Every single fashion item produced brings up multiple negative impacts on not only the environment but on societies too. This is due to the fact that the fashion items tend to have relatively large environmental footprint in addition to multiple negative societal impacts caused by their manufacturing. (Pedersen & Gwozdz; Gardetti & Torres 2013, p. 2). To give a better perspective of the environmental impact, fashion manufacturing is estimated to cause nearly 10% of total global greenhouse gas emissions which is more carbon emissions than all the international flights and maritime shipping put together. Not to mention that it is the second highest industry using the water worldwide, contributing to 20% of global wastewater. Hence, the current state of the fashion industry has been described having an environmental and social emergency due to its unsustainable practices with issues such as labour safety, use of hazardous substances in production, and having underpaid women as workers (UNECE 2018b).
Fashion exploded with globalization in the last two decades and profoundly affected marketing strategies (Alpat & Aksu, 2014). Consumers with an interest in fashion experience a feeling of differentiation and transformation to boost their ego. Luxury fashion business owners enjoy high profiles worldwide and are perceived to be leaders in the fashionmarketing industry through their excellence in quality and design (Carrigan, Moraes, & McEachern, 2013). Mainstream fashion brands, in contrast to luxury brands, are defined as brands that consist of a lower but reasonable level of quality and are also more affordably priced (Fuchs, Prandelli, Schreier, & Dahl, 2013). In today’s competitive business environment, one way that companies endeavor to cut their costs is by reducing inventory (Huang, Hsu, & Ho, 2014). Retailers of fashion goods usually employ dynamic pricing such as clearance sales or markdowns to influence market demand, to increase sales volume, and to deplete stocks of goods (Huang et al., 2014). Likewise, eWOM marketing involves any strategy that encourages individuals to
With the introduction of the new concept of retail, the retail industry in our country began to make new changes, the form of clothing retail is also changing, and the appearance of diversification is beginning to appear. Based on the new retail perspective, this paper analyzes the overstock of clothing inventory encountered by Chinese clothing brands in the process of devel- opment, the low loyalty of consumers to clothing brands, the declining profits of garment enterprises and the lack of brand precipitation. This paper puts forward the marketing strategy to solve the problem of clothing development in our country under the new retailing: using big data on line to transmit in- formation quickly, improving the efficiency of enterprises in the supply chain system, improving the customer stickiness through perfect offline experience. This paper also puts forward the global fashionmarketing model and digital and technical service marketing model for the development of garment en- terprises in China under the new retailing, so as to explore a new marketing model suitable for the development of Chinese garment enterprises.
We offer several two-year associate degree programs in a variety of career areas. In business and manage- ment, we offer two associate degrees programs, Business Mid-Management and Supervisory Management/ Leadership Development. In market- ing, students can chose from associate degrees in either the Marketing or FashionMarketing program. We also offer a one-year technical diploma, Small Business Operations.
These blogs are where bloggers post pictures of themselves in certain outfits with links to where a reader can get the outfits. These fashion blogs can serve as a mirror into what women want to look like and how they perceive themselves (Rocamora, 2011). Fashion blogs can serve as a way to self-reflect on one’s personal style and degree of femininity (Rocamora, 2011). Part of the allure of fashion blogs is that they are a popular form of user-generated content, and the fashion industry has taken a great interest in fashion blog marketing these past couple of years. Fashion blogs create a place for consumer-to- consumer electronic word of mouth conversations to take place. Fashion bloggers are able to acquire an audience by means of consuming fashion: choosing, evaluating, and modeling clothing. The audience they acquire is interested in the clothes they buy and wear. An ethnography of online users in Finland studied six popular fashion blogs to determine what makes fashion blog marketing successful (Kumala, 2013). The study found that in order for a blog to market successfully and be credible, the fashion items being marketed need to fit the bloggers’ personal style. This research has helped companies decide which fashion blogs to use to market their products (Kumala, 2013). Furthermore, social media play a very dominant role in contemporary fashionmarketing because it links fashion bloggers directly to their readers. Most of the time if a fashion blog endorses a product, consumers are more willing to buy it (Kumala, 2013). Fashion blogs are considered social media, so it is important to understand social media and its advantages when researching fashion blogs.
