The major cause of poor livestock productivity in tropical regions of the world is inadequate nu- trition. The shortage of feed in most developing countries and the increasing cost of feed consti- tuents entail that there is a call for to improvement feed utilization strategies in developing coun- tries. Animal feeds and feeding practices can be enhanced by biotechnology to develop better an- imal nutrition packages in smallholder and commercial production systems as well as to reduce environmental waste. Roughages are the major diets of farm animals, particularly ruminants in the tropics; hence, improving the nutritive value of such kind of feed is very important for best uti- lization. Among application of biotechnology, roughage improvement using a non-toxic fungus has been practiced in many countries. The white rot fungi have been used especially because of their ability to delignify the plant material. The other application of biotechnology is to produce geneti- cally modified fodder crops of vast benefits to consumers as well as environment like that of food crops. Another area of nutritional biotechnology is the successful attempt in the use of genetically modified micro organisms to enhance rumen fermentation and thereby increase nutrient availa- bility to the host animal. The ultimate goal of using biotechnology in animal feeds and feeding sys- tems is then to improve the plane of nutrition through the use of enzymes to improve the availa- bility of from feed and to reduce the wastage of the feed. Though application of biotechnology has various opportunities, it is not easily expanded due to prevailing environmental and social con- straints of developing countries in the tropics.
The body weight, feed intake, DMI, and methane production of different animal are solely dependent on sex, age, breed, variety, feedstuffs, feeding management, etc. The feeding management and availability of feeds vary among different areas. Dairy animals are generally fed athigher plane of nutrition than non-dairy animals. Only 70% of the total population of young animals of cattle and buffaloes (in the age group of 0.5-1.0yr) was considered for methane emission, as methane is not produced in young calves (0-3months) due to the non- functioning other men. Kids and lambs (0-2 months old) were also taken as non-methane producing animals. However, the total population of other categories of livestock was taken for methane estimation.
Sufficient quantities of A. nilotica subsp. tomentosa and A. mellifera leaves were collected during January 2011from different sites within Khartoum state (Al. Sunut 'Acacia nilotica' forest and the National Botanical Garden). The samples were dried in shade and transferred to the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum-Shambat for proximate analysis and In vitro digestibility trials. Kjeldahl Method was used to determine the total nitrogen content and then the crude protein by multiplying with a factor ( 6.25 ). The total fibre in fibrous feed was determined using the nutral detergent procedure. The NDF includes cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as major components. The acid detergent fibre is a rapid method for determmination of lignocellulose in feed stuffs. This method is also a preparatory step for lignin determination. Subsequently, hemicellulose and cellulose were determined by difference between NDF and ADF, ADF and ADL resprctively. ADL is a continuation of ADF analysis. Cellulose % was calculated as ADF-ADL.
feeds is presented in Table 1. The feeding and drinking area complied with the recommenda- tions for the technology of rearing Ross 308 and Cobb 500 hybrids. Intake of feed and access to potable water was ad libitum. The health of the animals was continuously monitored. At the end of fattening on day 40, 20 cocks and 20 hens of the Ross hybrid were selected at random, with the same numbers of chickens of both sexes selected from the Cobb hybrid. After 24 h of fasting, the selected chickens were killed and their whole bod- ies, including feathers, were individually analyzed. Laboratory methods. The complete compound feeds (BR 1 , BR 2 , and BR 3 ) were analyzed for their essential nutrient content according to AOAC methods (2003). The whole body of the chicken, in- cluding feathers, was homogenized in a cutting ma- chine, and the homogenized material was weighed and dried. The DM of the homogenized material was determined by drying at 105°C and weighing. The nitrogen content was then determined using the Kjeldahl method on a Buchi analyzer (Centec automatika s.r.o., Prague, Czech Republic) and the CP contents were calculated by multiplying the nitrogen value by a coefficient of 6.25. The
We will assess economic status using a weighted wealth index. The index incorporates household durable assets ownership, such as owning a paraffin lamp, television, radio, telephone, flat iron, refrigerator, bicycle, motor car, farm and having electricity; housing and dwelling characteristics including main floor materials, house ownership, fuel for lighting and cooking, type of toilet, source of water, feeding characteristics, and household food satisfaction [2,28]. We will construct dichotomous variables for these items and carry out factor analysis using principle component analysis to reduce such vari- ables into ones that will load as factor 1, which describe the socioeconomic position of the study population. We will use factor loadings as item weights, and sum them to yield the wealth index for each household [47-49]. We will divide the total weighted wealth index score into quartiles to designate levels of economic status.
