studies, however, lipolytic rate or fattyacidmobilization were measured while the subjects were still in a negative energy balance, which is a time when the hormonal milieu (e.g. elevated catecholamine and suppressed insulin concentrations) is conducive for an elevated lipolytic rate. Therefore, measuring fattyacidmobilization when subjects are still in a negative energy balance does not accurately reflect the impact of the weight loss, per se. Studies measuring fattyacidmobilization during a period of weight stability after weight loss agree with our findings that weight loss results in a marked reduction in fattyacidmobilization, along with a concomitant improvement in generalized markers for insulin sensitivity (i.e. fasting insulin and/or homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)) (Klein et al. 1996; Lofgren et al. 2002; Thyfault et al. 2004). Similar to findings from Ross and colleagues (Ross et al. 2000; Janssen et al. 2002) and more recently Toledo et al. (Toledo et al. 2008), we found that adding exercise training to a weight-loss program did not improve insulin sensitivity any more than weight loss without exercise training. Our observation that exercise training did not prevent fattyacid-induced insulin resistance in After + Lipid, is also consistent with a cross-sectional study that demonstrated that a lipid infusion impaired insulin sensitivity to a similar extent in both endurance exercise-trained and sedentary individuals (Matzinger et al. 2002). Importantly, the observation that exercise training does not augment insulin sensitivity appears to be contingent on removing the transient effects of the most recent session of exercise (Ivy et al. 1983; Mikines et al. 1989). In line with this, the subjects in our WL + EX group did not perform exercise for 3 days before the follow-up tests, and subjects in the studies by Ross and colleagues (Ross et al. 2000; Janssen et al. 2002; Dekker et al. 2007) and Toledo et al. (Toledo et al. 2008) were tested at least 3 days after their last exercise session. Our sub- jects, however, clearly responded to the exercise training intervention as demonstrated by their significant increase in whole-body aerobic capacity (i.e. ˙ V O 2 ,max ), increased
uptake and utilization. It is generally accepted by the scientific community that excess circulating fatty acids lead to insulin resistance, but there is little clarity regarding the underlying mechanisms. In the present review, we will outline the current understanding of the characteristics associated with fattyacidmobilization and fattyacid utilization within specific tissues. We will also discuss the potential mechanistic role of hyperlipidemia on metabolic dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes.
A series of experiments was performed during the induction of starvation ketosis and in the acute reversal of the ketotic state. In contrast to the predictions of two widely held theories of ketogenesis, control of acetoacetate production by the liver appeared to be unrelated to changes in fattyacidmobilization from the periphery, fattyacid oxidation, fattyacid synthesis, or the acetyl coenzyme A concentration in the liver.
With continued exercise, mobilization rates begin to exceed rates of utilization and plasma levels begin to rise, continuing post-exercise. Plasma FFA levels were observed, in an obese population of men, to continue to rise during the first hour post- exercise as glycerol levels decreased, indicating an increased fattyacidmobilization after a moderate exercise bout (Marion-Latard et al., 2003). Estrogen increases epinephrine and growth hormone and decreases insulin levels enhancing the release of HSL which controls the release of fatty acids (Ashley et al., 2000). Kendrick and Ellis (1991) saw that with administration of estradiol to male rats, plasma FFA levels were increased during submaximal exercise. Hellstrom et al. (1996) found that in short-term exercise bouts, females had higher circulating levels of lipids compared to males and the finding was attributed to adrenergic regulation of lipid mobilization. β-receptors were found to be activated in the adipocytes of women whereas both β and α-receptors were activated in
Standard sunflower genotypes contains to 5-6% palmitic acid. Onemli , Praveen  observed significant variation for palmitic acid (C16:0) in sunflower genotype. A low level palmitic acid is preferred from human health point of view. Palmitic acid is believed to increase LDL (low density lipoprotein), which is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. In the present study the palmitic acid ranges in parental line 5.25-8.63%. Proportion of palmitic acid was low in parental line lines GP-04028 (5.25%) and GP-04019 (5.79%), in selected parent that used for crossing in half diallel fashion lines the lowest recorded was GP-01009 (6.27%) and GP-04026 (7.31%), while in 28 derived crosses, it ranged from 4.58 to 6.88 percent. The lowest proportion of palmitic acid in derived crosses was BHAC- 04038(1)xGP-01005 (4.58%), Entry no-20xGP-01004 (4.67%) and GP-01009xEntry-P-S-2 (4.97%). Praveen (2015) reported palmitic acid range 4.43-10.93%, Skoric, mentioned palmitic acid may vary 3.0-11.5% and according to Anon. 2015-16 palmitic acid ranges 5-8 percent in sunflower.
