From the fore-going, it was explicit that the factors which influence femaleengineeringstudents’ career choice were diverse. Although other factors seemed to be more prominent they were inter-linked with others such that one could not deal with one factor without referring to the other. It was interesting to note that the female enginee- ring students unanimously agreed that they had interest in the engineering career. This provides a strong base for them to succeed in engineering. However, this interest had to go unfortunately through depressants such as parental, societal, school and teachers’ discouragement. Nevertheless, the efforts by the government and the employers to open up ways for females to venture into engineering should be appreciated although there is still a lot to be done to make the females feel more comfort- table in the engineering working environment.
views may discourage women from pursuing careers in male dominated areas of study. Femalestudents that decide to enroll in engineering often experience a sense of belonging. On an individual level, students seek affiliation, identification, and membership with a peer group. In turn, the peer group confers acceptance and dictates the norms and expectations of its members (Astin, 1993). Being aware some of these factors can help advisors, counselors, faculty and staff better serve these students. Furthermore, it will help with the planning and implementation of new programs and initiatives to aid with recruitment and retention. Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) documented the research supporting the idea that belonging to a peer group is related to persistence, degree attainment, and pursuit of graduate education. Many femaleengineeringstudents experience pressures both in the classroom and at home. The background and foundation with some of these students can cause stress and pressure. Many times if a student has a line of doctors or engineers in the family it is sometimes assumed that they too will follow the family tradition. It is essential that advisors, counselors and staff are sensitive to student’s background. Moreover, it is just as critical that these support services are aware and understand this population.
Consistent with previous research in other contexts, the underrepresentation of women in STEM disciplines (Cheryan et al., 2016; Edzie, 2014; Hutchinson, Follman, & Bodner, 2008; Newman, 2017; Rudroff 2007) is evident in the Dominican Republic as well. Because women’s self-efficacy beliefs are important in their persistence in completing their degrees (Aryee, 2017; Grunert, 2013; Hutchinson, Follman, & Bodner, 2008; Hutchinson, Follman, Sumpter, & Bodner, 2006; Edzie, 2014; Newman, 2017; Zeldin & Pajares, 2000), this study’s purpose was to better understand the contributions made by self-efficacy sources to the development of self- efficacy beliefs and persistence of these students. Undergraduate femaleengineeringstudents’ experiences have practical implications. When femalestudents are dealing with barriers in their academic programs, institutional efforts might focus on three things: a) they could give students verbal affirmations of their skills, b) they could provide students guidance on how to create lasting experiences and c) remind students about their talents and positive past events to give them confidence when they are facing challenges.
The population for this study included all current first-year femaleengineeringstudents enrolled in Freshman Engineering at Purdue University. This population generally accounted for 16-20% of the females enrolled in the engineering program. For each of the two selected sample groups, grades and grade point average data were obtained from the Purdue University Office of the Registrar’s historical data- base. The samples were categorized into two distinct segments encompassing the 2000-01 academic year. The first sample was the females participating in the Honors Program for both the fall and spring semesters. The second sample included females who were not participating in the Honors Program during the selected academic year. Non-participation in the program was traced to ineligibility or lack of interest. A third sample of females who either petitioned into the Honors Program or withdrew from it following the first semester was excluded from this study. It was determined that exclusion of this sample would provide more homogeneous results and therefore assist in determining future course placement policies and program eligibility requirements. At the time of this study, it was unknown why these females chose not to participate or why other females found participation in the honors program so important or meaningful.
Initial results are promising in that students learned from the training and increased their knowledge, skills, and abilities related to teamwork. There is also possible evidence that the increase in individual teamwork competencies lead to better performing teams, meaning participants were able to apply what they learned from the training to their teams. The feedback provided by the students will lead to improvements in the content, delivery and timing of the training. For example, students would like to add more videos demonstrating correct and incorrect behaviors, add more vignettes, and believe training would be more impactful if it was tied directly to their class material. This study could impact the future of teamwork training in engineering curriculums by providing students and instructors empirically back training to teach teamwork and better satisfy engineering accreditation requirements.