Possible entry of heavy metals in soils include animal manures sewage sludge inorganic fertilizers and atmospheric deposition  transfer of trace metals from the agricultural soils and farming industrial environment, use of huge amount precipitation and gas absorption methods . These toxic metals from various sources gradually taken up by plants and transferred to food chain, and accumulation of heavy metals in plants depends on nature of soil, type of plants and bioavailability of metals to uptake in soil - system .
Actions set out in Commission Decision 2009/375/EC of 8 May 2009 ‘on the financing of a working programme for 2009 on training tools in the field of food safety, animal health, animal welfare and plant health’ aimed to develop, organise and deliver training courses and workshops or seminars in the EU and beyond in order to ensure that personnel performing official controls are adequately trained.
12 Read more
Increase in the intake of iron rich foods was due to the nutrition education that the caregivers in the intervention group received. Faleiros et al., (2016) stated that intakes of iron were lower by 16% among infants of 6-12 months than children of 13-36 months in an observational study in Brazilian Well Child Clinic. Prieto-Patron et al., (2017) revealed the association between complementary foods and haemoglobin concentration among Indian infants. The author stated that there was a positive association between the infants’ haemoglobin concentration and fortified baby foods, breast millk and infant formula as well as fruits and vegetables to a lesser extent on the contrary to porridge or gruel. Domellõf et al., (2014) revealed that Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency world-wide and young children are the special risk group because their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements.
171 Read more
This research work has comprehensively investigated the proximate composition, Ash and Moisture properties of banana bract, which is considered as a by-product of banana cultivation. The analysis of banana bract revealed their considerable Ash and Moisture properties and nutritional value. Banana bract powder was found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high mineral content. The plantain wastes were rich in carbohydrates and ash and can serve as basal materials or components of animal feed. The
of the mothers considered colostrum as dirty; others believed that breastfeeding while engaging in extra marital affairs was a bad omen or a curse; fear of the evil eye (malevolent glare that is believed to be a curse associated with witchcraft) when breastfeeding in public while others associated breastfeeding with sagging breasts. On the other hand, some believed that breastfeeding was associated with intellectual develop- ment and good health of the infant. 32 In a study conducted in Kisumu, maternal knowledge of traditional and cultural practices surrounding exclusive breastfeeding was associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices. 33 A study conducted in Meru, reported that cultural infant feeding practices such as giving of pre and post lacteal feeds were barriers for exclusive breastfeeding. 19 The findings above demons-trate that our socio-cultural practices and beliefs play a significant role in determining infant and young child feeding practices.
Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth, health, and development of children to their full potential. 1 Complementary feeding process starts when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast milk. The age group for complementary feeding is 6 to 24 months of age, even though breastfeeding may continue beyond two years. 2 Complementary foods need to be nutritionally adequate,
Caregivers’ nutrition education can help to clear cul- tural and tradition-based misconceptions and improve their general nutrition knowledge . Feeding practices can thus be improved if knowledgeable health workers treat and counsel them on proper feeding practices and monitor their progress closely . Nutritionists and di- eticians can, of course, perform such counseling when they are available [20-22]. However, health workers equipped with such specialized skills may not be in suffi- cient supply for routine care in many developing coun- tries [23,24], leaving health workers who have only general nutrition knowledge to provide such care. Med- ical doctors, nurses, midwives, and midlevel providers are not always trained to perform such tasks and may not have adequate or practical knowledge to counsel and treat undernutrition . Nutrition training for these cadres can help to bridge such knowledge gaps.