The results are expressed as relative gene expression (mean ± SEM). The data is obtained from 2 independent experiments with n=3 in each experiment. Data was analysed using one way ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were made using LSD. Values significantly different from the vehicle (EC) are denoted with * and those different from OA are denoted as † (p<0.05). The vehicle has been assigned a value of 1. EC, ethanol control; OA, oleic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid.
Groundnut is the main oilseed legume crop grown mainly in arid and semi arid tropics of the world and its kernels contain good quantities of oil (44 - 56%), protein (22 - 30%), minerals (phosphorous, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and vitamins (E, K and B groups). Fattyacid profiles are more useful in deciding nutritional properties as well as end use functionality of edible plant oils. For both nutritional and industrial purposes, the composition of fatty acids determines the economic value of seed oil (Sanyal and Randal Linder, 2012). For food or feed, oil that is high in the level of beneficial oleic acid (C18:1) is most preferred. Main fatty acids present in groundnut are classified into two groups namely saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid and lignoceric acid) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and eicosenoic acid). Oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid are three major fatty acids in groundnut which constitutes about 90% of fattyacid composition of groundnut oil and remaining fatty acids includes stearic acid, arachidic acid, eicosenoic acid and lignoceric acid. Even though linoleic acid (C18:2) is an essential fattyacid, it is not suitable for cooking purpose because of its oxidative instability leading to formation of trans fatty acids which is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (De Souza, 2015). Vegetable oils with high levels of oleic acid (18:1) are preferred for food and industrial purposes. Simultaneous
Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have been tested for esterification of free fattyacid found in yellow grease and non-edible oily feedstock used for biodiesel production. Applicability and limitations of the catalyst types have been pointed out based on extensive testing. Low cost sulphuric acid, selected as the homogeneous catalyst provides high FFA conversion at mild temperatures, with conversion values reaching 97%. A suitable solid acid catalyst for esterification of FFA has been identified (BD20 from Dow Chemical) based on conversion, durability and deactivation studies. The results show that at temperature of 60 o C and reaction time of 240 minutes this catalyst can provide close to 97% conversion of FFA, corresponding to 0.45wt.% that is up to standard concentration. This value of FFA conversion is similar to the value obtained for homogeneous catalyst. The trade-off of increasing the reaction time compared to homogeneous catalyst is well justified, due to inherent advantages for the process in term cost and ease of separation of the catalyst after reaction. The absence of pores in the catalyst structure makes it less prone to deactivation due to deposition of known large molecule by-products during the reaction. Detailed kinetic models for the reaction have been developed and tested for reactor sizing purposes.
and cellular proliferation. For this rapidly growing infant, there is a high demand for complex lipids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to form vital cell membrane structures. Human fetuses have a limited ability to synthesize omega-3 LCPUFA de novo and have to be supplied via maternal sources (Joffre et al, 2014). Other studies evaluating the early exposition to PUFAs, in particular omega-3 PUFAs, showed benefits in the offspring development and epigenetic regulation, which seem to prevent obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases onset (Mennitti et al, 2015). Therefore, elucidating the pathways of placental omega-3 FAs transport and the regulatory processes governing these pathways are critical for advancing our understanding about the relationships between maternal omega-3 FAs metabolism and the placental supply of metabolites to the developing fetus. In this review, we would summarize recent development in the biochemical processes involved in placental omega-3 FAs delivery to the fetus. In accordance with this, we would show the impact of deficiency/supplementation of omega-3 FAs on the fetus.
The analysis of fatty acids and fatty alcohols was per- formed via HPLC with an Agilent 1200 (Agilent, Co. Ltd. USA) equipped with RID and a SilGreen ODS C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) according to the reported research . The mobile phase was methanol: water: acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v). The column tem- perature was 26 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Five- milliliter samples of fermentation combined with 500 µL of 10 mol/L HCl were extracted with 2.5 mL of ethyl ace- tate at 10 °C and 260 rpm for 2 min. The mixtures were shaken vigorously for a few seconds before they were placed in a rotary shaker incubator. After extraction, the mixtures were left static for 10 min and the organic layer was then transferred to a new centrifuge tube. After cen- trifugation at 12,000 rpm for 5 min, the clear supernatant was collected and filtered through a 0.45-μm millipore filter and injected into the HPLC-RID system for analysis.
