likely to result in incapacitating injuries because of multiple vehicular interactive dynamics. Not wearing a seatbelt results in 11.5% more likelihood to be involved in a crash with non-incapacitating injury outcomes. This might indicate the unbelted occupants to be involved in non-incapacitating injuries rather than drivers. Similar findings by Chen and Chen (2011) also indicated this is true for fatal or incapacitating and non-incapacitating or possible injuries. Drivers residing or registered to work in the state of Texas are 12.8% more likely to be involved with possible injuries. Sleepy drivers are more likely to be not involved with non-injury which indirectly shows them more likely to be involved with serious injuries. As found in the random parameter ordered probit model, the presence of passengers reduces the likelihood of severe injuries, which might indicate the passengers keep the drivers alert on long drives. Also, speeding as a factor of crashes increases the likelihood of possible injuries by 3.7%, although choice of driving speed might be also influenced by geometric features of the roadway segment and drivers’ behavior. Geometric features may include number of travel lanes, vertical grade, inside and outside shoulder, horizontal curvatures, and rumble strips presence (Amarasingha and Dissanayake 2013). Thus, although the magnitude of the two studies in terms of variables are different due to different estimation methods, most of the explanatory variables have the same sign.
In 2010, 16.5 percent of all fatal vehicle crashes in Iowa involved largetrucks compared to the national average of 7.8 percent and averages for similar states of 10.3 percent (South Dakota), 19.7 percent (Nebraska), 12.4 percent (Kansas), and 6.6 percent (Missouri) (NHTSA, 2011). In the same year, heavy vehicles represented only 11.8 percent of the VMT in the state of Iowa, indicating heavy vehicle may be overrepresented in fatalcrashes (Iowa DOT). Further, between 2006 and 2010 in Iowa, there were on average 74 heavy vehicle involved fatalcrashes annually (NHTSA, 2011). Only about 16 percent of these fatalities involved the occupants of the largetrucks, meaning that a majority of the fatalities in fatalcrashes involve non-heavy truck occupants (NHTSA, 2011). These statistics demonstrate the severe nature of heavy truck crashes and underscores the serious impact that these crashes can have on the traveling public. The statistics presented above also indicate that Iowa may potentially have a disproportionately higher safety risk compared to the rest of the nation and neighboring states (except for Nebraska) with respect to heavy truck safety. Several national studies, and a few statewide studies have investigated large truck crashes, however no rigorous analysis of heavy truck crashes has been conducted for the state of Iowa. This thesis uses the most current statewide crash data to perform an in-depth analysis of heavy truck crashes in Iowa.
Of the 22 680 children aged 0 to 14 years involved in a fatal collision between 2010 and 2013, a total of 19 240 (84.8%) were occupants in 4-wheeled passenger vehicles (passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, or pickup trucks) with model years 1970 or later. Exclusions included emergency vehicles, large vans, and buses, as well as unknown seating position and unknown restraint status ( Fig 1). The final study population included 17 179 child passengers riding in 4-wheeled passenger vehicles with 10 864 drivers who met the study inclusion criteria. More than one-half (56.7%) of drivers involved in a fatal collision while driving a child passenger were not screened for either drugs or alcohol (Supplemental Information). The 4885 child passengers whose driver (n = 3141) was screened for both alcohol and drugs were investigated in a subpopulation analysis.
Although our findings are limited to fatalcrashes because of our use of the FARS database, our results have implications for behavioral interventions for the general driving population. The use of FARS contains 2 possible biases. First, drivers involved in fatal accidents may be more risk-taking than other drivers, which might be associated with a greater likelihood of seating children in the front. Second, children seated in the front are at higher risk of fatal injury, 2,10 increasing their likelihood of being cap-
These findings have potential implication for re- search on how motor vehicle crashes related to adverse weather may be affected by climate change. Total annual and seasonal precipitation has already shifted in some areas of the US, and climate models predict this trend will continue  and incidence of severe weather to in- crease [39, 40]. Determining the impact of recent climate change on road traffic injuries is difficult, given lack of precise exposure information, though the number of deaths in vehicles from flash floods in Texas exhibited a general upward trend from 1959 to 2009 . A study in Vancouver estimated an increase in collision counts by the mid-2050s due to greater rainfall intensity . Downscaled climate models and local traffic models will need to be combined at appropriate spatial scales to de- termine localized impacts. While the potential impacts of climate change on fatal motor vehicle crashes is un- clear, public health practitioners should be aware of the possibility of increased risk with changes in weather, es- pecially those that occur suddenly and unexpectedly.
