of themselves, are less concerned with changes in their appearance, and are satisfied with their body image. The majority of the participants in the present study considered the changes in their appearance as part of the process of pregnancy. They spoke of God’s wisdom, accepted themselves as a pregnant individual, and were satisfied with their physical appearance. In Iran, both in terms of culture and religion, pregnancy is considered as a holy and precious period and this may increase the body image satisfaction and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The present study is a starting point for the performance of more comprehensive and practical studies. Moreover, the performance of studies with the aim to analyze and assess the different aspects of body image and the effects of negative body image during pregnancy and after childbirth seems necessary. The limitation of this study was that data on the mothers’ medical history were obtained through asking the participants themselves and there may have been cases that the women were unaware of.
As noted, there is evidence for the salience of ERG to mental health and therapy, and the usefulness of the ATG framework for conceptualising and assessing ERG. However, the body of research on ATG and mental health is still relatively small, and existing research is undermined by a number of limitations. This study sought to extend current knowledge on the ATG-mental health relationship, redressing some prior limitations. Specifically, the relationshipbetween ATG and mental health was examined using a two-wave cross-lagged panel design, to allow exploration of the likely causal direction of this relationship. The potential moderating effects of gender and negative events in this relationship were also addressed. Finally, the study sought to explore potential mechanisms for the ATG-mental health relationship, through investigating whether (a) religious coping mediates the relationshipbetween ATG and mental health, and (b) ATG moderates the impact of negative events on mental health. Prior to this study, these issues had received very little research attention. Specific aims and hypotheses of the current study are described in more detail in Chapter 7. Chapter 7 also presents the area of mental health which was the focus of the present study, namely, emotional wellbeing. The term ‘emotional wellbeing’ is used in the present study to refer to the affective component of mental health, encompassing both negative affective states such as depression, anxiety and distress, and positive affective states such as happiness. Specific variables used to assess positive and negative states of emotional wellbeing in the current study, and the rationale for their selection, are outlined in Chapter 7.
The purpose of elevating the reader‘s thoughts corresponds to the rhetorical purpose of the ladder vision genre, situating Birgitta‘s Book of Questions within the tradition exemplified by the Ladder of Divine Ascent composed by St. John Climacus sometime around the seventh century. Climacus wrote the Ladder as a guide for cenobites, although its instruction proves amenable to the spiritual needs of lay people also. Reflecting on his own experience as a desert hermit for many years, nonetheless he avoids a detailed discussion of the rules of monastic life, offering instead what John Chryssavgis terms ―a path of initiation, a way of life consisting ultimately of erotic ascent towards God,‖ one based on ―humility and purity of heart‖ (25). Climacus structures his guidebooks around the biblical image of Jacob‘s Ladder, dividing the ascending path into a series of thirty steps designed to illustrate how ascetic virtues enable a ―re-creation of the flesh‖ by returning the flesh to its original state as created by God (Chryssavgis 71). 43 Birgitta‘s vision amends this traditional genre by emphasizing charity and love rather than asceticism. Although these themes tie her text to that of Climacus, her rhetorical approach reinscribes these qualities so that they achieve full expression only through the performance of good works out in the everyday world. ―Friend, I gave you a mouth that you might speak rationally about things that are useful for your body and your soul and about things that belong to my honor,‖ Christ informs
Secondly, with regard to their position in the Christian church in particular, women are protesting against their disenfranchisement as children of one God, co-heirs with Christ, full members of the Body of Christ, and adult citizens of the Reign of God, the heavenly City. They are doing so not only by pressing for full incorporation into ministry, but, as happened with the Augustinian canonesses, Hildegard, the Cistercian nuns, the beguines, and even Julian of Norwich, establishing havens or sanctuaries where they are free to express their spirituality and, as Hildegard recognised, to mature personally and collectively. Such enclaves need not be physical enclosures, nor need they be exclusive. And in fact Christian women today are for the most part creating such sanctuaries of equality in communion with, if critically so, the whole body of believers.
boundaries of the early Church. 238 Concern with Mary’s seals of virginity was not of course specific to Ambrose or his contemporaries. In the second-century Gospel of James, the status of Mary’s genitals come under a scrutiny that bridges the theological and medical constructions of the virgin body. In this tale of the nativity, Salome doubts that Mary’s body has remained intact after Christ’s birth. A manual exam, she claims, will divulge the definitive signs of virginity: “As the Lord my God lives, if I do not insert my finger and examine her condition,” Salmone dares to assert, “I will not believe that the virgin has given birth.” 239 The female foil to doubting Thomas who verified with his finger the penetrations incurred by Christ’s crucified body, Salome tests with her finger that the mother of God’s body has suffered no breach at all. 240 In the version of this tale that appears in the thirteenth-century Legenda Aurea, Salome’s hand shrivels when she dares touch Mary’s genitals, but is restored when she holds the baby Christ in her arms and swears to doubt never again. Jacobus de Voragine makes Salome a midwife who was summoned along with another midwife, Zebel, by Joseph “not that he doubted the Virgin would bring forth the Son of God, but that he was following the custom of the country.” 241 Zebel probed around and realized that Mary had remained intact, even if it wasn’t her intent to do so. If virginity was a matter of the spirit, it was nevertheless verifiable in corporeal signs, and even the mother of God was bound by the exigencies of this semantic system.