In the present study, the fattyacid profile of newly hatched Artemia showed high concentrations of OA and ALA, but negligible levels of EPA and DHA, which is in line with previous reports (Cavalli et al., 2000; Martins et al., 2006). In addition, the fattyacid composition of the metanauplii reflected to some extent the fattyacid profile of the commercial emulsions used in the enrichment process, which resulted in a drastic increase in n–3 LC-PUFA. In this study, EPA increased from 2.3% in the control group to 11.2 and 5.9% in Artemia enriched for 24 h with Easy DHA-Selco and S. presso, respectively. Regarding DHA, this fattyacid increased from 0.1% in newly hatched Artemia to 2.1 and 7.2% in Artemia enriched for 24 h with Easy DHA-Selco and S. presso, respectively. In this context, Immanuel et al. (2001) reported that in A. franciscana nauplii enriched with different levels of lipid the concentration of EPA and DHA were increased considerably from 2.45 to 5.1% and from 0.3 to 1.9%, respectively after 6 h enrichment period. Moreover, Immanuel et al. (2004) reported that these two fatty acids increased from 2.68 to 5.43% and 0.53% to 2.23%, respectively in A. franciscana nauplii enriched with different levels of lipid after 12-h enrichment period. In addition, higher lipid content in Easy DHA-Selco than S.presso led to an increase in Artemia total lipid content that consequently increased PL dry weight in this group. In the current study, the trend of total SFA and MUFA in
In addition to carbohydrate metabolism, fattyacid (FA) metabolism has key roles in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. The enforced expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1; transporter of FAs into the mitochondria in order to promote their oxidation) in macrophage cell lines results in decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines (16). In murine studies, newly differentiated Treg cells demonstrated the highest oxidation of the FA palmitate compared with other effector T cell subsets (12). Additionally, Treg cell differentiation was inhibited following treatment with etomoxir (inhibitor of CPT1), while Th17 cell differentiation was unaffected (12). As previously described, Treg cells have enhanced expression of AMPK, which is known to promote mitochondrial lipid oxidation and therefore could give rise to increased FA oxidation (FAO). Interestingly, the upregulation of fattyacid synthesis (FAS) correlates with a downregulation of FAO, demonstrating that these pathways are reciprocally linked (17). The inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzymes (involved in the FAS pathway) with soraphen A can decrease IL-17- expressing T cell differentiation, the expression of Th17
IMTG, fattyacid intermediates, and insulin action. The concentration of IMTG, fatty acyl-CoAs, DAG, and/or ceramide are elevat- ed in skeletal muscle from obese humans, genetically obese rats, and HFD-fed, obese mice in association with insulin resistance (53–57). This accumulation appears to be related to the increased fattyacid flux seen in obesity. Accordingly, increasing fattyacid flux via a lipid-plus-heparin infusion in humans (23, 46) or rodents (58) results in a corresponding increase in the concen- tration of IMTG and/or fattyacid inter- mediates. In contrast, decreasing fattyacid flux in humans via pharmacological inhi- bition of lipolysis (49) or by discontinuing a lipid-plus-heparin infusion in rats (58) decreases IMTG concentration and/or the accumulation of fattyacid intermediates. Interestingly, a number of these fattyacid intermediates activate the aforementioned proinflammatory and nutrient-sensing pathways. LPA, PA, DAG, and ceramide can activate the mTOR/ p70S6K, JNK, IKK, and/or the novel PKC/conventional PKC (nPKC/cPKC; e.g., PKC-θ) pathways (59–62). Ceramide can also attenuate insulin signaling through its ability to inhibit Akt/PKB (63). Indeed, lipid-induced insulin resistance in rats is prevented by pharmacological inhibition of ceramide production (57). Simi- larly, pharmacological inhibition and/or genetic ablation in cell- based, mouse, or human models of the mTOR/p70S6K (37–39), IKK/NF-κB (24, 25, 27, 64), JNK (18, 26), or nPKC/cPKC (65) pathways prevents lipid-, obesity-, and nutrient overload–induced insulin resistance.
Although Lagenaria siceraria is composed of 16.86% of 2,4-decadienal, Citrullus vulgaris contained 0.30% of this compound not found in Cucumis melo. 2, 4-decadienal is an aromatic substance with deep fat flavour. While 2,4- decadienal is generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids by the action of plant lipoxygenases and used as a synthetic flavoring and fragrance material, its presence in higher percentage in Lagenaria siceraria, not commonly consumed, may boost its economic value and enhance its use as a food condiment over and above other types of melons. Shi and Ho  and Mottram  indicated that 2,4-decadienal is responsible for the inviting aroma of deep-fat-fried food. In a descending order, palmitic acid esters were present in Citrullus lanatus (21.20%), Citrullus vulgaris (2.89%), Cucumis melo (1.09%) and Lagenaria siceraria (0.63%). Palmitic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids which can increase unhealthy low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels . Being one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids in body lipids, it could constitute a major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. Diets high in saturated fatty acids increase the production of acetate fragments in the body which, in turn, leads to an increase in the production of cholesterol. When consumed, saturated fats tend to clump together and form deposits in the body, along with protein and cholesterol. They get lodged in blood cells and organs, leading to many health problems, including obesity, heart diseases and cancers of the breast and colon. However, since the dietary effects of high-fat diet, mainly in saturated fatty acids, have been focused on the reduction of cardiovascular diseases [46,47], obesity-related diseases and, recently, cancer prevention , consuming Cucumis melo, Citrullus vulgaris and Lagenaria siceraria having very low levels of saturated fattyacid compared to unsaturated fatty acids and less of Citrullus lanatus having high levels of saturated fatty acids would be of significant benefit. Oluba et al. , also, reported that egusi oil could improve serum and liver lipid profiles and offer better protection against resultant lipid peroxides from consumption of high fat diet.
