Feminist Ethics

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Towards a feminist ethics of war: rethinking moral
justifications for contemporary warfare

Towards a feminist ethics of war: rethinking moral justifications for contemporary warfare

is quickly evident that there has been a marked proliferation of both academic scholarship and media coverage examining the rise of private military security contractors, particularly in the years following the American-led invasion of Iraq in March of 2003. However, as Singer points out, the concept of private force itself is not a new one, and there is a significant historical legacy of states hiring outsiders to assist in the fighting of their battles (2008: 19). Increases have been seen military operations undertaken by the United States (and its allies) in Afghanistan and Iraq as part of the recent ‘War on Terror’, and it is now unlikely for any major deployment of American military resources overseas to succeed without the employment of private companies (Franke and Boemcken 2009: 11). Despite this burgeoning area of military operations, startlingly little analysis has focused on the ethical and moral dimensions of private force. Instead, much of the existing scholarship engages in debates surrounding the impact of privatization on a variety of mechanisms in global politics, from its effect on democracy and the ways in which PMSCs change the balance of public institutions such as the military (Avant 2005) to the reshaping of security discourses by private military firms in consulting roles (Leander 2006). In this section, I demonstrate the effectiveness of the previously articulated feminist ethical framework by assessing what the limited existing analyses of ethics in private force have missed out on: namely, the lack of an alterative vision to the justice- based, individual and autonomous understanding of ethics that is offered by mainstream approaches to ethics in war, and their ignorance of contextual, relational, and experiential factors that serve to shape the ethical and moral decisions made by PMSC employees. While there are undoubtedly gendered structures of the system that make such an alternative vision difficult, feminist ethics has had some limited success in articulating an ethical analysis based outside the confines of just war, most notably Robinson (1999) and Hutchings (2010). The forthcoming analysis builds on these arguments, using my own theoretical framework to pinpoint areas where it is possible to make moral judgments through a lens of feminist ethics.
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AI, Ain't I A Woman? Seeking a New Feminist Ethics of Technology, Between Algorithmic Decision-Making Processes and the European Legislation

AI, Ain't I A Woman? Seeking a New Feminist Ethics of Technology, Between Algorithmic Decision-Making Processes and the European Legislation

5 attention on this issue is particularly outdated. This thesis is built to reach a gradual achievement of the final objective, i.e. the proposal to structure a new feminist ethics of technology that responds to the challenges of the present. In order to do this, I have assigned the first chapter a more technical role, to explain in detail what automated decision-making processes are and why they should interest us. Through the explanation of their mathematical functioning, we can already get an idea of their opacity and complexity, which then leads to the incorporation of prejudices and the creation of new stereotypes. This also requires to address the problem of the «black boxes», a highly analyzed phenomenon that indicates the inscrutability of what happens between the input and the output of an algorithm, making it very difficult to unveil the decision that has been taken. The second part of the first chapter is dedicated to providing an analysis of the political and legislative framework in the European context, in order to clarify any doubts about the measures adopted to regulate the use and the impact of automated decision-making processes. The attention to the European context is motivated by the desire to demonstrate that, although it is commonly believed that this territory guarantees more and more powerful protections against the use of these technological systems, we are subject to the same risks than other countries, because we still share the same mentality of unconditional and unquestioned trust in technological neutrality. In particular, I will demonstrate how the relevant European legislation, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), if analyzed in detail, presents some deficiencies that are difficult to justify. It is widely believed that the GDPR provides the citizens subject to automated decisions with a «right to explanation» (Goodman and Flaxman, 2016). If implemented, such a right would allow to receive important information about discrimination, where it occurs, and why it happened. Nevertheless, I will support the idea advanced by Wachter et al (2017) to show that a valid right to explanation cannot be found within the GDPR, together with a serious intention to implement such a right, and provide reasons for my choice.
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A question of ethics : a responsibility to care : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

A question of ethics : a responsibility to care : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

How does a feminist ethics of care represent the best interests of women in the context of knowledge production where the capacity for care within mother and daughter relationships can o[r]

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1421 West Laburnum Ave. Richmond, VA Princeton Theological Seminary, M.Div.