The mock application method was well received by students and effectively engaged them in preparation for making placement applications. Students believed the summative approach aided them to increase the quality of their actual placement applications, their confidence and their motivation in applying for placement positions. The feedback approach is multi-layered, but the students did not value their own reflections on their mock application as much as the peer feedback they received. However, it became clear when interviewed and questioned by email, students were also dismissive of peer feedback believing it to be unreliable, and instead indicated that they valued the act of reviewing as a way to reflect upon their own approach. The tutor feedback, whether in written or audio formats, was found to be the most useful by the students who were clear that this had improved their actual placement applications. There is some difference in the appreciation of audio and written feedback, but in this simulation it is not clear how significant this is.
8% of the femalestudents’ fathers and 6% of the students’ mothers were in engineering-related fields/occupations. A few students, who had a mother engineer admitted that the presence of the female engineer made them decide to take up engineering. The female engineers within the family in this case served as role- models for the girls. Previous research has shown that the presence of a role-model or lack of; is one of the main reasons that will influence femalestudents to take engineering or in their absence influence them not to choose engineering (Leonard, 2005). Same sex role-models, from past research, showing that the tendency to feel good about oneself due to a fellow in-group member’s success occurs primarily among minority rather than majority group members (Brewer & Weber, 1994). Also, the impact of seeing same-sex experts is likely to be stronger for individuals who subjectively identify with these experts, which is consistent with Markus & Nurius’s (1986) early research on the possible self (i.e., one’s mental representation of what one could become in the future). This prediction is also compatible with existing research on role models suggesting that perceiving successful others as inspirational is contingent on seeing the other person’s success as relevant to one’s own interest and believing that it is personally attainable (Lockwood & Kunda, 1997, 1999). The unique benefit of same-sex role models simultaneously allows women to develop an successful sense of self in STEM while embracing their gender identity. Put simply, exposure to positive female role models allows women to flourish in STEM without feeling bad about their gender.
Approach to sensor training
Our industry-university team with help from others in their organizations started in September 2004 developing laboratory experiments which could be used to introduce students to sensor technology. The industry participants brought to the team the real world experience of making pressure sensors for large process control applications such as oil refineries. The university team included a senior student, Dan Hanson, and we plan to have students participating in sensor projects. One goal is to work with sensor elements being used in final products and compare the performance of the sensor element with the final product. Then methods of calibration and compensation can be studied. Also, fabrication issues can be studied and discussed with engineers who developed the sensors.
In Chinese education, there is a conflict between girls’ socialized gender norms and the values and pedagogies that are incorporated in the science curriculum. These are influenced at both the micro- and macro-level of institutions and often discourage femalestudents from choosing science courses, pushing them into social science instead. In order to ensure that femalestudents have the same opportunities to reach their potential in science areas, it is important to understand the factors that influence their choices. This study investigates the potential reasons why female high school students in China are less likely to choose STEM subjects and direction. By conducting qualitative interviews with six femalestudents, in two Chinese high schools, who have been enrolled in social sciences courses, the study discovers several factors, including the influence of current sciences curriculum, teachers, labor market, parents, and peers, behind their decision- making behaviors. The findings of this study enrich existing research on gender equity in science community by exploring the gender issue in Chinese high school education and provide a direction for future research on this topic while informing policies that can address gender disparities in science programs.
Teamwork project training is emphasizing the CDIO abilities’ learning process. Learning evaluation is focused on the qualified completion of every teaching procedure (“fixed actions”), rather than the perfect result on knowledge. Such as, the project plan and result have to be made after team discussion. A good score could be given to a team, when students made proper scientific verification and have a right analytical concept. The full assess score is divided into three parts, one part is for building construction work at 40%, one part is for project evaluation work at another 40%, and the last 20% given to final report. Table2 gives a standard of score to evaluate learning effect for ESD course.
