Fatty acids: Physical properties

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18_Lipids.pdf

18_Lipids.pdf

• Short chain fatty acids are sparingly soluble because of carboxylic acid polar group.. • Physical properties such as melting point depends on the number of C atoms and degree unsatur[r]

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IMPROVING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPE BIOFUELS

IMPROVING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPE BIOFUELS

FAME biofuels have certain disadvantages. The major ones include the certain amount glyc- erine by-product that is produced in conventional process of biodiesel production. In STING pro- cess [2] the produce does not exist and the process efficiency increases (by 10-12%). Biodiesel pro- duced in Simultaneous Reaction of Transesterifi- cation and. Cracking (STING) consists of mainly methyl esters of fatty acids, diacylglycerols and monoacylglycerols. The density of STING fuel is similar to FAME density, however, they have slightly better viscosity conditions [3]

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Properties of Apricot Kernel and Oils as Fruit Juice Processing Waste

Properties of Apricot Kernel and Oils as Fruit Juice Processing Waste

The accurate quantification of these analyses has very important applications for the nutrition sciences, because fatty acids, protein, oil and mineral contents in particular seed have a very important effect on health. These results of the experiment presented have shown that apricot cul- tivars have some distinctive chemical and physical prop- erties, fatty acid and mineral content profiles. Kernels in apricot varieties can be a good source oil due to their abundance in the kernels and their high oil content. Such utilization of apricot fruits processing wastes could pro- vide extra income and at the same time help minimize a waste disposal problem. The mineral contents of apricot cultivar kernels collected from Malatya province of Tur- key were established by ICP-AES. The contents of most minerals such as Ca, K, Mg and P are at adequate levels. Mineral elements were found to vary widely depending on different apricot kernels. Apricot kernels were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements. In addition, it is apparent that apricot kernels are good sources of micro-and macro minerals, and consumed as a food ingredient to provide the human nutrient.
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“Increasing Omega 6, Omega 9 Fatty Acids and Oil Contents in Black Sesame Seed by Biofertilizer and Micronutrients Application” by Zeinab A. Salama, Mohamed A Youssef, Hanan A Taie, Farouk K El-Baz, Egypt.

“Increasing Omega 6, Omega 9 Fatty Acids and Oil Contents in Black Sesame Seed by Biofertilizer and Micronutrients Application” by Zeinab A. Salama, Mohamed A Youssef, Hanan A Taie, Farouk K El-Baz, Egypt.

polyunsaturated fatty acids. 8,11,12 Lignans are a large class of secondary metabolites in plants, with numerous biological effects. 13 It has been found that sesame seeds oil contain oleic (Omega 9), linolenic (Omega 3) and arachidonic acids but linoleic acid is predominant and plays an important role in the metabolic system. 14,3 Recent awareness has been offered to reduce pollution practices in sustainable agriculture. One of the ways to decrease soil pollution is the use of bio-stimulants compounds. 15 Bio fertilizers and humic compounds have beneficial return to increase population of soil microorganisms, especially in the surface layer of root rhizosphere, that create substances which stimulate plant growth. 16 Further, combination between both types is the most imperative factors needed to diminish agricultural chemicals, protect the air, soil and water from pollution as well as acquiring high yield quality.
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Fatty acids in berry lipids of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., subspecies carpatica) cultivars grown in Romania

Fatty acids in berry lipids of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., subspecies carpatica) cultivars grown in Romania

The dominating fatty acids in berry pulp/peel oils were palmitic (16:0) (23-40%), oleic (18:1n-9) (20-53%) and palmitoleic (16:1n-7) (11-27%). Small or trace amounts of vaccenic (18:1n-7), linoleic(18:2n-6), α-linolenic (18:3n-3), stearic (18:0), myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic (15:0), cis-7 hexadecenoic (16:1n-9), margaric (17:0) and two long chain fatty acids, arachidic (20:0) and eicose- noic (20:1n-9) acids were observed in all analyzed soft part oils. In two cultivars, C1 and C2, the proportions of oleic acid (32.76% for C1 and 53.08% for C2) exceeded that of the palmitoleic acid (19.53% for C1 and 11.05% for C2). From these results can be concluded that MUFAs were the dominant fatty acid classes (53-70%), followed by SFAs (26-41%) and PUFAs (3-7%) (Table 2). The PUFA/SFA ratios were close to zero, with a signi- ficantly high value (0.17) (p < 0.05) in pulp/peel oil of C6. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between n-6/n-3 ratios of analyzed berry pulp/ peel oils, with the highest value in cultivar C4 (7.67) and the lowest in C6 (1.09), respectively (Table 2).
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The effect of feeding diets markedly differing in the proportion of grass and maize silages on bovine milk fat composition