synthesized in the liver, however DPA is synthesized in the liver and transported to the brain; there DPA can be converted to DHA (Pawlosky et al., 1994). Omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA are eicosanoid precursors, along with prostanoids and other oxygenated derivatives. DHA is not a precursor of eicosanoids, but is a precursor to docosanoids (Palmquist, 2009). In dogs supplemented with flaxseed, linolenic acid (C18:3n3) was converted to EPA and DPA (C18:4n3) by the action of delta 6 desaturase on linolenic acid; however there was no change in plasma DHA levels (Bauer et al., 1998). α -Linolenic acid has many fates in humans including structural incorporation, transport, storage po ols, β -oxidation, and carbon chain elongation (Burdge, 2004). In humans, β -oxidation with these substrates will yield a source of energy (Delany et al., 2000; Bretillon et al., 2001). Oxidation of α -linolenic acid is greater in men than in women (Burdge et al., 2002; Burdge et al., 2003). Studies carried out in human adults showed low conversions of α -linolenic acid to EPA and DPA, demonstrating
In inflammatory reactions there are complex interactions of protein mediators (cytokines) and mediators derived from lipids. An important event in inflammation is superoxide production, in relation to microbicidal activity as well as tissue damage. We have studied interactions of lipid mediators with a cytokine mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) in stimulating superoxide production by human neutrophils for this reason and because it throws light on intracellular signals activating this response. Pretreatment of neutrophils with TNF markedly augmented the amount of superoxide produced in response to AA but not to either a 20 carbon saturated fattyacid, or the hydroxy- or hydroperoxy-derivatives of AA. Not only were other polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentanoic, docosahexaenoic, linolenic, linoleic acid) as effective as AA but so was the monounsaturated fattyacid, oleic acid. Indeed TNF primed the neutrophils for an increased response to a major mediator of inflammation, leukotriene B4, which is a product of AA metabolism via the lipoxygenase pathway. The data demonstrate that two major types of mediators generated during an inflammatory response have synergistic action on neutrophils in the generation of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, neutrophils primed with TNF and challenged with PGE2, a product of AA metabolism via the cyclooxygenase pathway, showed a reduced
Among herbal extracts, thyme has received great attention due to its antioxidant and antibacterial properties (Varel, 2002). The major components of thyme essential oils are thymol and carvacrol which have been shown to possess antioxidant properties (Aeschbach et al., 1994). Fennel is recommended for the total digestive system (Simon et al., 1984). The aroma and flavor components of the essential oils for fennel seeds consist of anethole, limonene, fenchone, estragole, safrole, alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, sabeinene, beta- myrcene, phellandrene, cis - ocimene, para-cymene, gamma-terpinene, camphor and several other volatile component as well as affixed oil (Charles et al., 1993). Supplementation of diet with thyme improved egg weight, egg mass, and hen-day-egg production but had no effect on egg qualitative traits (Abdel- Wareth, 2013). The use of mixed herbal essential oils in poultry feeding as a supplement to improve production is of recent interest (Abdel-Wareth et al., 2012; Olgun and Yildiz, 2014). In contrast, flaxseed has been shown to enrich omega-3 fattyacid levels in eggs of laying hens (Klatt, 1986; Scheideler and Froning, 1996). Flaxseed also reduces the severity of ovarian disease in laying hen (Aeschbach et al., 1994). It seems that supplementation of a diet containing flaxseed with thyme and fennel essential oil can improve egg production and egg quality in hens. Meanwhile, there is no report for interaction between flaxseed and herbal extract on laying hens performance. In spite of the vast amount of research papers published on herbal extract supplementation to broiler diets in the past decade (Alcicek et al., 2004; Hernández et al., 2004; Jamroz et al, 2005; Bölükbaşı et al., 2006), there is relatively little published data on laying hens (Botsoglou et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2005; Cabuk et al., 2006).