Fattyacid compositions and trans fattyacidcontents of chocolate and chocolate wafers collected from Turkish markets were determined by GC. Total 62 samples, being all chocolates and chocolate wafers sold in Turkey, were investigated. 35 samples of chocolate which were categorised as milk chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate with nuts, chocolate with pistachio, chocolate with almond, other chocolates, and 27 samples of chocolate wafer which were categorised as pure chocolate wafers and chocolate wafers with nuts belonging to 12 different national chocolate brands, were analysed. Generally, C16:0 palmitic acid, C18:0 stearic acid, and C18:1 oleic acid were the major fatty acids in all sam- ples. trans fattyacidcontents in chocolate wafers samples showed a variation between 0.00–7.92%. trans fatty acids were determined as 0.00–6.23% in chocolate samples. In conclusion, it was shown that trans fatty acids contents in chocolates were relatively lower than those of other countries.
ABSTRACT: The concentration (c) of free fatty acids (FFAs) in milk is an indicator of dairy cow nutrition, milk straining, its bacterial contamination and storage quality. High FFA concentrations (cs) caused by lipolysis can damage the quality properties of milk products. Therefore the FFA content is introduced thanks to an increase in the efficiency of modern analytical methods as a milk quality indicator and as an indicator for its price as well. The goal of this paper was to analyse the FFA relations to the other milk quality indicators. The data set (n = 11 586) was evaluated by regression methods. In November and December the respective FFA means were 0.614 ± 0.458 and 0.835 ± 0.491 mmol/100 g with a relatively high variability of 74.6 and 58.8%. The frequency of unsatisfactory FFA values (> 1.3) was 7.51 and 13.93%. Casein content (r = –0.17; P < 0.01) and crude protein content (r = –0.12; P < 0.01) were related more closely with FFA c. The FFAs can increase by 0.066 mmol/100 g with casein decrease by 0.10%. The FFAs in milk fat can slightly increase by the supply of energy to dairy cows (protein and casein decrease) and rise with the deteriorating health state of mammary gland (lactose, r = –0.14; P < 0.01) as well. The somatic cell count correlated with FFAs more weakly (r = 0.07; P < 0.05), similarly like the total mesophilic bac- teria count (r = 0.11; P < 0.01), relatively more closely the psychrotrophic bacteria count (r = 0.27; P < 0.05). The deterioration of almost all hygienic indicators signified an FFA c increase. The urea content correlated with FFAs weakly (r = –0.08; P < 0.05) and the fat content imperceptibly as a component of similar substance like FFAs. The mechanical milk stress led to FFA liberation from fat esters proportionally to the intervention intensity (P < 0.001). Even a relatively small mechanical stress caused by mixing comparable to the current milking technology, milk transport and storage increased the FFA c of milk fat from 1.11 ± 0.19 to 1.80 ± 0.40 mmol/100 g (P < 0.05). The highest experimental stress up to 6.88 ± 0.55 mmol/100 g (P < 0.001).
silage is increased (Asefa and Ledin, 2001). One other way of resolving this challenge is through the inclusion of non protein nitrogen sources such as urea in low quantity. Shoukry et al., (1999) reported that ensiling with urea was preferable to drying when feeding banana foliage to sheep. This practice is a common and cheap method of increasing nitrogen (N) supply to ruminants fed silage. The present study was therefore designed to assess the nutritive value (Antinutrients, chemical composition, Lactic and volatile fattyacidcontents) and acceptability of dried banana leaves ensiled with cassava peels and urea as feed for WAD sheep.
This study shows that, garden snail meat has similar levels of proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and fattyacidcontents as other seafood. It is an important food source to supply daily nu- tritional needs. Given improved culture tech- niques it has the potential to become an important culture species providing a rich source of pro- teins, vitamins and minerals. Turkey has the po- tential to economically benefit from this species. Snail culture is particularly important in the light of declining natural stocks with the rising de- mand on snail meat. Seasonal abnormalities and lack of rain is another stress factor on natural oc- curring snails. Culture techniques for snails must be developed to ensure a continuous and high quality snail meat production.
Samples of suckling lambs (n=40) of two breeds reared under conventional and organic conditions were analysed to asses physico-chemical characteristics, including instrumental texture, and nutritional quality in terms of fattyacid composition. Consumer acceptance was also studied using the home-use test. Results revealed that organic suckling lamb meat is healthier as shown by the lower saturated fattyacid levels, the higher polyunsaturated fattyacidcontents and the higher ω 6/ ω 3 ratiko. The organic meat had lower instrumental hardness, received higher scores in all sensory parameters, and had statistically better fat sensation and higher ratings for overall liking. These results lend support to the notion among consumers that organic products are healthier and tastier.