Various studies have been carried out to find the need of Interpersonal Communication Skills in across several professions and how it is impacting individual’s performance but these studies did not put much light on its requirement for Industrial Engineers. Therefore it triggers the need for studying the role of Interpersonal communication Skills in Industrial Engineer’s profession. To investigate the interpersonal communication skills of industrial engineers, the subjects varying across the fields of IT, Marketing and Operations were given Spitzberg & Cupach’s questionnaire that comprises of 18 items on Interpersonal Communication Competence; evaluated on 5 point Likert scale. Factor Analysis was conducted to divide the responses into significant factors. ANOVA was done to differentiate Industrial Engineers coming from several sectors, on the accountability of identified factors. From the study it has been found that Industrial Engineers in SCM/Operations and Marketing firms behave in similar fashion most of the times with above average (4 points on Likert scale of 5) competence in all aspects of Interpersonal Communication Skills but IT Industrial Engineers scored average (3 points on Likert scale of 5) competence level in it. There is a scope of improvement in Interpersonal communication competence of IT Industrial Engineers and further studies can be carried out on how Interpersonal communication competence is impacting Industrial Engineer’s performance across various sectors.
The choice of Burberry as the data set of interest for this study was influenced by several factors. First, Burberry is one of the UK’s highest profile exporters, but supply chain disruptions resulting from Brexit are expected to add millions in extra trade costs for this fashion house (Rovnick 2019). Accordingly, there is a need for more data analytics into this brand to help improve its profitability via more lucrative resource allocations. Secondly, as evidenced in the seasonal plot in Figure 8, Burberry appears to be struggling in terms of increasing and maintaining online consumer interest in the brand name. Thus, there is need for further analysis and forecasting of future online behavioural trends for Burberry so that the management can put in place a series of actions for improving its online footprint and be better positioned to compete with other luxury fashion brands. Thirdly, Burberry believes in the importance of digital innovation and sees ‘online’ as the first access point to its brand (Burberry 2018a). Therefore, Google Trends-based analytics has the potential to help the brand ensure its online content remains highly relevant to its consumers. For example, Burberry (2018a) states the brand wishes to personalise online homepages, and fashion consumer Google Trends-based analytics can help the brand in identifying the most popular product categories and terminology for any given market (see Section 2.2.4). Fourthly, as a brand, Burberry has recently demonstrated its willingness to change for the better and become more sustainable. For example, in July 2018 Burberry was called out for burning millions of its products to protect its brand (BBC 2018). Swift to act, by September 2018 Burberry announced that it will stop the practice of destroying unsaleable products and the use of real fur, and work towards reusing, repairing, donating or recycling their unsaleable goods (Burberry 2018b; Hanbury 2018; Bain 2018). Thus, Burberry is a brand to watch, and is a brand that is responsive to the consumers’ needs and wants.
When entering the international market, one dilemma that any multinational corporation faces is whether to standardize or to localize (Karlícek et al., 2013). According to Cambridge Dictionary, standardization is “the process of making things of the same type have the same basic features”, and in the context of marketing, it implies the adaptation of a single marketing strategy in every country, including the traditional marketing mix, production, management and logistical systems (Whatley, 2012). Localization, on the other hand, refers to “the process of making a product or service more suitable for a particular country, area”. In addition to “simple linguistic and visual adaptation”, typical localization examples also include the customization service, the use of local celebrities as well as local influential fashion bloggers (Liu et al., 2016: 358).
almost all fashion design teachers were female and about half the number sampled had attained a bachelor‟s degree (see Table 4. 1). These results may be explained by the fact that the number of females studying fashion design courses is high and they later advance in training to become teachers in fashion design. These findings are further supported by the idea that boys were not aware of the future careers in Home Science as indicated by Kobia (1991); and they may not have become teachers. The highest number of fashion design teachers was trained in the areas of clothing/ garment design or textile design (see Table 4.3.). What is surprising is that a good number of the fashion design teachers had been trained in public universities. They had taught aspects of fashion design for a period of between 11 to 16 years (see Figure 4.2, Table 4.5). However, the results were rather disappointing as none of the teachers in this study had specialized training to teach in the area fashion design. It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be related to the fact that for a long time Home Science could be pursued at the university only if one wanted to be a Home Science teacher and singling out Clothing and Textile (Serem, 2010).
