Wissinger (writing on modelling as affective labour), Adam Arvidsson (elaborating the functional connections between networks of the creative ‘underground’ and the advertising industry in Copenhagen), Kristin Carls (researching shop assistants in retail chains in the Northeast of Italy) and Emma Dowling (conducting an inquiry into affective labour in the restaurant industry) provide theoretical insights into and empirical evidence of the way in which these forms of labour are organised and deployed, and the ambivalence of their conditions. Wissinger seeks to unpack what she terms the ‘technical-affective link’ in the fashion modelling industry to understand the complex and not always directly conscious process by which this type of affective labour generates images intended to convey certain feelings (of attention, excitement, or interest), so that they may be bought and sold in a circulation of affective flows. Arvidsson points to how the relative autonomy of cultural producers is predicated upon both structural conditions such as a
Sustainable fashion is predominantly associated with environmental sustainability, such as the use of renewable and eco-friendly raw materials, the reduction of the carbon footprint, durability, and longevity (Is; Qs), which are also featured in extant research (e.g. Joergens 2006; Shen et al 2013). Social aspects were also mentioned, with issues concerning fair wages, safety measures, and labour rights forming the top three concerns, which aligns with past research (Pookulangara & Shepard 2013; McNeill & Moore 2015). An explanation for social sustainability taking a backseat could be this researchÕs setting: the UK and EU have strict labour laws to which every organisation needs to adhere. However, this aspect may change in the future with research ÔexposingÕ UK garment factories as unethical, due to having sweatshop-like conditions and failure to pay national minimum wage (Hoskins 2015). Environmental issues also play a more prominent role within consumersÕ everyday lives Ð a reality they not only experience, but also have to deal with. A consumer summarises sustainable fashion as Òa combination of things. You have to have a consciousness about the planet, about whatÕs happening environmentally, in the factories around the world where clothes are produced, about the working conditions of the people who make themÉ ItÕs a lot about awareness and consciousnessÉ ThereÕs another very real aspect of financesÉ it always feels like it costs a lot more moneyÓ (Is). Only one participant positively elaborated on the price aspect, explaining: Òyou know you are getting qualityÓ (Is), when purchasing sustainable fashion. Thus, slow fashion is associated with quality rather than quantity, again implying a price premium (Fletcher 2010). Yet, the Ôlocally madeÕ aspect raised concerns that garments produced in the UK were perceived to neither achieve the same quality as high street fashion nor be as
the art world, and globalized industries. Original use values have been forgotten. More than forty years after McCann’s death, and nearly twenty since a devolved power-sharing government was established in Northern Ireland, the images of him that continue to circulate represent a cause that is economically, socially and politically not currently viable. In an essayistic fashion, the film uses this point to make another: “If you take this representation of Chinese textile workers as an epitome of the international division of labour, in forty years’ time, what will its function be?” The observational documentary footage (which appears to have been shot in high-definition digital rather than 16mm film) consists of wide angle shots and pans of large, busy factory floors, stacked warehouses, operatives working at large machines (processing long white sheets), and workers exiting the factory at shift’s end. The self-conscious admission that this representation has been included, not to ethnographically document Chinese labour making items for export, but to make a socialist point about the international political economy and commodity exchange, again calls attention to the film’s self-awareness as a circulating art object. Not only has its production relied on the substantial appropriation of other objects, it too is an object that could in time be carved up and re-appropriated.
Agricultural land for cultivation in the state remained almost constant during the last decades. Utilisation of land in the State is at a snail’s pace. The small size of land holdings and existing land tenancy laws are impeding investment and leading to inefficiencies in agriculture. Irrigation facilities in the State are very far ahead from the development in comparison with the National level. The state is characterised as inefficient and deficient in the irrigation development. The infrastructure like rural roads is not well developed in the State. Road density per lakh population in the State is 142 km., which is very low to compare with the National level of 246 km. Several programmes and policies have been taken to improve the conditions of agricultural sector in Uttar Pradesh. The state government adopted land distribution programme to increase the production and reduce the unemployment, labour and poverty in the state. But, the programmes and policies could not achieve the targets. There are several studies on these issues. Some of the studies are mentioned here.