Considering that lyophilized crabs must be rehydrated fully before cooking, so, we further analysed the fattyacid profiles of the lyophilized crabs after full rehydra- tion. As shown in Table 3, the major contents of fattyacid after rehydration were similar to that before rehy- dration (Table 2): the most prevalent fattyacid was oleic acid (C18:1, 18% - 25%), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 12% - 21%), linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, 5% - 18%), and palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 6% - 12%). EPA and DHA were the major n-3 PUFAs and accounted for 2% - 6% of the total fatty acids. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFAs was 0.33 - 0.86, which was higher than that recommended by the FAO/WHO . Differences of most fattyacidcontents,
Based on the chemical and statistical analyses conducted of food quality parameters, it can be said that the quality of the Muruku snacks was different between types or brands as shown by Cluster Analysis. Discriminant Analysis showed that the quality characteristics studied i.e., lightness values, saturated fattyacidcontents, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine value and moisture content are the main contributors to discriminating the samples, indicating that most of the Muruku were subjected secondary oxidation either due to long storage or exposure to light and heat, which may increase the risk of rancidity. This can be avoided by using opaque packaging. The oil oxidation process was likely accelerated since the common food processing practices were to reuse the cooking oil. Types of frying oil used, processing practices, packaging technology, and storage conditions played some roles in controlling the final quality of the Muruku snacks. However, packaging technology might be the most important factor in producing a Muruku product with desirable food quality characteristics.
Various approaches are under investigation for the microbial synthesis of higher unbranched alcohols with respect to the origin of the saturated carbon chain and the formation of the terminal hydroxyl group. They are based to some extent on entirely different metabolic pathways in bacterial as well as yeast systems (Fig. 1). Most approaches aim at harvesting acyl chain for the syn- thesis of the higher alcohol. Two major biochemical strat- egies can be distinguished for the acyl chain synthesis: (1) The alpha-ketoacid route  exerts the recursive elon- gation of alpha-ketoacids by one carbon atom with an adapted leucine biosynthesis pathway and gives access to saturated carbon chains from C 3 to C 9 . (2) Fattyacid
Each fattyacid has its own discrete biological activity 4, 14 . All higher organisms and plants contain lipids which are the chief source of substantial quantities of PUFA. The omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the two principal group of PUFA derived from α-linolenic acids (18:3 n3) and linoleic acid (18:2 n6), respectively. These two parent fatty acids can only be naturally synthesized in plants and therefore, have become the essential dietary components for animal and human diet for maintaining optimum health 3, 5 . There are many methods to identify fatty acids and their derivatives (fattyacid methyl esters, FAME) like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS), gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), high performance chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and silver performance liquid chromatography. HPLC is the most commonly employed tool for the analysis of the pharmaceutical products but the method is not successful in the quantitative analysis of fatty acids
A split ratio of 1:10 was used with injections of 1 µL sample. Two injections parallels were used for each sample replicate. Identification of fatty acids was performed by comparing retention times with standards as well as MS library searches. MassLynx version 4.0 (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) and NIST 08 Mass Spectral Library (Gaithersburg, MD, USA) was used. Relative response factors previously determined by Devle et al  were employed for quantitative determination. The
Over time, the application of the pumpkin seed extracts has been increasing. The pumpkin oil is greenish in color, with typical nutty and roast flavor. Mainly, it contains triglycerides with palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid as the dominant fatty acids. The oxidative stability of pumpkin seed oil is influenced primarily by the ratio of linolenic to oleic acid. Other important components present in the pumpkin oil are toco- pherols, sterols, phospholipids and hydrocarbons. In pumpkin oil, a - and g -tocopherol are present in higher concentration than b - and d -tocopherol. The antioxidant activity of tocopherols (vitamin E) has been studied extensively. It was found that g - and d -forms possess a much higher antioxi- dant activity than a - and β-forms, however, a - tocopherol is considered to have a higher vitamin potency than any other tocopherol isomer [5‒9]. When a -tocopherol was added to the oil a strong pro-oxidative effect was observed . Most plant oils predominantly contain D 5-sterols, whereas D 7-sterols are tipical for only a few plant families, e.g. Cucurbitaceae. Generally accepted technol- ogy of the pumpkin seed oil production includes cold pressing of row or roasted seeds. If roasted seeds are pressed, the highest “extra virgin” qual- ity oil is obtained. Pumpkin seed oil, a local spe- cialty produced mainly in South-Eastern Austria, is extracted by physical means from naked roast- ed seed [10‒13].