The results of this study show that the women with higher levels of BMI, who are less preoccupied with bodyweight, meaning that they are less dis- satisfied with their bodies, report significantly less emotional distress and estimate that they have a higher level of positive emotions than women with lower values of BMI. This result is somewhat un- expected considering the data from the previous research . However, as stated in the introduc- tion, the largest number of studies examined this relationship among clinical samples, while a small- er number of studies conducted on the general population more frequently show that overweight and obese people do not experience more negative emotions or distress than non-overweight people . It is also possible that the women in our sample who have a higher BMI and are not dissatisfied with their bodies use food more within the context of stress management and/or emotional regulation than people with a lower BMI. This assumption would be consist- ent with the demonstrated relationshipbetween the mood and eating habits . At the same time, the results indicate that the women who are dissatisfied with their bodies, regardless of their BMI, report a Graph 1. The moderating role of body dissatisfaction in the
fat attitudes and greater positive attitudes toward pictures of obese individuals than did White women. Additionally, Greenleaf, Chambliss, Rhea, Martin, and Morrow (2006) examined the endorsement of fat stereotypes in White and Hispanic adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 16 years. On an explicit measure of fat stereotypes, no differences in endorsement were reported across the two groups. Further, both Hispanic and White participants reported lower willingness to engage in social, academic, and recreational activities with an obese individual than with a thin individual. These findings suggest that in the current study, the racial and ethnic mix of the complete sample could have increased the variance in fat stereotyping, thus preventing the results from achieving significance. Because of the limited number of non-Caucasian participants in this sample, comparisons between specific racial groups could not be established. However, future research should continue to examine the extent to which weight bias differs across racial and/or ethnic groups. The impact of these potential racial and ethnic differences on various indices of body image also should be examined.
Another significant factor, responsible for the presence of anxiety for both male and female athletes, is reduced self-confidence. In cases that athletes doubt about their abilities and performance during a game, they are vulnerable to anxiety appearance. According to Yan Lan and Gill (1984), and Krane, Williams, and Feltz (1992), there is an interactive negative relationshipbetween self-confidence and cognitive and somatic anxiety prior games (37,38). As Samulski (1987) noted, athletes feel anxiety due to several reasons (39). These include inadequate preparation, expected anticipations, presence of a strong opponent, disappointment after defeat, danger of injury, new and unfamiliar circumstances, and the relationships developed between players as well as their effect on the team.
Visual adaptation is thought to be the mechanism through which perceptual norms are established in everyday life . Recently, it has been suggested that the body size adaptation effect may provide a mechanism by which body size misperception develops in the real world . This suggestion is bolstered by evidence that body size adaptation effects can transfer from other- to own-identity body images . Future research should seek to establish whether the relationships betweenbody satisfaction, visual attention towards thin bodies, and the body fat adaptation effect exist outside the laboratory, when individuals are navigating more naturalistic environments, and in clinical populations. Further, while there is some evi- dence that adaptation effects in face stimuli may be long lasting, with durations lasting up to 24 hours , little is known about the time course of the body size adaptation effect. This is an important question in determining whether the body size adaptation effect may explain body size misperception in the real world.
Other than that, students in our secondary schools exhibit various social adjustment problems (Shah, 2012). The problems o f social adjustment that is common to all teenagers who are in normal environments become intensified if the teenagers have developed abnormal characteristics and are living in an unhealthy environment (Holmes, 1995). In Gonzales e? (2001) research, adolescents in disadvantage communities or society are at elevated risk for exposed to multiple stressors, indicating high rates of crime and victimization, family conflict, and increased prevalence o f deviant peers. Arthur (1998) asserts that the difficulty in adjustment for female students may also be due to the lack of social connections in the environment. Hampel and Petermann (2006) stated that females' adolescents evaluated a higher amount of perceived interpersonal stress and used more social support. The results showed that females adolescents were positively associated with social adjustment problems.
