fatty acid profiles

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Transplastomic tobacco plants expressing a fatty acid desaturase gene exhibit altered fatty acid profiles and improved cold tolerance

Transplastomic tobacco plants expressing a fatty acid desaturase gene exhibit altered fatty acid profiles and improved cold tolerance

protoplasts. Incorporation of chloroplast antibiotic- insensitive point mutations in the transforming DNA was used to select transformants. The presence of the transcript and the D 9 desaturase protein in transplas- tomic plants was confirmed by northern and western blot analyses. In comparison with control plants, transplastomic plants showed altered fatty acid profiles and an increase in their unsaturation level both in leaves and seeds. The two transgenes produced comparable results. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of using plastid transformation to engineer lipid metabolic pathways in both vegetative and reproduc- tive tissues and suggest an increase of cold tolerance in transplastomic plants showing altered leaf fatty acid profiles. This is the first example of transplastomic plants expressing an agronomically relevant gene produced with the ‘‘binding-type’’ vectors, which do not contain a heterologous marker gene. In fact, the transplastomic plants expressing the S. commersonii gene contain only plant-derived sequences, a clear attraction from a public acceptability perspective.
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Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle.. Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, S.M.[r]

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Fatty Acid Profiles of Cottonseed Genotypes from the National Cotton Variety Trials

Fatty Acid Profiles of Cottonseed Genotypes from the National Cotton Variety Trials

Of the nine environments included in the study, the dry land fields of Bella Mina, AL, in 2006, and Florence, SC, in 2007, produced the lowest fiber yields. Oils from these two environments were char- acterized by some of the lowest levels of 18:2 and relatively high levels of saturated fatty acids when compared with oils produced in other environments (Table 3). Both environments exhibited drought and high temperature stress during the growing season, as reflected by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data for these areas and years (NOAA, Satellite and Information Service). Related to these trends, Stansbury et al. (1953) reported the iodine value of cottonseed oil (a measure of the degree of unsaturation) decreased with increased temperature and reduced rainfall, which was consistent with the compositional changes observed in these environ- ments. Cyclopropenoid acids also appeared to be re- duced in the seed from Bella Mina, AL, and Florence, SC (Fig. 2), which might indicate reduced activity of the enzymes associated with this part of the pathway. A similar effect of environment on fatty acid profiles is known to occur in soybeans. Specifically, increased temperature and reduced moisture have been reported to decrease the relative proportion of 18:2 and 18:3 in soybean oil (Dornbos and Mullen, 1992; Wolf et al., 1982). Relative to this observation, Cheesbrough (1989)
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Modifying fatty acid profiles through a new cytokinin-based plastid transformation system

Modifying fatty acid profiles through a new cytokinin-based plastid transformation system

To demonstrate proof of principle, two additional chloro- plast expression vectors, pP1016-KasIII (Figure 2a) and pPS59a-KasIII (Figure 2b), were designed to determine whether the ipt selection system may be used for selection of transplastomic plants without affecting the expression of transgenes within the integrated vector cassette or the resulting activity of the encoded protein. The kasIII gene encoding 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III was chosen as the transgene of interest as (i) fatty acid biosyn- thesis is catalyzed by a set of enzymes located in plastids in higher plants, (ii) kasIII is responsible for initiating both straight- and branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis (Li et al., 2005), and (iii) previous studies have shown that over-expression of KASIII results in altered fatty acid pro- files (Dehesh et al., 2001). Therefore, any changes in fatty acid profiles may be traced back due to the activity of the transgene rather than the selectable marker genes. The pP1016-KasIII vector, a modified version of the pP1016-con- trol vector, included an additional expression cassette containing a FLAG-tagged kasIII gene linked to the Prrn with the rbcL 5 0 UTR and the psbA 3 0 UTR (TpsbA) (a)
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Fatty acid profiles of Alaskan Arctic forage fishes: evidence of regional and temporal variation

Fatty acid profiles of Alaskan Arctic forage fishes: evidence of regional and temporal variation