Acid values were identified in the highest level in Japanese mallotus, 52.3±0.60 mg KOH/g, and in the lowest level in Tea camellia, 0.81±0.04 mg KOH/g. Acid values indicate the amount of potassium hydroxide consumed by neutralizing free fatty acids in oils (1g). Higher acid values mean higher contents of free fatty acids, indicating a degraded quality of oils (Jiang et al., 2019). Such high acid value in Japanese mallotus may come from either acidification or free fatty acids present beforehand (Kim et al., 2018). In case of peroxide values, Large-leaflet prickly-ash showed the highest level, 213.88±6.97 meq/kg, while Chinese flowering-quince the lowest, 4.95±0.11 meq/kg. Peroxide values measure the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the primary oxidation product, which is an important estimate of early phase oxidation (Kaleem et al., 2015). Peroxide value is an appropriate measure to assess the time-dependent quality of oil-containing foods, meaning that a drastic increase of peroxide value indicates deteriorated oils after the early oxidation (Asakawa and Matsushita, 1980). For p-anisidine values, Large-leaflet prickly-ash marked the highest value, 62.59±1.67, and Deodar the lowest value, 3.53±0.39. p-anisidine values measure the amount of secondary oxidation products, mainly the carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes and ketones. Higher p-anisidine values mean higher levels of carbonyl compounds generated by lipid oxidation (Tompkins and Perkins, 1999; Naz et al., 2004). Rancidity, which is determined by acid values, peroxide values, and
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Pendallino olive cultivar oils from from the various cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to identify and compare the oils with international standard defined by Olive Oil Council (IOOC) for Virgin olive oil. The olive fruits were taken from the specific regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e. Bajaur, Karak, Lower Dir and Peshawar. Virgin olive Oils (VOO) were extracted by pressing and centrifuging of olive fruits with three-phase vertical decanter. The extracted virgin olive oil was studied for various physiochemical properties and fattyacid profile. The Physical and chemical properties i.e., acidity, peroxide, ultraviolet spectrophotometric analysis (k232 and k270), total phenol content, chlorophyll pigment were under the acceptable range, established by European regulation for virgin olive oil. Olive oil was analyzed by GC gas-chromatography for fatty acids commonly present in olive oils which are: palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidic. Oleic acid was found in high percentage ranged from (60.3 to 74.3%), followed by linoleic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and linolenic. Arachidic acid was found in a very low percentage in all olive oil samples. Total phenol contents ware ranged from 114 to 125 mg/kg. The International Olive Oil Council's (IOOC) criteria for pureness and excellence was used as a standard for the calculated values of the samples. The samples had significant physical and chemical properties and can be used as edible oil. The Lower Dir cultivar particularly demonstrated the qualities of a superior of olive oil.
A series of experiments was performed during the induction of starvation ketosis and in the acute reversal of the ketotic state. In contrast to the predictions of two widely held theories of ketogenesis, control of acetoacetate production by the liver appeared to be unrelated to changes in fattyacid mobilization from the periphery, fattyacid oxidation, fattyacid synthesis, or the acetyl coenzyme A concentration in the liver.
Organic farming has positive effects on soil microbial population, process, and activity. To examine effects of two different management methods (organic farming vs. conventional farming) on the cultivation of Japanese apricot, contents of fattyacid methyl ester (FAME), total glomalin, and soil chemical properties were analyzed and compared. The organic farming practice resulted in significantly higher contents of organic matter, total FAME, total bacteria, Gram‑negative bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and total glomalin than the conventional farming practice. Soil organic matter showed positive correlation with contents of soil microbial biomass, total bacteria, total glomalin, Gram‑positive bacteria, Gram‑negative bacteria, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In 2018, the organic farming practice resulted in lower ratios of cy17:0 and 16:1ω7c than the conventional farming practice, indicating that microbial stress was reduced by the input of organic fertilizer into soil. Based on principal component analyses (PCA) of soil microbial communities, ratios of cy17:0 to 16:1ω7c in orchid soil can be used as microbial indicators to distin‑ guish organically farmed orchard soil from conventionally farmed orchard soil.
The fatty acids analysis in serum provided direct evidence on the fatty acids synthesis in the liver . The saturated fattyacid (SFA), such as palmitic acid and yields of its conversion in to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsat- urated fatty acids (PUFAs) from the n-3 and n-6 families are connected through the metabolic activity of the liver . Unger., in 2003  has reported that free fatty acids (FFAs) are important mediators of lipotoxicity, they act as possible cellular toxins and leads to the lipid over-accumulation. When lipids are over-accumulated in non-adipose tissue, they may enter into non-oxidative deleterious pathways leading to cell injury and death. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the FFA in serum provide an ancillary source of evidence on the synthesis of FA in the liver .
Initially, this study assessed measures of obe- sity and diabetes in db/db mice after AA treat- ment. Before intervention, body weights were significantly higher in the model group than the normal group (Figure 1A). However, AA treat- ment mitigated the increase in body weight. Livers of the model group mice were heavier than those of the normal group mice (Figure 1B), but AA treatment also attenuated liver weight. The ratio of liver weight to body weight was also compared (Figure 1C). The ratio was elevated in the model group, which was attenu- ated by AA treatment. In addition, fasting serum glucose (Figure 1D), cholesterol (Figure 1E), TG (Figure 1F), and free fattyacid (Figure 1G) lev- els were all higher in the model group. In con- trast, AA treatment significantly decreased those parameters.