The 36 crashes with sight obstruction or blind zones in our study make up 7% of all potential intention related fatalcrashes, so even without including these crashes, the share of inattention related crashed would be above 20%. An alternative explanation for some of the crashes coded as inattention (especially unspecified, failed to look, and look but failed to see) might be dynamic occlusion (another road-user). We cannot rule out that some of the cases are events with an attentive driver, who is just looking for a reason why the crash happened. On the other hand, the information from the reports is not merely based on interviews of the at-fault driver, but also witness observations and investigation of the vehicle and the surroundings.
When a traffic accident occurs, the severity of the crash is assigned into discrete categories based on the involved party with the most severe injury. The severity levels in the crashes range from property damage only (least severe) to fatal (most severe). In many cases, ordered response models are selected to analyze data where the outcomes can be ordered (such as in this case, where the severity could be ordered by increasing or decreasing crash severity levels). Although the ordered response models are more typical, multinomial logit models provide an alternative route that allows more flexibility and allows the independent variables to have non-monotonic effects on the dependent variable .
pedestrian fatalcrashes globally (Duperrex et al., 2002; Prato et al., 2012). Due to a rapidly changing demographic structure, China is facing an even bigger challenge since the population of both children and seniors is predicted to dramatically increase (Zhang and Lin, 2015). For most of the children in schools, road traffic education is an occasional activity. Hence, schools need a complete and systematic traffic education plan. Also creating a culture of parental awareness for the issues referring to children crossing behavior could be a key for accident prevention something also suggested by Tapiro et al. (2016). For the senior people, interactive education and material that meets older people’s special (and perhaps more complex as Nikitas et al. (2011) and Sochor and Nikitas (2016) suggested) requirements could be more effective. For instance, hazard perception tests can be employed (Rosenbloom et al., 2015), but the method may be high-cost unless professional educator services are provided on a volunteering basis. Also the adoption of pedestrian gestures informing drivers of pedestrian’s intent to cross (Zhuang and Wu, 2014) and the implementation of special materials that reflect light well to the canes of elderly pedestrians and the bags of teenagers and children (Zhuang and Wu, 2011) will make easier for drivers to detect them.
Distribution of time of crash for motorised rickshaw crashesinvolving collision with pedestrians/cyclists/motorised two- wheeled vehicles showed a signiﬁcant peak in the evening and early night hours (16:30–22:30 h, 49%). The same peak also applied for multi-motorised vehicle crashes (47%). In single- motorised vehicle crashes, the crashes due to driving into a ditch/ hole occurred in darkness but no determined peak time was seen for either overturned motorised rickshaw or those which hit an object, or the case involving falling off a motorised rickshaw. The motorised rickshaw-to-pedestrian crashes (n = 21, 18%) showed an evening peak (18:01–00:00 h, 43%) with no crashes between midnight and 06:00 h. The collisions occurred with pedestrians while they were walking on the road (n = 8), crossing away from a pedestrian crossing (n = 6) or just standing on the road (n = 4). One case each comprised ‘working on the road’ and ‘stopping a motorised rickshaw for hire’ at the time of crash.
There are also air pollution concerns from heavy congestion in urban areas. According to the Freight Fact and Figures 2009 - Office of Freight Management and Operations Report - diesel-fueled heavy trucks emit small amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) but large amounts of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) when compared to gasoline-fueled cars affecting the air quality (8). Freight transportation contributes to 27 percent of the total NOx emissions and one-third of emissions of particulate matter 10 microns in diameter (PM-10) from mobile sources in US. Trucks take a two-thirds share of the NOx emissions from the freight sector. Apart from the above emissions, the transportation sector releases large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, and hydro fluorocarbons and these gases trap heat in the atmosphere which affects the earth’s temperature. Therefore, the increase in the congestion of the trucks at urban intersections can affect the quality of air by the emissions which can be mitigated by better traffic flow techniques such as less delay at urban intersections (8).
