The studies performed herein facilitate identification and descriptions for three distinguishing features on the dorsal side, four features on the posterior side and five features on the ventral side of the external female geni- talia in the 14 Rhodnius species, which distinguish the species. Using such findings, a key was developed to aid in distinguishing the 14 Rhodnius species. There is no record in the literature for intraspecific polymorphism for the femalegenitalia; however, this characteristic has not been widely explored. Given that, we do not discard the possibility of intraspecific variation for field popula- tions and some of the features elected shall be confirmed with a much larger sample of field material. Therefore, we consider the possibility of further adjustments in the key. On the other hand, all descriptive studies in the morphology field also have this limitation. For triato- mines, morphological variations, not described before, were detected for Rhodnius nasutus in Ceara , and Triatoma rubrovaria in Rio Grande do Sul .
Braun's (2005) and Rodrigues' (2012) explorations of FGCS uncover public health discourse(s) which work to produce and enforce a normalized genital aesthetic within "Western" contexts. According to Braun, narrow constructions of "normal" genitalia, including those depicted in the media and porn, are juxtaposed with the "abnormal." Abnormal genitals are rendered a legitimate and pervasive phenomenon through the authoritative language of medicine. Terms such as "hypertrophic" are used to refer to "enlarged" labia (i.e., anything longer than a few centimetres), while 20th-century anatomy texts depict only "standard" vulvas (Moore & Clark 1995, as cited in Rodrigues, 2012, p. 781). Furthermore, physical discomfort and psychological problems resulting from the appearance of one's genitals are enlisted to legitimate the construction of "abnormal" genitalia (Braun, 2005; Rodrigues, 2012). The medicalization of "abnormal" genitals works in alignment with media advertisements, especially those recruiting gynecologists and surgeons proclaiming the benefits of surgical intervention, to legitimate FGSC as a viable "treatment" (Braun; Rodrigues). Braun ventures further in their analysis to uncover public health discourse(s) regarding a normalized genital function.
(2017) reported this species for the same area, as a new for Serbia. The species is locally distributed in the forest belt, up to 1000 m above sea level, occurring in forest margins. It is monophagous, larva feed on Artemisia maritima and A. campestris. Our photo shown adult specimens on A. alba Turra (Fig. 5A). Variation in the signum shape in femalegenitalia (Fig. 5B) is significant, our specimen is closely related to female from Austria (S k o u & S i h v o n e n , 2015). They have restricted ecological amplitude. This species inhabit meadows biotopes along edges of thermophilous forest.
Emesaya. The genus is considered monophyletic, it is sup- ported by four synapomorphies, three non-homoplasious and one homoplasious, from the femalegenitalia: gonocoxa 8 rectangular (#50, Figs 195, 196); bursa copulatrix with a dor- sal folding (#63, Figs 235, 236); ventral region of the bursa copulatrix with narrow sclerites (#66, Figs 255, 256) and gonoplac with the subapical margin emarginated in dorsal view (#57, Figs 215, 216). Clade with high support values. Ghilianella clade is composed of Ghinallelia and Ghi- lianella complex, supported by two characters from the femalegenitalia: medial margin of the gonocoxa 8 produ- ced (#54, Figs 206‒208), and the dorsomedial region of the bursa copulatrix with ring gland (#64, Figs 226‒229). Clade weakly supported.
interest in this phenomenon has been revived, due to its potential contribution to elucidation of developmental mechanisms. Within insects, gynandromorphism includes several examples in Lepidoptera (mainly in the Macrolepidoptera). Yet, it is rare in the far less strikingly sexually dimorphic Microlepidoptera, mainly because it is harder to use external features to recognize gynandromorphs in this taxon. Here, we describe the fi rst known case of gynandromorphism in Scythridi- dae, belonging to the genus Enolmis Duponchel, 1845. Enolmis species have light coloured external features, asymmetrical male genitalia, and developed henia in females. The different parts of male and femalegenitalia present in the Enolmis gynandromorph individual are described here.
to present much later in developing countries, as occurred in our index case. The hallmark of this condition on examination is normal breast development, normal external femalegenitalia, with the absence of or scanty pubic and axillary hair. Very few other disorders of sex development have this combination of clinical findings. Other confirmatory findings are an absent, short or blind-ending vagina, an absent cervix and often palpable gonads in the inguinal area or in the labia majora. Testes can also be intra-abdominal. Special investigations confirm the absence of a uterus, a 46,XY karyotype, and demonstrate serum testosterone levels in the normal adult male range. 1 Body habitus and
However, the susceptibility of elongate intromittent or- gans to breakage in insect species has been rarely tested. One exception is a series of studies on the earwig Euborel- lia plebeja Dohrn. In this species males possess a pair of extremely elongate intromittent organs known as virgae, which are able to remove rival sperm from the female re- productive tract (Kamimura, 2005). Males with broken virgae have been observed in the wild, though at a very low frequency, and breakages can be induced experimen- tally by interrupting matings (Kamimura, 2003). Experi- mental manipulations have shown that a female can be successfully inseminated even with a broken virga in the reproductive tract, suggesting that such breakages do not function as mating plugs (Kamimura, 2003). Breakages are likely a byproduct on selection for extreme virga length, and the fact that males possess paired organs reduces the cost of breakage significantly (Kamimura & Matsuo, 2001; Kamimura, 2003). In a more extreme case, male genital breakage has been shown to occur frequently following interspecific matings in the beetle Carabus maiyasanus Bates, caused by the poor fit between heterospecific male and femalegenitalia (Sota & Kubota, 1998). These two ex-
functional penis (ability to have intercourse and to urinate standing up). Given that reconstructive sur- gery aimed at achieving functional femalegenitalia is considered the more effective alternative, XY inter- sexual patients with microphallus and testes are of- ten assigned female gender. According to Money’s approach, unambiguous presentation of gender identity to the patient’s parents and, later, to the patient would ensure the likelihood of a good out- come. However, there have been few reports of long- term follow-up on the stability of gender reassign- ment for XY children born with functional testes and androgen receptors.