According to result of secondary data &Vietnamese consumers’ questionnaires, the firms have great advantages from external environment to develop E-marketing activities such as the high growth of economy; Vietnamese consumers are inclined to spend nearly all their income, just keep small amount for saving; Internet users occupy 1/3 Vietnamese population; Vietnamese consumers, especially youth extremely pay attention to their appearance; most of young consumers tend to search for fashion information online and show that they are willing to buy fashion items on Internet in next time.
The global luxury brand market has been growing steadily during the last two decades, along with the gradual expansion of the scope of its market, the ever-expanding offer of luxury categories, a rapid growth in emerging markets, and the recent increasing young consumers’ luxury consumption worldwide (Amatulli & Guido, 2011; Kang & Park, 2016; Shukla, Banerjee, & Singh, 2016). Luxury fashion goods comprise apparel, accessories, handbags, shoes, watches, jewellery, and perfume, for which just the mere use or display of a particular brand brings prestige to the owner and functional utility becomes a side issue (Amatulli & Guido, 2011). Luxury fashion sector counts for a major proportion of global luxury goods sales and is one of the product categories with the strongest growth during recent years (Fionda & Moore, 2009). Within the luxury fashion sector, there are many unique characteristics including the speed of change as well as the scale and number of fashion items that are marketed using a single luxury brand name. As such, the branding and marketing of luxury fashion brands are more complex and costly than other sectors (Fionda & Moore, 2009). Luxury fashion brand is distinctive, it invariably operates as an experiential brand, and it functions as a means of creating and communicating an identity for the brand user (Fionda & Moore, 2009; Kang & Park, 2016; Shukla et al., 2016).
The development of technology is now very rapid, especially in the field of internet, even marketing is currently done through the internet online. The rapid development of internet access has a positive impact on the world of business and marketing (Tjiptono, 2016). The development of the internet, especially social media which feels very fast indeed makes lifestyle and consumer behavior also change, including consumer behavior in making decisions to buy a product. Consumers as product users are increasingly smart in choosing products, so producers must use appropriate marketing strategies to attract consumers to buy their products (Dimyati, 2014). One of them is by using a marketing mix or marketing mix strategy, which consists of product, price, promotion and distribution channels (Malau, 2017). Consumers will also determine their choice to buy a product that has a good brand image because a strong and good brand image will determine the purchase decision of a product by consumers (Sangadji and Sopiah, 2013). The existence of social media, the public easily see a variety of product offerings and services offered, including information and offers around the world of fashion. The number of new hijab brands that have sprung up from time to time, and with quite fierce competition in the fashion sector and the proliferation of online stores on social media, consumers are faced with so many choices for buying hijab products they want.
At present, many cities are developing fashion industry, and the demand for building fashion capital is increasing. Therefore, grasping development oppor- tunities and exploring the development path of fashion industry have become the focus of attention of fashion industry . Fashion industry is becoming the strategic attraction and core concern of building international cities and Nation- al Central cities. Its leading position in urban industry is increasing day by day , and it has become an important driving force of global economic develop- ment. After ten or more years, Beijing plans to build itself into a world-class fa- shion capital with cultural connotations, leading science and technology and leading fashion while building the basic framework of a modern international metropolis . Shanghai attaches great importance to the development of crea- tive industries and the construction of fashion capital. In the 13th Five-Year Plan outline, its development strategy is clearly defined as an important support for the city’s continuous promotion of “innovation-driven development, economic transformation and upgrading”. To this end, the Shanghai Economic and Credit Commission has set up a financial support fund project to promote the devel- opment of cultural and creative industries in Shanghai. It encourages enterprises and research institutions to set up creative and fashionable enterprises, tackle key issues and create a policy, economic, technological, social and competitive environment .