Cities have been often organized in terms of planning with special attention to motor vehicles and not well prepared for pedestrians and cyclists. In order to privilege active modes, there is the need to ensure the safety of these vulnerable road users. The main objective of this paper is to implement a statistical analysis to assess the occurrence and severity of road crashesinvolving vulnerable road users. This research is focused on analyzing the trends and causes of road crashesinvolving cyclists and pedestrians and what are the main difficulties that people using active modes do face in their journeys. In order to reach this objective, a database of crashes registrations involving motor vehicles and vulnerable road users from Aveiro, Portugal, between 2012 and 2015 was created. This analysis intends to evaluate the evolution of the number of crashes and to create patterns of risk factors such as weather conditions, specific locations and singularities that might represent additional risk, profile of pedestrian or cyclist involved. Regarding the analyzed variables that characterize crashes participations, the dependent variables considered were: meteorological conditions, location, proximity to a pedestrians’ crosswalk and gender of the VRU.
Whether a casualty was an unrestrained vehicle occupant at the time of the crash will also be examined. The total number of fatalities associated with each contributing factor/characteristic will be broken down by road user type and police region, and the total number of drivers and riders (i.e. controllers) to which the contributing factor/characteristic was attributed, will be analysed by age group and gender for all fatalcrashes. In some instances, details about the controller, such as age group and gender, are unknown. This is likely to occur in ‘hit and run’-type scenarios where it was witnessed that a vehicle was ‘speeding’, but the driver was never identified. Other breakdowns relevant to specific contributing factors/characteristics will also be provided. Please note that when displaying the number of drivers and riders involved in fatalcrashes, they themselves may not necessarily be the fatality.
temporary highway safety features and recommended evaluation criteria to assess test results” are outlined in the Manual for Accessing Safety Hardware (MASH) (2009). This report also defines different test levels based on the type of impact conditions and employed test vehicle. Test Level 3 (TL-3) is the basic test level that specifies both the passenger cars and pickup trucks impacting at an angle of 25 degrees and a speed of 62 mph (MASH, 2009). This impact speed was derived from crash data collected on roads with design speeds up to 70 mph. This impact speed and angle combination happens to represent “approximately the 92.5 percentile of real- world crashes” (MASH, 2009). The highest impact speed used for testing (62 mph) has not changed since the previous guideline, NCHRP Report 350, dated 1993 and is currently in use for all roads with a 70 or greater mph posted speed limit. Fitzpatrick et al. (2007) evaluated the criteria for high design speed roads up to 100 mph based on Report 350 and found that the impact angle of 25 degrees does “not vary significantly with functional class.” Therefore, the focus of this project was to examine whether or not the testing impact speed should be raised for roadways with posted speed limits higher than 70 mph.
We used a population-based case-control study design to assess the individual and joint effects of prescription opioid use and alcohol use on the risk of motor vehicle crash involvement. Of the 6783 eligible cases, 3177 (46.8%) were excluded from the analysis because of missing toxicological testing data [including 262 drivers involved in fatalcrashes in Maryland, New Mexico, and North Carolina due to unreliable drug testing data re- corded in the FARS from these states (Drummer et al. 2004; Brady and Li 2012; Chen et al. 2018)]. Conse- quently, cases included in the study were 3606 drivers who were involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes at spe- cific times from 2006 to 2008 and from 2012 to 2014 and for whom toxicological testing data were available. Controls included in the study were 15,600 drivers who participated in the 2007 NRS or the 2013–14 NRS. Cases and controls were matched on time of day, day of week, and month of year (i.e., from 9:30 am to 11:30 am and 1:30 pm to 3:30 pm on Fridays and from 10 pm to midnight and 1 am to 3 am on both Friday and Saturday nights). The Columbia University Irving Medical Center Institutional Review Board (New York, NY) deemed this study exempt from review under 45 CFR 46.