1421 West Laburnum Ave. Richmond, VA Princeton Theological Seminary, M.Div.

Teaching Competence The intersection of race, gender and sexuality, Race and Ethnicity, Blackness in the Americas, especially Latin America and the Caribbean, Intro to Christian Social Ethics, Applied Christian Ethics, Liberation Ethics, Feminist Ethics, Gender and Women’s Studies, Social Movements, Latin American and Latino Studies Africana Studies, Decolonial Studies, Liberation Theologies, Literature and theology/religion, Bioethics, Ministry Studies

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Financial Management, Corporate Governance and
Risk Management: A Feminist Perspective Using an Optimisation Approach

Financial Management, Corporate Governance and Risk Management: A Feminist Perspective Using an Optimisation Approach

The feminist view on the stakeholder aspect will also lead to a broader view of risk management as a component of the stakeholder corporate governance model. Francis and Armstrong (2003) stressed the relationship between good ethical practices and risk management in that an essential risk management strategy is a commitment to ethics in an organisation or company. As the ethics of care is applied in this thesis, it is argued that the risk aversion approach is better to prevent a company from huge losses in investment and other activities. This approach can be traced to women’s attitudes to risk, with several researchers claiming that females are more risk averse than males (see for example Powell and Ansic 1997; Smith 1999). From the feminist ethics of care perspective, the risk aversion approach is also aimed at protecting the stakeholders from any harm resulting from corporate collapses. According to Clarke (2010), the failure to adopt a risk aversion approach has led to recurring crises. For instance, the spectacular risks with extremely leveraged positions on many securities and derivatives that have been taken by investment banks and other financial institutions have led to the systemic crises in international financial markets commencing in 2007.
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Foreword

Foreword

In the legal writing of this first volume, concerning family equity, fetal protection, feminist jurisprudence, battered women, feminist ethics and reproductive choice,[r]

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The Ethics of Codes of Ethics

The Ethics of Codes of Ethics

In early studies of organisational ethics some authors expressed hope that the future would bring positive change. For example, in 1988, Jones and Gautschi published the results of a 1985 study of the attitudes of 455 MBA students from 12 US learning institutions. The authors provide the context of public perceptions at that time as being partly framed by events which included the 1982 filing for bankruptcy of the Fortune 500 listed Manville company in an attempt to avoid compensating victims of work-related asbestos disease; the December 1994 Union Carbide pesticide plant gas leak in Bhopal, India which killed approximately 10 000 people; and the 1985 guilty plea by brokerage house E.F. Hutton to 2000 counts of wire and mail fraud (Jones & Gautschi III, 1988, p. 231). Based on responses to their survey, the authors concluded that the “future executives” they had studied demonstrated a “sensitivity toward ethical issues that is tempered primarily by their perceived organizational authority and the requisites of prevailing organizational culture”. This finding was correlated more strongly with the female participants in the study because the women were seen to demonstrate “a greater tendency to take action when they perceive a questionable business practice than do their male counterparts”. The authors predicted that the increasing feminisation of the workplace might therefore deliver a shift in behaviour because “as women managers become commonplace it may well follow that corporate behavioral norms will be affected positively” (Jones & Gautschi III, 1988, p. 245).
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Excavating Feminist Phenomenology: Lived-Experiences and Wellbeing of Indigenous Students at Western University

Excavating Feminist Phenomenology: Lived-Experiences and Wellbeing of Indigenous Students at Western University