your nourishing sludge; and I remembered the blessed black breast of my Sudanese nurse … When I came up—torn, filthy, and stinking—from under the capsized car, I felt the white-hot iron of joy deliciously pass through my heart!‖ 13 (Marinetti, qtd. by Poggi 157). Here, Marinetti is describing a second birth, not from the maternal body but from a technological accident and the possibilities it held for his psychic development. The maternal womb and the reality it reflects represented for Marinetti the human and natural traits that limited his ability to reach the state of being identified with the machine and its defiance of death and weakness. ―Precisely because nature is understood as the locus of the feminine and the maternal, it must be opposed and displaced by both the machine and its symbolic ally, matter‖ (Poggi 156). Moreover, woman posed for Marinetti the danger of sentimentality and a desire that would distract the Futurist individual away from his vision of a new technological culture and age. To replace woman, desire was displaced onto the tools of technology and war that Futurists fetishized in their attempt to transcend the demands of sexual desire. Marinetti speaks in endearing terms to his weapon in the following quote: ―Ah yes! you, little machine gun, are a fascinating woman, and sinister, and divine, at the driving wheel of an invisible hundred horsepower, roaring and exploding with impatience‖ (Marinetti, qtd. by Poggi 158). And this is how he talks of the way mechanics handle locomotives: ―Have you never seen mechanics lovingly washing the great powerful body of their locomotive? This is the minute, knowing tenderness of a lover caressing his adored mistress‖ (Marinetti, qtd. by Poggi 158).
There is clear scientific evidence of a strong relationshipbetween morphological characteristics and the chosen sport (Eston & Reilly, 2009). Depending on the athletes’ sports branch, their physical conditions, body compositions and technical tactic capacities affect their performance (Aytek, 2007). Each sports branch has its own needs and each athlete should have unique anthropometrical characteristic and a body composition for his/her own sports discipline (Massuça & Fragoso, 2011). There are numerous body composition components in sports. For instance, height, weight, body fat, fat free mass, muscle mass, total body water, etc. However, the most important components in all sports branches is body fat because each characteristic has a great relationship with body fat such as agility, power, speed, flexibility, explosive power and jumping skills (Aytek, 2007).
Attachment denotes deep emotional link a human establishes with a certain person in life and under this condition he/she feels a sense of happiness and pleasure and also a sense of comfort upon stress because they are beside him/ her  .Theory of attachment was initially presented by John Bowlby (1989). He believed that human beings were born with an intuitive psychobiological system. Their behavioral attachment system significantly motivates them to look for proximity to others. Also, a relationship to God has been examined as a type of attachment relationship. God is introduced as subject of attachment in religious texts to which individuals approach upon disappointment and physical and spiritual and mental pains and ask Him for help and find Him as a secure and reliable haven. In attachment pattern, God is assumed as a supporter, wise and knowledgeable, available and respondent to the request of servants and these servants are supposed as ones who need God and assume Him as omnipresent, almighty, and wise. Two models which are considered as subject of attachment to parents during childhood and interpret the transferring quality of attachment to parents to God include assimilation and compensation patterns. The assimilation pattern forms within the process of socialization of child and it is mainly seen in religious families. In religious families, children convey this pattern through socialization and coordination with their parent toward God when they possess a secure attachment pattern along with their parents . According to the assimilation pattern, it is predicted that individuals with secure attachment reflect religious criteria. This is while this fact is not predicted for those with insecure attachment to religious attachment to reflect an image of their attachment. As children possess insecure
To determine the hand preference of the archers Oldfield (1971) (Edinburg Handedness Inventory) survey form was used. 10 questions were included in the survey form. These questions aimed to find out which hand was used for: 1) writing; 2) drawing picture; 3) throwing a ball or a stone; 4) holding scissors; 5) brushing teeth; 6) holding a knife without forks; 7) holding forks; 8) holding a shovel; 9) striking a match; and 10) opening the cap of a bottle. The options were; “always the right hand” (+10 points), “mostly the right hand” (+5 points), “both hands” (0 point), “mostly the left hand” (−5 points) and “always the left hand” (−10 points). The total of the above-given points gives the laterality score. Dis- tribution of the scores was as the following: Strongly right-hand dominant per- sons were scored between +80 and +100 points and the strongly left-hand do- minant persons were scored between −80 and −100 points. 5 of the archers were left-hand dominant whereas 39 of them were right-hand dominant. The keyhole test included in the same test was applied in order to determine eye dominance.