found to be slightly different. After conducting crosstabulation analysis it was concluded that for earthmoving operators, fatal injury outcome is in statistically significant association with seat belt presence on equipment, union status, adequate safety training, equipment protective system, equipment maintenance, SIC, equipment type event type, environmental factor, human factor, and age factor. The operators using well maintained earthmoving equipment with all protective systems in place is crucially important. Operators riding equipment with malfunctioned or no protective system are 2.90 times more likely be a victim of a fatality in the event of an accident. Furthermore, fastening the seat belt at all times during the job they perform not only decreases the odds of fatal injury but also prevents a citation in the event of an OSHA inspection. In order for operators to follow these rules, increasing their safety awareness is the key. Safety training is the tool for this purpose. Besides safety training, supervision of safe work practices, carried out systematically on the job site, is another decreasing factor for fatal injuries. Job sites where union workers are present should be exemplary for the construction industry; how they train their members, how they enforce safety rules, and how they supervise safety at the job site, what they require from a job owner, etc. should be studied and adopted by others.
limited ways within practice. Within many freight plans and guidelines of urban freight best practices, including those spe- cific to the location studied in this research, there is little men- tion of accommodations for sharing the street with non- motorized users such as bicycles, or more specifically, how to design infrastructure to do this. For example, the BESTUFS Good Practice Guide on Urban Freight Transport  dis- cusses guidance on goods, vehicle access and loading, but does not mention safety or the need to share infrastructure with different users. Guidance from the Norwegian national level regarding goods deliveries in cities identifies issues as- sociated with freight deliveries, even discussing concerns re- lated to cyclists, among others, sharing street space with trucks. It is stated that for new establishments, it is important to look at the road network and consider the type of conflicts that may occur, specifically mentioning bicycle lanes as an area of concern; however, there is no additional guidance on how to mitigate for such potential conflict . This is similar at the local level. For example, the street use plan for Trondheim  recommends that the city provide good and safe delivery conditions in new buildings, but there is no follow-up with specific suggestions as to what this may entail. Because freight transport is one of the primary users of the urban space, several European cities are now working on de- veloping Sustainable Urban Logistics Plans (SULP) . In order to improve conditions for local freight delivery, the pri- mary objective of an SULP is to enhance the cooperation and predictability between the different actors within urban logis- tics. Previous projects (e.g. the Enclose Project, see  have made attempts at creating guidelines for developing and implementing SULPs. Key components of the guidelines in- clude: setting objectives and targets; identifying the logistics context, including identifying key actors and assessing their requirements for improving city logistics; identifying policy measures and service designs which can be analyzed and assessed; assignment and distribution of responsibilities; and development of implementation and monitoring plans. The interest in developing SULPs has also risen in Norway, and several Norwegian industry representatives have recently proclaimed an urgent need for implementing logistics plans in Norwegian cities . SULPs have the potential to help decision makers and planners/designers to better understand and address the trade-offs and conflicts between users of shared urban spaces; however, more work is required to un- derstand the complexity of urban freight delivery and how laws and regulations affect present systems.
Statistics clearly demonstrate that large-truck crashes contribute to a significant percentage of high-severity crashes. It is therefore important for the highway safety community to identify the characteristics and contributory causes of these types of crashes. The first phase of the current research endeavor examined fatal crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database. In the second phase, presented in the current report, truck-crashes of all severity levels were analyzed with the intention of understanding characteristics and contributory causes, as well as identifying factors contributing to increased severity of truck-crashes. This goal could not be achieved by analyzing fatalcrashes alone. Various statistical methodologies such as cross-classification analysis and severity models were developed using Kansas crash data. This study identified the characteristics, contributing causes, and specific factors related to the occurrence and increased severity of large-truck-crashes. By understanding these issues, countermeasures might be developed to mitigate the number and severity of truck crashes.
For improvements to the road network safety system, it is recommended that protection measures be taken according to the analysis results. For a lower budget approach, education and(or) brochures with regard to the road conditions, mainly in mountainous and rural areas, could be provided to overseas drivers to raise awareness; and a theory test given to overseas driver could be an option to raise knowledge of NZ road user rules. Weather forecasts could be more frequent on radio to warn drivers of cases of a heavy rain or snow. Other mitigation measures include installation of rumble strip/ road barriers in those areas with multiple crash occurrences; multilingual road signs and markings to provide better guidance; a compulsory theory test for permission to drive in NZ for people holding international driving licences or driving permits. However, the costs of such measures could be high. It is recommended that a future study to investigate the feasibility of large-scale improvements. A similar survey to be undertaken all year around in various locations of NZ would be advantageous in gaining more understanding of the driving challenges overseas drivers faced in NZ.