14 Read more
Generally, the dominant village bird production system in Ethiopia is mainly scavenging type. There is no purposeful feeding of chickens under the village conditions in Ethiopia and scavenging is almost the only source of diet (Dessie and Oogle, 2000). This system is the major feed resource in extensive village chicken production system. Various types of locally available feed resources are reported including cereal grains dominantly maize and sorghum followed by wheat, rice, plant materials, worms, insects, grass, vegetables the amount of each being dependant on seasons of the year and the quantity and availability of the resources at the household level. However, the primary use of these cereal crops was for human consumption (Fisseha, 2009). Therefore, there is competition with human so, that made high shortage of feed for the poultry production. Village chickens are also supplemented with wheat bran and food leftovers or kitchen wastes like boiled enset and baked enset, kitchen wastes and bone meal, bread, injera, parts of vegetables and fruits, leaves of green crops/grasses. Thus, the smallholder chicken production goes eco-friendly because they can convert insects and household leftovers to valuable cheap and quality animal protein to the family.
The different housing systems are proposed in the dairy management practices for clean and sanitary conditions to the dairy cattle to prevent skin diseases and other contagious diseases and to provide better aeration and better environmental conditions for the cattle. In the present study an attempt was made to know the type of housing system adoption by the milk producers for their cattle. The results were depicted in the Table 10. The Table 10 reveals that 33.33 percent of members adoption cow house system, 58.33 percent adoption milking house system and 8.33 percent of members adoption open air system for their cattle. Whereas 55 percent of non- members adopted cow house system, 27.5 percent adopted milk house system, and 17.5 percent adoption open air system for their cattle. When we analyze the different animal husbandry practices and its adoption practices by the members and non-members in the above tables. In may be concluded that the adoption of different animal husbandry practices were found to be high among the members of the Dairy cooperatives than the non-members. This may be due to provision of veterinary services, supply of concentrate feed mixtures, improved fodder seeds at subsidized rates in proper time and also due to demonstration classes conducted to the members of societies by Sri Visakha Dairy.
A total of 15 infants with simple gastroschisis were included in the retrospective audit. Ten (66.6%) had a primary repair and five (44.4%) had a staged repair with a silo. Table 5 shows the demographic details and differ- ences in feeding milestones between the groups. Gesta- tional age and birth weight were similar for both groups. Median LOS for infants with a primary repair was shorter compared infants with a staged repair. Infants who had a staged repair took on average 10 days longer to commence feeds post-operatively, longer for their first suck feed, to achieve full enteral feeds and longer to achieve full suck feeds. Once enteral feeds were com- menced the time taken to establish full enteral feeds were similar in both groups.
Respondents made use of used oil jerry can cut, wide plastic dishes (utensils), vessels made of old tires and wood fenced area in the shelter (girgmi) for feeding their fattening cattle. In fact the first three are used to feed supplementary feeds such as wheat bran, maize flour, boiled haricot bean, and other locally available supplements whereas, girgim is used solely for feeding chopped stalks, stover, straw, haulms and grass. Once the cattle to be fattened is isolated, night time feeding was common phenomenon in Hararghe which is purposively done to fatten the animal within a short period of time. From all the respondents 152 (95%) of them have an experience of feeding at night time however, 8(5%) of them did not have the experience of night time feeding. The purpose of night time feeding was to compensate the time lost during the day when the cattle is trying to avoid fly bites and disturbance by human and other animals noises. Although there is some variation, usually the fattening cattle were fed concentrates in the morning and at dusk, grass and different weeds in the day and maize or sorghum stover in the night time. All respondents in the study area buy additional supplementary feed usually called agro-industrial by products from market during fattening of cattle. In the two agro-ecologies of all studied districts, 96.3% (154) of the respondents bought supplementary feed from the local feed traders. Only the rest 3.7% (6) respondents replied they did not buy feed from the market but used the crop residue and other locally available feed from their cropping land and left over feed from their home.