This document is licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 4.0 International Citation: Hernández-García, Á. (2017). The long journey of social media marketing in the fashion industry. From companies' strategies to consumer responses. Dean’s Research Seminar Series. Master of Science in Management. Toronto, March 24 2017.
146 marketing platform such as Instagram. The result implies that social media marketing, in this study is Instagram, can be used by marketers to offer their product closely to potential customers. Additionally, customers are interested in the information provided by the hijab seller, as indicates with the largest factor loading, on Instagram as an important factor that lead to purchase intention that potentially result in to customers actual purchase of the products. This result is in lines with (Amornpashara, Rompho, & Phadoongsitthi, 2015) who investigate the relationship between people’s purchase intentions and how they use Instagram in Thailand. They found that the recreational message influence customers’ purchase intention. This is followed by Instagram news update and clear description of the information which placed in the second and third largest loading factor. These results indicate that customers give a high attention on the news update of the products as well as well description about the promoted products. In addition, customers take into consideration the continuity of information provided by the sellers, attractive promotions and the interaction between customers and sellers before taking decision to purchase the products. Further, customers also pay attention to the quick response of the seller in answering questions on the products offered. This result in lines with the notion that the success of social media marketing depends on interaction with customers (Virtanen, Björk, & Sjöström, 2017). However, most customers do not interested in the involvement in providing comments via Instagram on the offered products and it is indicated with the lowest factor loading. The dominant factors in social media Instagram variable are information renewal and content consistency. This is in line with previous studies in social media research (Solis, 2010: 263) which states that the delivery of marketing communication through social media is assessed through context, communication, collaboration and connection.
The example of the bikini shows how material culture places itself on an intermediary plane between the material and the conceptual. It falls neither within the inductive approach used in dress history, nor within the deductive approach of fashion studies. Instead, it focuses the succes- sive assessments and interpretations as suggested by Aileen Ribeiro, in which theory is confronted with evidence and vice versa. This generates an interpretive richness in which fashion is just one of the object’s many attributes. Since material culture asks what a skirt, a sport shoe or a bikini signify for the person who wears them, it does not necessarily take the concept of fashion as key to such a meaning, nor does it make a skirt, a sport shoe or a bikini objects of fashion. Many of the studies that I have defined as part of the ‘‘material culture of fashion’’ discuss instead personal and affective meaning, economic bar- riers, uses and habits, as well as gender and age differences. Wedding dresses passed down from mothers to daughters are part of an important social practice that surely cannot be explained by fashion. Similarly, the revival of 1980s fashion today a practice that is fashionable cannot be comprehended without taking into account the age difference between generations (the fact that young people today who dress in 1980s fashion were born in the 1990s and therefore see it in historical terms), and new forms of consumption (e.g. vintage practices) etc.
With the proliferation of web 2.0 technology, social media becomes a popular platform for young fashion lovers to express themselves by creating and sharing their own fashion photographic images. The omnipresent fashion photographic images on social media have become an influential power that challenges the traditional hierarchy of fashion media communication. In the traditional model of fashion media communication, professional production of fashion photography holds a predominant position in fashion leadership, trend diffusion, and brand promotion (Jobling, 1999). While previous studies suggested that social media ‘democratizes’ fashion world (Pham, 2011; Rocamora, 2013), the relationship between fashion brands and fashion bloggers becomes more interdependent as popularity of blogging continues to grow. A career pathway has also emerged for successful bloggers (Mcquarrie, et al, 2012; Pihl and Sandstrom, 2013). Given the essential role of fashion photography on the visual presentation of fashion, there is surprisingly very few academic research dedicated to the investigation of the value created by fashion photography. Today, technology advancement seems to jeopardize the future of professional fashion photography, what will be next in the fashion image production genre remains unclear. The objective of this study is to interpret the perceived creative values and the meanings of such phenomenon from the perspective of fashion media industry in Hong Kong. The finding aims to construct a new model of how fashion bloggers seize the opportunity in the social media in the Hong Kong fashion media industry.