1983, Weslawski et al. 1994, Dehn et al. 2007). However, in addition to predation pressure from higher trophic levels, forage fishes are subject to bottom-up controls by environmental conditions that affect primary production (Cury & Roy 1989, Bouchard & Fortier 2011, Crawford et al. 2012). In the Arctic, where temperatures are rising at as much as twice the rate of other regions (ACIA 2004), annual mean sea ice extent has been declining by about 4% per decade (IPCC 2013). Changes in thickness and timing/extent o f seasonal ice retreat are expected to alter patterns o f primary production (Harley et al. 2006, Grebmeier 2012), which could affect the quality and quantity o f available food sources for forage fishes (Cury et al. 2000, Chavez et al. 2011). Changes in food resources are likely to be reflected in biochemical composition o f fish tissues (Parrish et al. 2015), which may have cascading effects for their predators. This study examined inter- and intraspecific variation in lipid content and fatty acid profiles o f Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), Canadian Eelpout (Lycodespolaris), and Longear Eelpout (Lycodes seminudus) across multiple years in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, to explore how existing spatial and temporal differences in trophic conditions are manifested in forage fishes.
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Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women

Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women

Chesneau, B´ eatrice Morio To cite this version: Jean-Michel Chardigny, Corinne Malpuech-Brug` ere, Julien Mouriot, Carole Boue-Vaysse, Nicole Combe, et al.. Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nature Pub- lishing Group, 2010, <10.1038/ejcn.2010.73>.

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Comparison of Body Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Comparison of Body Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract In this study, body composition and fatty acid profiles were compared between farmed and wild rainbow trout; the latter escaped from farms to nature and fed natural food. The total crude protein, lipid, ash, dry matter and fatty acid composition of fish meat were determined. The results indicated that the wild rainbow trout contained a significant higher amount of crude protein, ash, dry matter, total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA);

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Changes in in Vitro Methane Production and Fatty Acid Profiles in Response to Cakalang Fish Oil Supplementation

Changes in in Vitro Methane Production and Fatty Acid Profiles in Response to Cakalang Fish Oil Supplementation

ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cakalang fish oil addition in ruminant feed on in vitro methane production and fatty acid profiles. This experiment consisted of four treat- ments which were R0 : feed composing of forage and concentrate at a ratio of 60% : 40% without cakalang fish oil (CFO) addition as control feed; R1: R0 added with CFO at 2.5%; R2: R0 added with CFO at 5%, and R3: R0 added with CFO at 7.5%. Fermentation with rumen fluid was done using the Hohenheim Gas Test (HGT); feeds were incubated at 39 o C for 72 hours. At the end of fermenta- tion, samples were obtained and methane production and fatty acid profiles were determined. The experiment was conducted in completely randomised design with four replications. Data were anal- ysed using analysis of variance and differences among treatment means were analysed using Duncan multiple range test. Results showed that CFO supplementation affected (P<0.05) methane production, protozoa numbers and NH 3 concentration; whereas the other parameters, i.e. VFA concentration, pH, and microbial protein were not affected. Some fatty acid profiles were influenced by treatments, such as palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic (P<0.05), while others, i.e. lauric and miristic were not affected. It is concluded that the best level of CFO supplementation is 5% as this level reduces methane production and increases unsaturated fatty acids without any negative effects on other vari- ables measured.
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Microalgal species selection for biodiesel production based on fuel properties derived from fatty acid profiles

Microalgal species selection for biodiesel production based on fuel properties derived from fatty acid profiles

Previous analyses without the C19:0 internal standard confirmed this fatty acid is not a constituent of the fatty profiles of the study species, and was therefore an appropriate internal standard recovery. 2.3. Calculation of Fuel Properties from Fatty Acid Profiles The focus of this work was to screen suitable microalgal species for biodiesel production using published, simple, reasonable and reliable methods to minimise cost and time. In this study, several important biodiesel properties (CN, IV, CFPP, υ, ρ and HHV) were calculated from the FAME composition. Fuel properties were calculated directly from FAME profiles [14,15,25,26]. In addition, CN was estimated using FAME profiles directly and using FAME-derived fuel properties SV and IV) [15], to investigate whether the two different approaches would yield different predictions of cetane values.
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Evaluation of Total Fatty Acid Profiles of Two Types of Low Fat Goat Milk Ice Creams

Evaluation of Total Fatty Acid Profiles of Two Types of Low Fat Goat Milk Ice Creams