Japan is a collectivist society where people respect group processes and decisions, for them keeping a good and harmo- nious relationship within the group is important (Wong & Ahu- via, 1998). Moreover, it is a unique society where imitation is not considered as an inappropriate behavior (Tada, 1994). Un- der this social structure teens were encouraged to be obedient and discouraged to express their individualism in contradiction to social norms. However, teens are generally known for want- ing to change social norms, and for rebelling against the main- stream. The results of 2006 showed that street fashion played a major role in giving teens choices to be different from the mainstream by belonging to a particular fashion group. As the presence of the fashion groups subsided in Japanese society in latter years, and due to the fact that the fashion market has changed and now offered variety of casual clothing more popu- lar than those particular group fashion styles, teens are thus less influenced by group fashion and turned to casual style. How- ever in desperate need to stand out as an individual from the social norm, they have opted to create their uniqueness by mix- ing their experience in the past with what is currently available in the market resulting in even more diversified and unclassi- fied new born styles under the realm of casual fashion.
The use of plastic as a nest material can be consid- ered a novel fashion since the frequency of use started in early breeders, which are known to recruit dispropor- tionately many offspring (Snow 1958). Such innovative individuals can be considered ‘trend-setters’ by initiat- ing plastic use and through social learning transmit this behavior to conspecifics. There are few examples of the emergence of innovations and the identity of the indi- viduals responsible for such novel behavior. An excep- tion is the emergence of a tradition of washing sweet potatoes by Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) that allowed removal of sand from food items (Kawamura 1959), where the initial behavior emerged in a specific old female. Another example concerns the opening of milk bottles by birds, in particular Great Tits (Parus major),
In 1960, ideas of democracy like gender equality swept through the nation, which introduced unisex clothing lines like jeans. In addition, minimalism and pop-arts regarding mass production and monophasic life affected fashion. Examples of experimental and far-out fashion trends developedultra- miniskirts, metal stockings and long boots. The hippy trend of 1960s reflected into the fashion trend of that era. The biggest fashion trend in 1970s was ‘punk’, a form of rebellion for increase in unemployment rate and the Vietnam War.Punks tend to wear rubber or plastic-like material pants and boots with studs. On the other hand, Yves Saint Laurent created “Le Smoking”, women pants suit, thatset a big fashion trend in pants fashion. Lastly, casual look of sweaters, jeans, and t-shirt increased as well as layered looks and oversized outfit. In the late 1980s, there was an economic boom. So, fashion trend also sought for lifestyle advancement. Natural fiber was preferred over polyesters and new fabrics types and designs began to develop. In addition, increase in health awareness developed sportswear. When oversized look was the main trend, people wore loose style coats, and long shirts. In 1990, free combination of previous styles became the trend. Due to the rise of environmental movements and naturalism, recycle fashion rose. Meanwhile, in the late 1990s, sense of anxiety was reflected via hippy look or mods look, while sense of expectation was reflected via cyber look. WSGN introduced 2019 trend as the following. First, it is minimalism. Minimalism applies to both lifestyle trend and design trends. “Buying less, but buying better, renting some sequined occasion-wear rather than buying pieces that will last across seasons” became the main phrase of the time. Designers also began to focus on the durability and interiors. WSGN editor also picked out “neo-mint” as the main color. Like pastel colors, neo-mint allows both youthful and futuristic image. Consumption rate seems to be very similar to those of 2018. Current market scale of sportswear: Like mentioned previously, sportswear allowed functionality in daily clothes into fashion item. This trend can be shown by the size of sportswear market. If sportswear was only for certain professionals or group of people, the size of the market wouldn’t be this big. It is valid to say that sportswear is part of the fashion trend according to the data.
Not only the fashion industry itself, but also the whole city would enhance its in- fluence to global industry as the continuous development of fashion creativity and contribution. Talking about fashion influence, one should realize that a whole city’s fashion influence is synchronized to its economic development. With the rapid development of Chinese economy, Shanghai, as one of the mag- nates, has widely spread its influence all over the world. According to a survey from Global Language Monitor (GLM, Texas, U.S.), Shanghai ranks highly in top-level fashion cities worldwide (No. 14 in 2007, No. 13 in 2008, No. 15 in 2009) and the third in all listed Asian cities, which is the only one in mainland China, thanks to the rapid development of economy and increasing internation- al popularity . However, on one side, the development of its fashion industry seems like a drag to this honor of top-level fashionable metropolis. On the other side, this invisible honor is in favor of the integration and development of Shanghai fashion industry. Its fashion industry being fully developed, Shanghai would become a true international fashionable city, thus ranking higher world- wide.