There was significant (P<0.01) improvement in SNF content of milk on feeding a balanced ration. This could be due to availability of energy, protein and minerals in appropriate quantity (Bhanderi et al., 2016). After balancing feeding, some of the amino acids might go to the depleted thigh muscle and then available for synthesis of milk protein and the SNF content. This could be the probable reason for stabilization of SNF for short period and then again improvement. Optimum levels of protein, energy and minerals are essential for rumen functions and synthesis of milk components in mammary gland. Rumen microbes convert dietary protein into microbial protein, which is a primary source of essential amino acids for the host animals (Bailey et al., 2005). These amino acids are used by the mammary gland to synthesize milk proteins. The relative amounts of protein: energy ratio and minerals that are available in the rumen at a given time is the major factor affecting rumen fermentation and therefore milk components. In addition, rumen microbes contain 13-14% mineral matter (Storm and Orskov, 1983), hence, minerals are very essential component for microbial protein synthesis (Stiffen and Robinson, 1987). Any factors that affect rumen fermentation can change protein levels and thereby, SNF.
(BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany), a preparation of 3-phytase (EC 126.96.36.199) that was produced by Aspergil- lus niger, was used as the source of F. The ingredients and the nutrient compositions of the diets are listed in Table 1. The calculations of the nutrient contents were performed using the standard values (National Research Council 1994). All the diets contained (per kg): 11.5 MJ of apparent metabolizable energy (AME N ), 170 g crude protein, and 34 g Ca. Finely (0.09–0.50 mm) and coarsely-ground limestone (1.00–2.00 mm) were supplied at the ratio of 65 : 35. The feed and fresh water were supplied ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Com- mittee of the Institute of Animal Science.
92. Pozzo L, Cavallarin L, Nucera D, Antoniazzi S, Schiavone A: A survey of ochratoxin A contamination in feeds and sera from organic and standard swine farms in northwest Italy. J Sci Food Agr, 90, 1467-1472, 2010. 93. Demet Ö, Oğuz H, Çelik İ, Adıgüzel H: Buğday, mısır, pirinç ve yerfıstığında aflatoksin üretilmesi. Vet Bil Derg, 11:135-140, 1995. 94. Oğuz H, Kurtoğlu V: Effect of clinoptilolite on performance of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Br Poult Sci, 41, 512-517, 2000. 95. Oguz H: A review from experimental trials on detoxification of aflatoxin in poultry feed. Eurasian J Vet Sci, 27, 1-12, 2011.
10 Read more
Crayfish feeds with good water stability should minimise disintegration and excessive nutrient leaching prior to consumption, because crayfish generally find food through chemoreception rather than visual cues, and as result the interval between offering a feed and its ingestion can often exceed the time that the pellet will remain stable (D'Abramo and Sheen, 1994; Sáez-Royuela et al., 2001). After locating feed, the diet must remain intact as they capture feed particles by using the major chelipeds and walking legs in a grasping fashion, for transfer to the mouth where external mastication prior to ingestion occurs with some of the food being lost (Sáez-Royuela et al., 2001; Grasso and Basil, 2002; Ahvenharju and Ruohonen, 2005; Ruscoe, 2005). However, in an effort to reduce feed costs since the early 2000s, replacement of fishmeal by cereal grains and legumes in commercial redclaw feeds led to poorly bound pellets (Ruscoe et al., 2005). The resultant pellets of the commercial redclaw diet examined for the current study totally disintegrated within the first hour of immersion compared to the improved water stability diet bound with six binder types (alginate, agar, carrageenan, CMC, PVA and starch). As a result, our findings highlighted the successful development of a formulated diet for redclaw with the addition of binders to enhance water stability. However, of the six binder types tested for the current study to improve diet water stability, alginate could substantially improve the water stability of the current commercial redclaw pellet because it gave best pellet physical form combined with the overall lowest DML over 24 hour immersion.
123 Read more