Although many studies may have been conducted on fatty acid compositions of various types of cow and other species milk ice creams, very few scientific reports have been available on fatty acid profiles of goat milk ice cream products due probably to exotic and small scale food item as well as the lack of scientific research sup- ports and interests by government, industry and academia. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: 1) in- vestigate differences in profiles of total fatty acid compositions between two types of low-fat caprine ice creams made of 2% fat and whole goat milk; and 2) compare the effect of 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks frozen-storage at −18˚C on fatty acid compositions between the two types of low-fat goat milk ice creams.
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Spatio-temporal postharvest changes in texture and fatty acid profiles in
avocado fruit from different origins

Spatio-temporal postharvest changes in texture and fatty acid profiles in avocado fruit from different origins

The aim of the present study was to assess and discriminate between avocado cv. Hass fruit from three different origins (viz. Spain, Peru and Chile) on the basis of temporal and spatial changes in both texture and fatty acid profiles of fruit flesh. Texture of different horizontally-cut slices from individual fruit within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. Maximum load, elasticity and viscosity of fruit tissue was measured using an Instron 5542 universal testing machine fitted with either a 500 N or 5 N load cell. The same fruit slice was immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and freeze-dried prior to subsequent extraction, identification and determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profiles using gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The results were used to differentiate
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Mass Production of Lemna minor and Its Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles

Mass Production of Lemna minor and Its Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles

Chakrabarti et al. Production and Composition of L. minor INTRODUCTION The surface floating macrophyte duckweed Lemna is the largest genus of the family Lemnaceae. They are abundant in the tropical and subtropical countries; growing profusely in still, nutrient- rich small ponds, ditches, and swamps or in slowly moving water bodies. The entire plant body consists of metabolically active non-structural tissue (Wolverton and McDonald, 1980) and the low fiber content of the plant has a beneficial impact on digestibility when used in animal feed. Duckweed grows on water with relatively high levels of N, P, and K and concentrates the minerals and synthesizes protein. The reported presence of various essential (arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, tyrosine) and non- essential amino acids (FAO, 2001), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Yan et al., 2013), β-carotene, and xanthophylls has made Lemna spp. a potential feed source for livestock (Skillicorn et al., 1993;
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Seasonal Variations of Fatty Acid Profiles in the Muscle of Capoeta angorae

Seasonal Variations of Fatty Acid Profiles in the Muscle of Capoeta angorae

The levels of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were changed from 29.47% to 33.37% in female and from 25.92% to 32.08% in male and it was found that the seasonal differences were not statistically important (Tables 1 and 2).Researchers have reported that the amount of total MUFAs ranged from 12% to 14% in the fillet of Atlantic cod (Gruger et al., 1964). In our study, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) content was increased in the autumn, decreased at spring for both genders (Table 1 and 2). The levels of oleic acid (C18:1n9), primary MUFA in the muscles of the male and female C. angorae, were significantly dropped to minimum level in spring and increased to maximum in autumn in male only (Tables 1 and 2).It was informed that the MUFAs were mainly composed of oleic and palmitoleic acids in some fish (Martinez et al., 2012 and Rittenschober et al., 2013). Oleic and palmitoleic acids are also two specific fatty acids for freshwater fish and their amounts in freshwater fish were higher than that of sea fish (Bulut et al., 2012;
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Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

4 Institute of Biotechnology, Lvov National Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Lvov, Ukraine ABSTRACT: In this study the deposition of dietary CLA isomers in loin and hindleg meat, liver and fat, and the influence on performance and fatty acid (FA) profile were investigated in growing rabbits. CLA was supplied as synthetically produced oil at 5 and 10 g/kg diet for the whole fattening period (six weeks) or three weeks before the slaughter. CLA had no or limited effect on feed intake, growth, carcass traits and composition of meat. Treat- ment with CLA increased the proportion of saturated FA at the expense of monounsaturated FA in meat and liver.
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Changes of fatty acid profiles in fillets of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) during frozen storage