The effect of feeding diets markedly differing in the proportion of grass and maize silages on bovine milk fat composition

The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in human nutri- tion should be maximally 5:1 (WHO/FAO, 2003). While the intake of n-6 fatty acids from plant oils was sufficient and even exceeded, dietary sources of n-3 acids were usually limited. In the tested milk fat the ratio values were 3.18 and 3.53 (P < 0.05) after feeding the diets based on grass silage and maize silage, respectively (Figure 1). Literature data of the ratio in milk fat vary more widely, e.g. between 1.16 and 4.37 (Komprda et al., 2000; Collomb et al., 2004). However, it should be taken into considera- tion that the number of identified n-3 and n-6 fatty acids was different in different papers. For instance, Leiber et al. (2005) used the contents of only three n-6 and four n-3 acids for the ratio calculation, while Collomb et al. (2004) used nine and seven acids, respectively.
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Effect of Debittering Process on Characterization of Egyptian Lupine Seeds Oil
              (Lupinus albus)

Effect of Debittering Process on Characterization of Egyptian Lupine Seeds Oil (Lupinus albus)

The loss of dry matter from the seeds during the debittering process was ~ 23 g/100 g. This loss was a result of the loss of fiber (~ 5 g/100 g), which occurred because of separation of the softened husks and soluble material (~18 g/100 g) during the debittering process. The detached husks could be observed as small particles in all the changes of extraction liquid during debittering process. In addition, the extraction liquids became yellowish in color because of the presence of pigments. Jimenez-Martinez et al. (2001) have reported that during the process of debittering, 120–270 g/kg of solids were lost, which depended on the specific treatment that was used. The other changes in the chemical properties of the seeds, which depended on the processing, are shown in Table (1). Dry matter was decreased by the introduction of water into the seeds and the loss of soluble components and detached husks. During the debittering process, the components of the seeds were modified at different rates. The protein and starch contents of seeds increased by 7.70 and 2.02 g/100 g; respectively. These increases may have been caused by the fact that oligosaccharides, minerals, alkaloids, flavonoids and fiber were removed when the debittering liquid was changed. The ash content of the seeds decreased as a result of the decrease in crude fiber content and the removal of minerals by the extraction process. The common decrease in fat content that was observed during debittering process may have been caused by removal of the lipid-rich embryo together with the detached husks.
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AN OVERVIEW ON NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF VEGETARIAN AND NON-VEGETARIAN DIET

AN OVERVIEW ON NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF VEGETARIAN AND NON-VEGETARIAN DIET

Fats: The major sources of animal fats are ghee, butter, milk, cheese, eggs, and fat of meat and fish. Animal fats with few exceptions like cod liver oil and sardine oil are mostly saturated fats. Animal foods like butter, ghee, whole milk cream, fatty cheese and fatty meats provide cholesterol and high amount of saturated fatty acids, and are natural source of trans-fatty acids. Lean meats have a fairly high content of long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Poultry meat contains less fat and cholesterol and have high amount of PUFA including long chain PUFA. Eggs have high cholesterol but are good source of linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA}. Fish has less fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol but are good source of PUFAs. A diet, rich in fat, can pose a threat to human health by encouraging obesity. In fat people, adipose tissue may increase upto 30 per cent. High fat intake (i.e., dietary fat representing. 40 per cent or over of the energy supply and containing a high proportion of saturated fats) has been identified as a major risk factor for CHD. In recent years, there has been some evidence that diets high in fat increase the risk of colon cancer and breast cancer. [23]
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Microalgae isolation and selection for prospective biodiesel production