The magazine featured various humorous articles that encouraged people to revitalise their wardrobes in inexpensive, yet stylish ways, these included; ‘Make do and Mend’ – ransack the kitchen cupboard for ingenious fashion finds. ‘This encoura ges the reader to make their own clothes using domestic objects with a surrealist touch and sticking them together with sticky tape and glue. Far more practical articles were ’45 thrift finds’, Vogue’s selection of essential buys’, ‘Dash cash heroines’ whe re stars of original dressing impart their style secrets’, ‘More splash than cash’ – a guide to the beauty products that work hard for their price’. As a high profile and revered fashion magazine, Vogue usually celebrates all that is luxurious, glamorous or edgy. This issue embraced the thrifty approach to fashion promoted by utility, in a humorous, accessible way and appeared to give this approach its seal of approval. As Sarah Londsdale said in her telegraph article; ‘Restoring the Good Things in Life, A New Generation is on the Mend’:
information easily, especially in processing information for high involvement prod- ucts such as apparel (e.g., Khakimdjanova and Park 2005; Lurie and Mason 2007). Compared to low visualizers, high visualizers tend to use internal information sources more often, indicating that these consumers may store mental images of apparel prod- ucts. The images may be based not only on new information from marketer-dominated information sources but also from their experiences and knowledge retained in mem- ory. In addition, high visualizers more frequently used observed street-wear, store dis- plays, fashion magazines, and catalogs as impersonal external information sources than low visualizers. Similar to the results of fashion leadership, high visualizers may prefer marketer-dominated information where they can obtain professional images reflecting functional and aesthetic product information. For example, store displays are carefully developed by retailers so that customers understand the aesthetic aspects of products as intended. Therefore, high visualizers may appreciate information gleaned from visual Table 2 ANOVA results for internal, impersonal external and personal external sources of information by fashion leadership, SOP-visual and SOP-visual
visuality, it provides breathing space for the crowded sunbaked cities of Taiwan. According to I.M. Pei, style emerges from problem solving.” Duan, a constructor and architect himself, responds: “If Pei had not had a group of technicians to help him solve the problems, the glass on his pyramid at the Louvre would not have had the glittering transparency” (Zhu 2007, 389). Zhu deftly renders the interaction of culture, history, technology, biology, and geology, without privileging any of their agencies. While all the recounted thoughts, sensations, feelings, affects, emotions, memories, and judgments contained in “Fin de Siècle Splendor” are Mia’s, they continually weave her existence into past and present worlds, where the distinctions between the intimate and the public are at times hard to set apart. Mia and Duan’s moments of aesthetic intimacy on the terrace of her ninth-floor apartment, her trips to the mountains with her boyfriends from the fashion industry, and her visits at Baby’s flower shop allow for the consideration of entanglements among intimacy, urban infrastructures, capitalist forces of development, homophobia, postcolonial conditions, and national security. A materialist reading of Mia’s intimacies invalidates Wang’s decrying of suffocating Taipei, at least inasmuch as her existence is concerned. But surely, Wang’s observation is correct in many other life contexts. Critical geographers already pointed out that cities have never developed evenly and equitably. Urban decay, development, and creation follow the tracks of existing inequalities, adding new elements to the phenomenon of poverty (Wilson forthcoming 2015).
Fashion is a general term for a popular or the latest style of clothing, hair, decoration, or generalized behavior also named as a trend. The consumer has its own style or practice especially in clothing to define its identity. According to (Cardoso, 2010). Although fashion has a different meaning with conservative people who are thinking it's wasting money and their objection on the basis of people should “being responsible” (Edwards, 2001).but Sellerberg assures fashion is a social identity code and a form of self-expression. Therefore fashion still a contradictory phenomenon that attracts researcher to focus on studying it. Study will determine factors which can be effective a means to impact on purchase intention in term of consciousness in fashion. Social media influencers is first factor which represent third-party which play an important role in promoting the brand and shaping followers attitudes through social media through the opening channel between brand and consumers (Ledbetter, 2017).
The time required for the development of a CAD design is almost entirely consumed by the construction and maintenance of its central component, i.e., the design management system. Therefore, the efficiency of CAD designs development can be greatly improved by providing better assistance to the design developers. Currently design developers implement their design systems using specific software and often they do not have special features for the creation of a design which can be very time consuming task. Moreover, the resulting system can be difficult to maintain and extend with new functionality. Therefore, the design development time can be greatly reduced if it is designed using a dedicated design software. Using such software, the design under development can be represented at a higher level of abstraction. In this thesis it is demonstrated how such softwares can be utilized to design new garment according to modern fashion needs.