collaboration] with the community [for recruitment]. [Respectful cultural protocols] are essential to research [epistemologies]. The Ethics Board [Western University’s research monitoring system] is interested in the [PhD project’s] steps. [Whereas, I question] how [to] approach the community. I will [offer the youth food, before the project begins]. After the project is done, we are going to have a community event to celebrate [video art produced by the youth]. [I learned] about [ethnography and phenomenology] in a research methods course [this year]. However, the [practices of Western methodologies] do not contain within them cultural protocols, such as [offering meals to communities, before even discussing collaborative research projects]. (personal communication, April 17, 2019) Tobias and Richmond (2016a) in their CBPR research with Elders in two Anishinaabe communities along the north shore of Lake Superior explain how “natural resource extraction,” in this region is increasing without “proper consultation and “resulting in environmental contamination” (p. 237). Therefore, re-connecting communities to nurture traditional lands, by practicing “traditional ceremonies,” such as “the full moon ceremony and the sweat lodge” is imperative to Anishinaabe Elders. Richmond and Big-Canoe (2014) continue, for many Anishinaabe communities, resultant “direct forms” of “environmental dispossession” by outside industries can “physically” disable the “use of land,” through “contamination events” and “sever access to traditional food systems” (p. 127). “Indirect forms of dispossession” can manifest by way of “policies, regulation, or development,” intending to disconnect “Indigenous peoples’ links to their lands,” and transmissions of Indigenous knowledge, across generations. “Environmental repossession,” as the praxis of wellness manifests through “social, cultural, and political processes by which Indigenous communities are reclaiming their traditional lands and ways of life” (p. 133).
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Is Zaynab Alkali Merely A Feminist Writer? An Appraisal Of The Stillborn And The Virtuous Woman

Is Zaynab Alkali Merely A Feminist Writer? An Appraisal Of The Stillborn And The Virtuous Woman

The question is, does this portrayal of female characters place Achebe within the feminist fold or has he escaped this classification by virtue of his biological attributes? Another way of putting this question is has the statement Achebe made in Anthills of the Savannah about the role of women in our modern world compromised his main thematic thrust, which is indisputably the malady of military dictatorship in Nigeria? If we answer No! to this last question, is it, therefore, not possible that just as Achebe has done in Anthills of the Savannah, Zaynab Alkali has used her female characters for the attainment of an agenda greater than some feminist vendetta her gender might nurse with the larger society? Cannot one prove that Alkali’s works, particularly the ones being discussed presently, are not merely about the womenfolk but that the female characters in The Stillborn and The Virtuous Woman are just what they are – characters – and used as foils for espousing some higher ideals beneficial to humanity generally? If this scenario is possible as the material in these novels suggests, then we must expunge Zaynab Alkali’s name from the purview of what Azuike calls “radical feminist writers” (Azuike 2003: 1) and redirect our energies to exhuming the main issues in her works particularly, The Stillborn and The Virtuous Woman; issues that our rather hasty sex based judgment has interred. 4. The Stillborn
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An update on the “empirical turn” in bioethics: analysis of empirical research in nine bioethics journals

An update on the “empirical turn” in bioethics: analysis of empirical research in nine bioethics journals

Third, concerning the empirical methods used, studies with quantitative methods remained predominant in the nine bioethics journals. However, their dominance has decreased from 65% of all empirical papers in the previ- ous search [8] to 53% in our search, whereas the amount of qualitative research publications have increased from 32.2% to 41% of all empirical papers, respectively. There were more quantitative papers with 4+ authors than qualitative papers with 4+ authors, a finding that has been corroborated by others [23]. In our study, close- ended surveys are the most used form of data collection. This was true for the other two studies [7, 8] as well, followed by face-to-face interviews. As was noted by our predecessors [8], the Journal of Medical Ethics’ affinity towards quantitative methods and Nursing Ethics’ to- wards qualitative methods might be explained by their disciplinary heritage. Nevertheless (as stated above) questions must be raised concerning the quality of methods used. This is especially significant because bio- ethicists borrow methods from the social sciences and many researchers working in the field of bioethics may not have been trained in empirical research methodology [25]. At the same time, the field must also evaluate whether there are methods (particular qualitative or quantitative) that are more suitable to carry out a normative-empirical integration, thereby forwarding the debates related to when and how to do “empirical bio- ethics” [12, 26].
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“The Context Distinction: controversies over feminist philosophy of science”