Differential diagnosis. In coloration, paler specimens of N. timorense sp. nov. are close to the Australian N. penicillatum (Clark, 1862), darker specimens resemble Australian N. schmeltzi Sharp, 1882 and N. aphrodite Watts, 1978. From all three species, N. timorense sp. nov. can be distinguished by a distinct subhumeral expansion of the female elytra (Figs 6–7), the shape of the notch on inner edge of the male protibia (Fig. 2), and the shape of the median lobe (Figs 3–4).
The Tetradonematidae nematode, Didilia sp., was found in Chiang Mai, Thailand for the first time whereas the Steinernematidae nematodes, Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema websteri (Thanwisai et al., 2012), Steinernema minutum (Maneesakorn et al., 2010), Steinernema siamkayi (Stock et al., 1998), and other Steinernema have been reported in wax moths and Japanese beetles in Thailand (Tangchitsomkid & Sontirat, 1998; Noosidum et al., 2010; Vitta et al., 2015). Tang et al. (1997) have described the life cycle of D. ooglypta. Briefly, D. ooglypta eggs are ingested by first instar sand fly larvae. Female and male nematodes develop inside the larvae. The sex organs of both females and males are seen on day 20 of infection, they then mate. After mating, males die in 2 days. In the meantime, the sand fly larvae develop into the fourth stage. 37 days after infection the female nematodes are fully mature with fertilized eggs in the uterus. By the time the adult flies emerge from pupae the gravid nematodes use their teeth and stylet to break through the intersegmental membranes of the infected fly and bore a hole through the cuticle of the abdomen of the adult flies to expose the vulva and lay eggs. The gravid female nematodes affect the development of reproductive organs, delay preimaginal stages, and reduce the life span of the infected sand flies when compared with uninfected flies. Unrotated genitalia of infected male of P. papatasi are observed (Tang et al., 1997).
In metazoan development, the precise mechanisms that regulate the completion of morphogenesis according to a developmental timetable remain elusive. The Drosophila male terminalia is an asymmetric looping organ; the internal genitalia (spermiduct) loops dextrally around the hindgut. Mutants for apoptotic signaling have an orientation defect of their male terminalia, indicating that apoptosis contributes to the looping morphogenesis. However, the physiological roles of apoptosis in the looping morphogenesis of male terminalia have been unclear. Here, we show the role of apoptosis in the organogenesis of male terminalia using time-lapse imaging. In normal flies, genitalia rotation accelerated as development proceeded, and completed a full 360° rotation. This acceleration was impaired when the activity of caspases or JNK or PVF/PVR signaling was reduced. Acceleration was induced by two distinct subcompartments of the A8 segment that formed a ring shape and surrounded the male genitalia: the inner ring rotated with the genitalia and the outer ring rotated later, functioning as a ‘moving walkway’ to accelerate the inner ring rotation. A quantitative analysis combining the use of a FRET-based indicator for caspase activation with single-cell tracking showed that the timing and degree of apoptosis correlated with the movement of the outer ring, and upregulation of the apoptotic signal increased the speed of genital rotation. Therefore, apoptosis coordinates the outer ring movement that drives the acceleration of genitalia rotation, thereby enabling the complete morphogenesis of male genitalia within a limited developmental time frame.
During surgery, gonadal gender was determined via frozen section biopsy. In all the patients, the frozen pathological outcomes fell into anticipated possibilities of preoperative MDT consultation. Gender assignment was then decided accordingly. Initial reared sex was male in 14 patients, female in 1, and undetermined in 1. The gender was reassigned in 1 patient who was primar- ily reared as male, 1 as female, and the previously un- determined 1 was assigned as male. All the gonads and adjacent ducts in abdominal cavity were subjected to bi- polar punctural biopsy via laparoscopy. All the ovotestes presented in a bipolar fashion. Staged urethroplasty was indicated in all the patients assigned as male. Plate re- construction with two-stage tubularization urethroplasty (PRTU) was used in 10 patients. Stage II urethroplasty was achieved in 8 patients with urethrocutaneous fistula noted in 1 and urethral stricture in 1 as postoperative complications. Two patients just finished the first stage without complication. Duckett urethroplasty-urethrotomy
S Prakash, 1984 published a series of 43 cases. In most of the cases cover was provided with scrotal skin for the scrotal defects and the penile skin defects were covered with inner layer of prepuce which remained intact. Only in three cases where the defect was extensive and had spread beyond genitalia split skin grafting had to be supplemented.