Microalgae isolation and selection for prospective biodiesel production

freshwater green alga Botryococcus braunii can produce oil (including hydrocarbons) up to 86% of its dry cell weight [44]. This species is being considered as a possible source for biodiesel production in the near future [4], but has the major disadvantage of slow growth rates and a low tolerance for contamination. As a result, lipid productivities (lipid production per area or volume) of other microalgae, such as Nannochloropsis, Chlorella, Tetraselmis and Pavlova sp. are typically much higher [39,45]. Lipid productivity can be dramatically increased by external application of stress factors and is considered a survival strategy for microalgae under adverse conditions. Most notably these include nutrient deprivation, exposure to chemicals, changes in salinity, temperature, pH and/or irradiation [4,39,46]. The composition of fatty acids-containing lipids differs widely among species, but, as mentioned above, generally includes structural unsaturated polar lipids, as well as neutral storage lipids, mostly in the form of TAG. Significant fatty acids used for biodiesel include saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) containing 14–18 carbon molecules, such as C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 fatty acids [41]. According to European requirements for biodiesel standards, some fatty acids should be excluded because of undesirable properties. For instance, methyl linolenate and fatty acid methyl esters with more than four double bonds are limited to 12% due to oxidation properties [47].
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Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed) corelated with fatty acids content

Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed) corelated with fatty acids content

Determination of fatty acids of rabbit meat occurred in Meat Technology Laboratory, belonging to the Institute of Animal Science and Technology of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain. This paper is part of a broader study aimed to comparative characterization of rabbit meat (Flemish Belgian breed) and hares meat (Lepus Europaeus Pallas). Biological material consisted of a total of 42 rabbits (17 females and 15 males), on which were collected following muscle groups: Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Triceps brachii. The rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg being at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months). They were fed with fodder and water restrictions.
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Nutritional Composition of Fatty Acids and Amino Acids of the Fermented Scomberomorus tritor in Benin

Nutritional Composition of Fatty Acids and Amino Acids of the Fermented Scomberomorus tritor in Benin

Abstract: In Benin fermented fish (lanhouin) are often considered as food reserved for poor people, so these are commodities considered as by-products of fishing. To get the population to consider fermented fish as first choice food products, we decided to determine the fatty acid and amino acid composition of fermented Scomberomorus tritor. For this, after fermentation and drying of Scomberomorus tritor, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC / MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used as methods of analysis. The results of these analyzes revealed thirty-five (35) fatty acids, including fifteen (15) saturated fatty acids (SFA), nine (09) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eleven (11) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and seventeen (17)) amino acids including nine (09) non-essential amino acids and eight (08) essential amino acids counted in fermented Scomberomorus tritor. Therefore, these results show a very large richness in nutrients (fatty acids and amino acids) of the fermented Scomberomorus tritor.
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Dietary intakes and food sources of omega 6 and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women living in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey Un

Dietary intakes and food sources of omega 6 and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women living in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

Both LA and ALA are essential fatty acids (EFA) as the human body is not capable of synthesising them endogenously, and therefore they must be obtained in the diet (Burdge & Calder, 2006; Ratnayake & Galli, 2009). These EFA are mostly required for the synthesis of LC-PUFAs, which are important for normal growth, development and physiological functioning of the human body (Cetin, Alvino, & Cardellicchio, 2009; Dutta-Roy, 2000; Jordan, 2010; Le, Meisel, de Meijer, Gura, & Puder, 2009). Although, metabolic adaptations that occur during pregnancy can upregulate maternal ability to convert EFA into LC-PUFAs (Giltay, Gooren, Toorians, Katan, & Zock, 2004), this pathway is limited and may be insufficient to make up for the increased demands imposed by fetal growth and development (Burdge, 2006). In addition, the developing fetus is unable to synthesise LC-PUFAs because of their immature and most likely inactive pathways, therefore the fetus is dependent on maternal LC-PUFA supplies (Koletzko et al., 2008). Thus, LC-PUFAs, particularly DHA and AA, are considered conditionally essential during pregnancy and for this reason they must be obtained from dietary sources (Cunnane, 2000).
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Fatty acid content and composition in edible Ruspolia differens feeding on mixtures of natural food plants

Fatty acid content and composition in edible Ruspolia differens feeding on mixtures of natural food plants