Changes of fatty acid profiles in fillets of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) during frozen storage

properties (Lugasi et al., 2007). Cobia contains an acceptable amount of fat (medium fat) and is among the most demanded marine species by market worldwide. At present, research on cobia mainly concentrates on breeding, culture, disease prevention and feed (Liu et al., 2009). There is no information on the fatty acids and proximate compositions of Cobia from Iran. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the values of lipid, protein, moisture, ash content of Cobias and monitoring the changes in fatty acids composition during frozen storage in -18°C for six months and to evaluate their nutritional value to provide scientific data for food processing and pharmaceuticals.
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A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

health benefits of CLA and its biochemistry will be detailed later. The important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in conventional beef are linoleic acid (C18:2), alpha-linole- nic acid (C18:3), described as the essential FAs, and the long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic acid (C20:4), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), docosanpetaenoic acid (C22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) [38]. The significance of nutrition on fatty acid composition is clearly demonstrated when profiles are examined by omega 6 (n-6) and omega 3 (n-3) families. Table 2 shows no significant change to the overall concentration of n-6 FAs between feeding regimens, although grass- fed beef consistently shows a higher concentrations of n-3 FAs as compared to grain-fed contemporaries, creat- ing a more favorable n-6:n-3 ratio. There are a number of studies that report positive effects of improved n-3 intake on CVD and other health related issues discussed in more detail in the next section.
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Changes of fatty acid profiles in fillets of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) during frozen storage

Changes of fatty acid profiles in fillets of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) during frozen storage

Cobia, with the scientific name of Rachycentron Canadum (Nelson, 2006) is a migratory pelagic species that is found worldwide in tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate waters except for the eastern Pacific Ocean (Mach, 2009). In marine aquaculture, Cobia is considered as a remarkable candidate species due to its fast growth, good fillet quality and high commercial prices. Cobia can reach the weight of 5 – 6 kg within one year and 8 – 10 kg in 16 months. The culture of cobia will presumably become an emerging aquaculture industry in the near future because of the fish’s rapid growth and high quality flesh (Liu et al., 2004). Cobia has high nutritional and medicinal value due to its balanced composition of essential amino acids, its richness in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and its comprehensive supply of microelements (Liu et al., 2009). Marine lipids have a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA; 22:6n-3) (Pazos et al., 2005; Bayir et al., 2006; khan et al., 2006). There is strong evidence that consumption of fish is favorable to human health (Bayir et al., 2006). It is generally recognized that PUFA composition may vary among fish species. Degradation of PUFA by auto- oxidation during storage and the processing of fish oils and fatty fish easily lead to the formation of volatiles associated with rancidity (Pazos et al., 2005). For this reason, freezing and frozen storage have largely been employed to retain fish sensory and nutritional
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Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry

Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry

ABSTRACT Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry was used to esti- mate the fatty acid (FA) composition in cow, ewe, and goat milk. The objectives were to compare different statistical approaches with wavelength selection to predict the milk FA composition from MIR spectra, and to develop equations for FA in cow, goat, and ewe milk. In total, a set of 349 cow milk samples, 200 ewe milk samples, and 332 goat milk samples were both analyzed by MIR and by gas chromatography, the ref- erence method. A broad FA variability was ensured by using milk from different breeds and feeding systems.
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Influence of Fatty Acid Profiles during Supercritical  Transesterification of Conventional and Non Conventional Feedstocks: A Review

Influence of Fatty Acid Profiles during Supercritical Transesterification of Conventional and Non Conventional Feedstocks: A Review

been well established; however, the main issue in con- verting non-edible oil into biodiesel is always associated with the high free fatty acid content. A two-step trans- esterification process has been shown to function well in the production of biodiesel from feedstocks with high FFA content. In the initial step, the free fatty acid content of oil is reduced by an acid-catalyzed esterification proc- ess; thereafter, during the second step, an alkaline-cata- lyzed process is used to convert the pre-treated oil to methyl esters and glycerol. As noted, many researchers have found two step acid-catalyzed esterification very effective for the transesterification of feedstocks pos- sessing high FFA content, with the yield of biodiesel in the overall process exceeding 90% [7,20,34,35].
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Impact of crude protein content in silage and concentrate on protein and fatty acid profiles in bovine milk

Impact of crude protein content in silage and concentrate on protein and fatty acid profiles in bovine milk

CONCLUSION The results of this study demonstrate that it is difficult to obtain responses to dietary changes in milk protein content based on protein-rich feed sup- plements. It also appears that effects on the protein composition in milk cannot be obtained by feeding silages with different proportions of crude protein with associated differences in red clover content. For fatty acids, only the content of ALA in milk FA was significantly higher by feeding silage with high clover content. Increased ALA and CLA concentrations in the milk FA were associated with feeding regimes involving a protein-rich concentrate supplement and not with high-quality silage containing a high proportion of legumes such as clover.
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