The prevalence of the belief among students that mathematics is practi- cally irrelevant should be disconcerting to both mathematicians and engi- neers because it is detrimental to students’ desire to learn mathematics or engage in modeling competencies . In mathematics, unlike other disci- plines, students form the majority of their epistemic beliefs as a result of their mathematical experiences in school , so changes in mathematics instruction could have a significant effect on students’ epistemic beliefs . Concerns about students’ modeling skills and beliefs about the practical ir- relevance of mathematics are already prevalent in the mathematics education community, serving as the motivation for creating pedagogical techniques such as Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) . An MEA is “a problem that simulates an authentic, real-world situation that small groups of 3-5 students work to solve over one or two class periods. The crucial problem solving iteration of the MEA is to express, test, and revise models that will solve the problem” . These rich, open-ended problem-solving exercises allow students to generate their own models and engage in complex and challeng- ing reasoning. MEAs have been suggested as a way to bridge the results of mathematics education research and engineering education research . Ferguson’s work  reached a similar conclusion as engineering and mathe- matics faculty co-generated their ideal assessments, which strongly resembled MEAs.
community through service projects such as bell ringing and handing out Christmas presents in conjunction with the Salvation Army. Every year, ASCE competes against several other schools in the concrete canoe, steel bridge, surveying, environmental, and several other competitions that change nearly every year. In addition to the community service and competitions, there are several other events that go on throughout the year. Speakers regularly attend ASCE general body meetings to talk about local and state business and job opportunities, as well as how to understand important issues engineers face, such as ethics in engineering. Students are required to pay yearly dues of $10 for sophomores and $20 for juniors and seniors to be in the student chapter of ASCE. The officers for the 2012-2013 school year are as follows: President – Matthew Rowe, Vice President – Jarrett Cooper, Secretary – Matthew Wallace, Treasurer – Alicia Kiech, and Historian – Eric Romero.
As such, it can be considered important to improve the representation of engineering within the second level syllabus. Elements such as problem-solving and research-based group-learning may be illustrated by means of collaborative problem-based learning (CPBL) activities and an increased adherence to the Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate (CDIO) ethos within second level curricula – exercises already shown to be effective in creating an engaging learning environment where the social involvement of the student is highlighted [17, 18]. It has already been stated that when STEM subjects are appropriately taught to students, they can be perceived as challenging and intellectually stimulating, but when these topics are poorly taught they become ‘burdensome and irrelevant’ . A study of ~400 students of Queen’s University Belfast showed that 80% of surveyed students believed there to be too little emphasis on how physics theory may be utilised within a career environment when compared to the fields of biology and chemistry , with 74% stating there to be too little relevance to real-life applications within the taught physics curriculum. An increased emphasis on the practical applications of STEM theory would serve to add relevance to second level subjects currently presented in a transmittal and often overly theoretical manner.
The study adopted the theoretical framework of Possible Selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986) to encourage students to examine their perceptions of self and career. The Possible Selves framework is an established, forward-oriented approach toward identifying both desired and feared conceptions of self. The framework depicts how people plan towards realising their future personas and achieving their career aspirations (Schnare, MacIntyre & Doucette, 2012). Consistent with a social constructivist view of identity development (Dunkel & Anthis, 2001) wherein people actively create their personal realities as they interact with others, the framework has rejuvenated debate about what people hope to become, expect to become, or fear becoming in the future. We hoped that the future orientation of possible selves would help explain the significance of the previously identified threshold concepts and would encourage students to take an
This is a single center study involving femalestudents in a single medical school. The results do not necessarily apply to all medical students in Egypt. Despite these limitations this the first study to be done on medical students in Egypt. We did not find any similar research in Egypt to compare with. It could pave the way for further research, especially after graduation of these students during their actual practice. Qualitative research (e.g. Focus Group Discussion) will be useful than quantitative research to explore the deeply rooted and cultural belief and misconception about breastfeeding.
Various methods of recruiting new engineeringstudents have been explored in many countries with activities ranging from individual school talks to week long promotions such as Engineers Week in Ireland and cover a large range of engineering topics. Events during Engineer’s week can incorporate design activities and the amount of students these activities reach can be considerable. STEPS, an initiative set up by Engineers Ireland, runs activities that can reach up to 75,000 primary and post primary students per year . There are often design activities included in these outreach events such as the Formula 1 Technology Challenge held by the Irish Computer Society (ICS) where students design a compressed air powered car. Probably due to practical limitations in terms of planning and organisation, these activities tend to involve highly constrained solution definition and implementation, rather than showcasing the entire design cycle – in particular the iterative nature of problem definition/user need- finding. While understandable, this focus tends to highlight the convergent part of the design process, with little chance for participants to experience the divergence (and highly creative activities) typical of the early stages of the design cycle .