Diversifying natural plant diets (inflorescences of grasses) cannot alter the content and compositions of the most common fatty acids in R. differens when reared through- out the entire life-cycle (although the composition of rare fatty acids was altered). The rationale for this might be that when R. differens feed on the natural diet, they pro- duce fatty acids through de novo biosynthesis. However, the composition of fatty acids in the wild-harvested sixth instar nymphs of R. differens differed significantly when reared for 2  weeks on different mixtures of its natural plants (inflorescences of grasses) [10]. The reason why differences in fatty acid content and composition did not emerge here, when R. differens are reared throughout their life-cycle, could be due to the conversion of accu- mulated fatty acids to other biosynthetic precursors and utilization for other body requirements during insect development [11, 12]. Linoleic and α-linolenic acids, for example, provide the building blocks for making arachi- donic acid and eicosanoids [13]. Eicosanoids, though in limited proportions might be an indication of its role in immune defensive mechanisms and reproduction of R. differens, as for various insect species [12–14]. The fatty acid profiles in the tissues of insects can change drasti- cally after neonate nymphs’ metamorphosise through developmental stages into maturity [14].
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The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome/diabetes population

The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome/diabetes population

To date, randomized controlled and prospective popula- tion-based trials [32-35] that have assessed the impact of n-3 PUFAs on T2D and insulin sensitivity have provided inconsistent results regarding their effectiveness in pre- venting or treating T2D. More recent studies suggests that when an objective biomarker, such as levels of circulating LcPUFAs, are used as a measure of exposure (as opposed to dietary recall instruments), serum LcPUFAs are associ- ated with long-term lower risk of T2D [36]. Given the uncertainty around this question and the fact that a very limited number of studies have examined the potential impact of BO supplementation in humans, we carried out a randomized, single blind, parallel intervention study to Table 2 Impact of dietary oil supplements on serum fatty acid
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Bone quality characteristics and performance in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with organic acids

Bone quality characteristics and performance in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with organic acids

In the present study, diet supplementation with SCFA had a positive effect on Ca retention, which was a likely reason for the improved femur quality observed in this experiment. Higher retention of Ca as an effect of the addition of SCFA to the diet was also observed in our previous experiment with laying hens (Świątkiewicz et al., 2010c). Liem et al. (2008) found that supplementation of a P-deficient broiler diet with citric, malic and especially fumaric acid numerically increased Ca and P retention, but this effect was only confirmed statistically for P. Observations corresponding to our results were made by Abdel-Fattah et al. (2008), who reported that chicks fed a diet supplemented with organic acids had a significantly higher Ca and P blood concentration. The authors attributed this to the lowering of gut pH and the increase in the absorp- tion of these macroelements.
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Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project

Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project

These associations could mean that the physiological changes that occur when this kind of fatty acid is con- sumed could influence mostly the mental quality of life and therefore the self perception of “well being”. So, the participants with the highest intake would perceive themselves more tire and worn out, with social and role disability due to emotional problems, and with severe limiting pain than the participants with the lowest TFA intake. Although these are perceived health measures rather than biological measures, self-related heath status has been shown to be a powerful predictor of mortality at long term [2].
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Is the Fatty Acids Profile in Blood a Good Predictor of Liver Changes? Correlation of Fatty Acids Profile with Fatty Acids Content in the Liver

Is the Fatty Acids Profile in Blood a Good Predictor of Liver Changes? Correlation of Fatty Acids Profile with Fatty Acids Content in the Liver

secretion from the liver [6]. The only reference method for the evaluation of fatty liver degree is histopathological testing via a liver biopsy. However, because the test is invasive, a complications exists. Thus, to diagnose NAFLD, ultrasonography is often performed combined with a panel of biochemical blood parameters. Unfortunately, this method does not provide a conclusive diagnosis, especially in the case of differentiating between NAFLD and NASH [7]. Excessive change in lipid pathways is also responsible for the progression from simple steatosis to NASH; therefore, liver and blood lipidomic signatures are good indicators of NAFLD progression [2,8]. The profile of fatty acids present in human blood is the result of lipids supplied with diet, lipolytic activity of adipose tissue, and fatty acid biosynthesis [9]. Studies have shown that lipids in plasma/serum are sensitive indicators of short-term changes connected with daily food intake, but erythrocytes/platelets can reflect long-term changes [10]. Therefore, the evaluation of metabolic changes should be estimated according to erythrocyte/platelet analysis [11]. Because the liver is the centre of lipid changes, fatty acids profiling should reflect the pathological changes within this organ. No data have yet reported a correlation between the profile of fatty acids, liver, and blood. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between the fatty acids profile of blood pallets (containing erythrocytes and platelets) and the liver.
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Effect of high carbohydrate diet on elongase and desaturase activity and accompanying gene expression in rat’s liver