Le Goff also tells us that purgatory leads to two results, the first is that what one did in life became more important. Purgatory allowed for a nuancing of the afterlife system. Before purgatory, one could only avoid hell by extreme measure, with taking monastic orders one of the only ways to be sure of avoiding damnation. Purgatory allowed for other types of penance. 9 Le Goff further insists that purgatory permits a new relationshipbetween the living and the dead because the living can help the dead move from purgatory to paradise. It changes the perception of death because it is no longer a black and white type of entry into the eternal afterlife, but one can rather be temporarily in a place to atone for sins. Death is not final but still contains a journey. Le Goff posits that purgatory is of especial importance because of the driving force of paradise. The desire for heaven is what makes purgatory important, it is “the last bleak stretch to be traversed on the road to eternity. Was Purgatory more a pre-eternity than a post existence?” 10 On the other hand, maintaining hell was equally important – hell allowed for purgatory to be the saving grace from the eternal damnation. Le Goff asks, “Wasn’t Purgatory the price that the Church had to pay to hold onto the ultimate weapon, damnation?” 11
According to what has been stated, recognizing the different applications of cell phones and examining the relationshipbetween the use of cell phone and academic achievement of teenager students is one of the issues that in the present society should be discussed by researchers. The necessity of the present study is done regarding the question “what relationship does exist between the use of cell phone and academic achievement of female students?” And, according to this question, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Some research showed a positive correlation between the frequency of diet magazine reading among adolescent girls and dissatisfaction with their body size and shape (Field, Taylor, Berkey, & Colditz, 1999; Utter, Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, & Story, 2003). Adolescent girls can also be affected by advertising later in life, because of the way they are later represented when they are compared to men in societal roles. Research shows that attractive women are more often shown in the media than attractive men . This fact is based on the amount of clothing worn, as well as, thinness and overall attractiveness. A related study conducted compared the physical attractiveness and body shape of men and women in relationship advertisements, which also found that women are shown more often as physically attractive (Jagger, 2001; Lin, 1998). Women more often offer physical attractiveness in advertisements when compared to men, and this can result in negative feelings about their body after viewing these media portrayed idealized images. This can also cause women to change their body shape and weight (Fouts & Burggraf, 1999, 2000; Greenberg, Eastin, Hofschire, Lachlan, & Brownell, 2003; Monro & Huon, 2005). One study recognized the “need” for women to obtain an ideal body image as a means to achieve more social recognition in a typically male-dominated society (Park, 2007; Bissell & Chung, 2009).
Nathalie Bosmans and coworkers reported that the use of panoramic radiographic images is useful for evaluat- ing dental age and there isn’t any significant difference between this method and peri-apical and other radio- graphic techniques . Suhalze and coworkers evalu- ated the accuracy of panoramic radiographic images and concluded that horizontal measurements are more reli- able than vertical ones . Solheim and coworkers showed that radiographic techniques which estimate the dental age based on dental morphology are the best techniques . In the present study, panoramic radio- graphic images were used to estimate the dental age and BMI of the children under study was also determined. Evelyn P stated that the obesity in children and adults is associated with some complications and the rate of obe- sity has doubled in the last 25 years . Similarly, studies have shown that obesity can affect various sys- tems and bones of the body [15,16]. Considering the increase in rate of obesity in children with its associated skeletal and dental complications, the effect of BMI on dental age was studied in the present study.
The cross-sectional nature of our study precludes infer- ences regarding causality. However, our findings are consistent with prior literature on BED (and eating dis- orders more broadly) and suicidality, as well as BMI and completed suicide. Our analyses examining past-year suicidality and lifetime history of suicide attempt were consistent with our main results. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height, which tends underestimate BMI;  individuals with eating disor- ders tend give a more accurate account of their weight, likely because of greater weight-checking . This ana- lysis did not adjust for comorbid psychiatric conditions (i.e., major depression, general anxiety disorder) because these conditions are likely mediators of the BED (and potentially BMI) – suicidality relationship . Finally, because of skip pattern in the CIDI the questions on sui- cide attempt were only asked of those who reported ideation; while it is logical to assume that persons who have not seriously considered suicide would not have attempted it, this may have missed attempts that were more impulsive in nature. This study also has a number of strengths. The large, diverse, representative sample re- duces the risk of selection bias, BED was assessed using a reliable, structured diagnostic instrument, and the ana- lysis accounted for medical comorbidities that likely confound the BMI-suicidality relationship.
These percentages differ largely from the actual BMI categories which show that about twenty percent of the sample is obese and 20 to 25 percent are overweight. Both gender drastically underestimate their true weight particularly males. About one-third are self-designated as black or Hispanic and less than 15 percent are from high income households. Most respondents, 60 percent, are enrolled in school. Less than half of males and females live in urban areas, while 25 percent reside in rural towns and about a quarter in the suburbs. Age is represented as the age in the first sample, Wave I, and range from 10 to 19. Table III provides correlation coefficients between misperception and all demographic and lifestyle covariates. Misperception is highly, positively correlated with BMI, age, residence and being black or Hispanic. Positive correlation would denote a higher likelihood of either over or underestimating one’s weight. It is negatively correlated with school enrollment, indicating that those enrolled in school are more likely to accurately classify their body weight. Table IV list the percentage of residential groups that under, over and accurately estimate their body size. Fifty to sixty percent of males and females respectively perceive their body size. The remaining fifty percent either over or underestimates their body size. Females tend to underestimate body size and males overestimate.