“The Context Distinction: controversies over feminist philosophy of science”

distinctions such as the context distinction cannot stand in for arguments. Distinctions can be useful heuristic devices when they point out inconsistencies with commonly shared beliefs. However, when the legitimacy of a distinction is itself at debate, the distinction cannot serve as an independent reason. If we do not agree about which entities can have certain properties, then pointing to an alleged category mistake will fail to be convincing. In this case, there is disagreement over whether a thing (such as a political value) can have a certain property (such as the ability to enhance evidential warrant as well as detract from it), with the feminist epistemologists arguing that it can. Thus, to dismiss feminist epistemology on the basis that it violates the context distinction is, as Nelson argues, begging the question. Other arguments might be used against feminist epistemology, most notably that Nelson’s view is open to the charge of relativism, 21 but that it violates the context distinction cannot be a reason to reject the
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Conditions of Reciprocity: The Possibilities and Potentialities of a Feminist Perspective on Theorising Dis/ability

Conditions of Reciprocity: The Possibilities and Potentialities of a Feminist Perspective on Theorising Dis/ability

Feminist research is described by Dorothy Smith (1988:107; cited in Morris, 1992:159) as being a mode of research that “at the outset of inquiry, creates the space for an absent subject, and an absent experience, that is to be filled with the presence and spoken experience of actual women speaking of and in the actualities of their everyday worlds”. This, if applied justly and authentically to disabled people’s

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Quantifying Regional-Scale Water Storage Using Models and Observations: Application For Drought Assessment In South Carolina

Quantifying Regional-Scale Water Storage Using Models and Observations: Application For Drought Assessment In South Carolina

subject’ as the ultimate candidate for representation or, indeed, liberation, but there is very little agreement after all on what it is that constitutes, or ought to constitute, the category of women. The domains of political and linguistic ‘representation’ set out in advance the criterion by which subjects themselves are formed, with the result that representation is extended only to what can be acknowledged as a subject. In other words, the qualifications for being a subject must first be met before representation can be extended. (Gender 4) Butler’s style acclimates readers to her ideas. The subject of Butler’s first sentence hides at the end and lets the object drive and define the sentence. Notice that feminist discourse does not challenge the relationship between feminist theory and politics, but through passive voice, the relationship between feminist theory and politics “comes under challenge.” Use of the passive voice here slows down readers, makes the sentence wordy, and emphasizes the object and the action over the actor. Indeed, the very structure of the sentence calls into question who or what does the acting. Continuing through the
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Public health ethics: informing better public health practice

Public health ethics: informing better public health practice

A moment in the history of public health ethics The articles in this collection illustrate the benefits of working across ethical approaches when considering pub- lic health problems. There are three articles and one case study in this issue. Ross Upshur uses the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto to discuss ethical concerns around the use of evidence in public health decision making. What counts as evidence; that evidence is only one form of considered information; and that the values and mission of public health can be suffi- cient for action without evidence are discussed. He argues that the precautionary principle will sometimes need to be invoked in health protection contexts, such as communi- cable disease outbreaks. However, he questions thresholds for action based on evidence in other areas of practice such as health promotion, chronic disease or environmental health.
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Feminist Relational Discourse Analysis: putting the personal in the political in feminist research

Feminist Relational Discourse Analysis: putting the personal in the political in feminist research

This focus on agency builds on Foucauldian discourse analysis (Arribas-Allyon & Walkerdine, 2009), which ultimately seeks to account for how people negotiate particular discourses within relations of power. Here, analysis is focused on how people actively construct and are constructed by discourse. FRDA seeks to account not only for these discourses, but also how they “hit” and “bruise” us (Ahmed, 2017, p. 30), and how we story and re-story them in relation to our embodied experiences. Here, analysis is focused on the personal functions of dominant discourses that on a macro level might be problematic, harmful or oppressive, thereby capturing the interplay of the personal and political in accounts of identity. In the following sections, we detail the analytical framework we developed to conduct such an analysis, providing a step-by-step account for feminist researchers with an interest in this approach. To provide a worked example of each analytical step throughout these sections, we will draw on examples from the data we analyzed using this approach.
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Rereading heterosexuality::Feminism, queer theory and contemporary fiction