Effect of high carbohydrate diet on elongase and desaturase activity and accompanying gene expression in rat’s liver

Diets enriched in carbohydrates are well established to alter FA metabolism and increase TG accumulation [4]. In our study, we observed the active DNL and the influence of the HiCHO diet on increased expression of all studied enzymes resulting in increased produc- tion of MUFAs. The most important changes concern metabolism of 16:0 and 18:0 as a dominant products of DNL [30]. Both FAs are subjects to elongation or de- saturation processes [33]. On the basis of our observa- tion, the desaturation is a main process of 16:0 and 18:0 metabolism in liver of rat fed HiCHO diet because of a higher expression of mRNA for Scd1 (Fig. 2), a higher content of 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n −9 (Fig. 4), and a higher activity of desaturases as indexes for Scd1 (C16) and Scd1 (C18) (Tab. 2) as compared to control group. The index for Scd1 (C16) is proposed as an indirect biomarker of DNL [30]. Scd 1 is the main isoform in MUFAs synthesis with 16:0 and 18:0 as main sub- strates [34]. As Scd1 plays a crucial role in this synthe- sis, the role of Scd2 remains unclear. Our findings indicate that 16:0 and 18:0 metabolism is directed to MUFAs synthesis as 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9, respect- ively, that are main components of TG and PL. Espe- cially, 18:1 n-9 is the preferred substrate for TG storage of excess FAs [4]. In our study, it was observed that in HiCHO group, liver tissues contain statistically more MUFAs (with prevalence 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 fatty acids; Figs. 3 and 4) and less PUFAs than control. The study by Wang et al. [1] indicates that 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2 n-6 acids represent the major fatty acids and 16:1 n-7 is an end product of DNL and Scd. The results from our study (Fig. 4) are consistent with the results obtained by Wang et al. [1]. The last but not the least, in our study, serum level of TG was higher in HiCHO than in control (Fig. 5) that may indicate that newly synthesized FAs as TG incorpo- rated into lipoproteins were released to plasma.
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Air Frying a New Technique for Produce of Healthy Fried Potato Strips

Air Frying a New Technique for Produce of Healthy Fried Potato Strips

Changes in some physico-chemical properties of oil extracted from fried potato strips: Results Figure (2) presents that the changes in some physico-chemical properties during traditional and air frying processes. The refractive index at 25ºC decreased from 1.4738 to 1.4731 for traditional frying and from 1.4738 to 1.4734 for air- frying respectively. The free fatty acid (FFA) content increased from 0.09% to 0.22% for traditional frying and from 0.09% to 0.12% for air-frying. It has been suggested that production of FFA was the best indicate of fat deterioration during frying and the presence of FFA could be used to monitor the extent of oil abused [36].
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The effect of western diet on mice brain lipid composition

The effect of western diet on mice brain lipid composition

Tissue samples were fractionated according to two pro- cedures, which differed with regards to collected lipid fractions. Procedure I, described by Kaluzny et al. [27], yielded free fatty acids (FFA), polar lipids/phospholipids (PL) and acylglycerols (AG). Briefly, 2 mg of tissue extracts prepared with Folch et al. [26] method were dissolved in chloroform and loaded on aminopropyl car- tridges (Strata® NH2 500 mg, Phenomenex®) precondi- tioned with 4 mL of n-hexane. Next, the lipids were eluted as follows: 6 mL chloroform:isopropanol (2:1, v/v) - neutral lipids (NL), 6 mL diethyl ether:acetic acid (98:2, v/v) – FFA, 6 mL methanol – PL. These fractions were saved and evaporated to dryness. NL were then reconsti- tuted in n-hexane and loaded on secondary aminopropyl cartridge as described above. Subsequently, the column was eluted with 6 mL n-hexane - cholesteryl esters, discarded, 9 mL diethyl ether:methylene chloride:n-hex- ane (1:10:89, v/v/v) – triacylglycerols (TAG), 18 mL ethyl acetate:n-hexane (5:95, v/v) – cholesterol, discarded, 6 mL ethyl acetate:n-hexane (15:85, v/v) – diacylglycerols (DAG) and 6 mL chloroform:methanol (2:2, v/v) – monoacylglycerols (MAG). The acylglycerols (AG) frac- tions were than combined and dried under nitrogen stream.
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