Rereading heterosexuality::Feminism, queer theory and contemporary fiction

feminist discourses of female empowerment, the exercise of sexual agency is confl ated with the enjoyment of personal power; sexual agency is assumed to be innately empowering, so long as it is aligned with het- eronormative imperatives. Zoë Heller’s 2003 novel Notes on a Scandal depicts the exposure of a sexual affair between a mature female teacher, Sheba Hart, and her fi fteen-year-old male pupil, resulting in her prosecu- tion for indecent assault and her separation from her husband and two children; in its representation of an ‘intergenerational’ sexual relation- ship this novel offers an expression of female heterosexual agency which is not easily recuperated either by feminist or postfeminist discourses of sexuality. However, Notes on a Scandal is a narrative of female hetero- sexual transgression which is ‘translated’ by a narrator – Barbara Covett, Sheba’s mature and unmarried colleague – whose reliability is quickly cast into doubt by her vicarious investment in the narrative she recounts. ‘Telling Tales Out of School: Spinsters, Scandals and Intergenerational Heterosexuality in Zoë Heller’s Notes on a Scandal’ will argue that in this novel troubling questions about female heterosexual agency are displaced through the production of a more familiar and less threaten- ing stereotype of non-normative female heterosexuality: the spinster as socially marginal, emotionally suspect and sexually repressed. In other words, in Notes on a Scandal, the satirical momentum of a narrative ostensibly investigating deviant female heterosexuality fi nds its dis- placed target in a fi gure who has long functioned as a coded repository for homophobic ridicule.
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Art and story : an art therapy program for women who have experienced breast cancer

Art and story : an art therapy program for women who have experienced breast cancer

Feminist research paradigms, the history of breast cancer, the intersection of physical, psychological and social realms of experience of breast cancer and feminist approaches to thera[r]

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Feminist historiography and the reconceptualisation of historical time

Feminist historiography and the reconceptualisation of historical time

The logic of teleological totalisation frequently goes hand in hand with the logic of sequential negation, as teleological, progressive accounts are often presented as a ‘graduated progression’, whereby a ‘series of successive determinations’ are organised into an ascending order as each negates and overtakes the former (Hegel 1975:138). As we have seen, this is one of the key features of the hegemonic model of feminist history, as hegemonic narratives divide feminist history into a series of phases or waves, with each overcoming the former. The major problem with this logic of sequential negation is that it cannot grasp the coexistence of supposedly ‘oppositional’ or ‘contradictory’ approaches and perspectives. Different feminisms of course emerge at different times, and there are certainly disagreements between different kinds of feminism. Poststructuralist feminist theory, for example, informed by theorists such as Kristeva, Lacan, Derrida or Spivak, has indeed emerged at a later time than liberal western feminist theory, informed by earlier theorists such as Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill as well as more recent liberal thinkers. Moreover, there are fundamental points of dispute between poststructuralist and liberal feminists. Yet, liberalism has not simply melted away following the advent of poststructuralist theory, and those points of disagreement and debate have not been ‘won’ by one side of the other. Indeed, feminist theorists often insist upon the productivity of such disagreements, debates and arguments (Howie and Tauchert 2004; MacCormack 2009). The logic of sequential negation, however, seeks to contain and manage these debates through the imposition of a neat sequential order from one ‘phase’ to the next, as one comes after and displaces another.
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Re gendering the UK House of Commons: the academic critical actor and her ‘Feminist in Residence’

Re gendering the UK House of Commons: the academic critical actor and her ‘Feminist in Residence’

Childs had no difficulty gaining access the House of Commons. Her ‘self-invitation’ was agreed. 16 Childs had been the special adviser to the 2010 Speaker’s Conference, which the Rt Hon John Bercow MP chaired following the resignation of the then Speaker, Michael Martin and she had advised the Women in Parliament All Party Parliamentary Group at the time of its 2014 Report, Improving Parliament. As a member of the Study of Parliament Group Childs was also known to some Clerks and officials for more than a decade, a relationship that was strengthened by the UK Parliamentary Studies scheme. However, if feminist concerns over access were in this case less relevant Childs academic credibility and independence was at times questioned. Widely known by both clerks and MPs as a feminist with longstanding relationships with women MPs albeit from across the parties, for some MPs explicitly and perhaps for some clerks privately, she was by definition ‘biased’ and
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Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors

Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors

intervention would violate confidentiality rights (e.g., when clients refuse to allow information or statements to be shared) or when rehabilitation counselors have been retained to rev[r]

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