Feronia limonia Swingle (Syn. Feronia elephantum Correa, Fam Rutaceae) are described in ayurvedic litera- ture as Kapittha is a moderate-sized tree with straight sharp strong spines, 1.2-3.7 cm long, which is widely distributed throughout Bangladesh, Srilanka, Java and India [1-3]. The fruits of the plant are edible and consid- ered to be a stomachic, astringent, diuretic, cardiotonic and tonic to the liver and lungs ; the bark is occasion- ally used for biliousness ; the leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used for the treatment of indigestion and minor bowel infections of children ; the roots are sometimes given for the treatment of snake-bites . Previous phytochemical work was mainly focused on the isolation of coumarins [5-7], steroids and volatile com- ponents [8, 9] of the plant.
edulis (Deng et al., 2010, Li et al., 2011) Panax quinquefolium (Wei et al., 2007) Ziziphus jujube (Peng et al., 2000) Stachys lavandulifolia (Rabbani et al., 2003) Centella asiatica (Wanasuntronwong et al., 2012) Coriandrum sativum (Emamghoreishi et al., 2005) etc have been proven to posses anxiety-like effects in animal models. Feronia limonia L (Syn. Feronia elephantum, Limonia acidissima), commonly known as Wood apple, belongs to Rutaceae family and bears a hard- shelled seeded berry fruit with brown coloured sweet pulp. The plant possesses therapeutic properties including anti-cancerous, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective etc (Gupta et al., 2009). The fruit is also used for treating dysentry, diarrhoea and several other diseases. Fruit contains polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols, coumarins saponins,and triterpenoids. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anxiolytic- like effect of hydroalcohol extract of Ferroni limonia fruit in mice model of anxiety.
The coarse powder of shade dried fruit pulp of feronia limonia (2kg) was extracted with methanol (AR grade) in a Soxhlet extractor. The methnolic extract was then concentrated on rotary flash evaporator. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation . When needed the extract was suspended in a gum acacia or DMSO and administered intraperitoneally to animals in different doses. In control animals, equivalent amounts of the vehicle were administered intraperitoneally.
This developed TLC method was subsequently applied for the analysis of marmesin in the methanolic extract of Feronia limonia stem barks. The marmesin content of the stem barks by this proposed method was found to be 0.03412%. For the examination of recovery rates, 80, 100 and 120% of pure marmesin were added to preana- lyzed sample and quantitative analysis was performed. The average recovery was 98.83 (Table 1(c)).
They are useful in gastropathy, anorexia, diarrhoea, bronchitis, vomiting, cough, hiccough and vitiated conditions of vata. Charaka and Sushruta include the leaves and fruits in prescriptions for diarrhoea, toxicosis, urinary disorders, ringworm and other chronic skin diseases. Tender leaves of 5 trees- Feronia limonia, Mangifera indica (Aam), Syzygium cuminii (Jamun), Aegle marmelos (Bilva) and Citrus medica (Maatunlunga) are known as the Pancha Pallava group and are used as vaginal disinfectant due to their astringent, antimicrobial and anti- inflammatory properties 2 .
The fruit pulp was collected from the fruits of Feronia limonia and were cut into small pieces.100g was weighed and soaked in water (500 ml) for 12 hours, and the material was crushed in a blender. The crushed material was warmed for 45 minutes with continuous stirring. After it is cooled, the material was passed through 8 folds of muslin cloth. To the filtrate, 1000ml of acetone was added to precipitate the mucilage. The mucilage was washed with acetone several times for purification. The coagulated mass was dried in oven at 40-45°C, and then it was crushed and passed through sieve number 80 and stored in a desiccator for further studies. 7-9
ABSTRACT: The wood apple (Feronia limonia), called as elephant apple, has several medicinal properties. It is antiscorbic (prevent scurvy), a disease caused by lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). It is an antidote for poison and also helps in curing sore throat. The objective of the study was to incorporate medicinal properties of wood apple in fruit bar, a well accepted food product. The fruit bar was prepared by using different proportions of wood apple and mango. Fruit bars were analyzed for chemical composition at monthly interval of one month storage at room temperature (16-35°C). Increasing trend in carbohydrate, acidity, TSS and reducing sugar was observed where as decrease in ascorbic acid, pH and total sugar was noted throughout the storage period. Organoleptic qualities of wood apple mango blended bar (50:50) were evaluated in comparison with control sample (wood apple fruit bar). The results on sensory parameters indicated that blended bar was superior in most of the quality attributes. Storage upto six months could be possible with wood apple mango bar and the results showed that the product remained safe microbiologically during storage and acceptable after 6 months of storage and no appreciable change was observed. It was found that the medicinal properties of wood apple can be consumed by the consumer by consuming fruit bar.
The stem bark of Feronia limonia was collected in July 2014 from Panjunan Village, Tuban District, East Java, Indonesia. The plant was identified at Herbarium Bogoriense, Center of Biological Research and Development, National Institute of Science, Bogor, Indonesia, and the voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium. The dried and powdered stem bark of Feronia limonia (4.0 kg) were macerated in methanol at room temperature two times, and the methanol extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to give a dark brown residue (170 g). Furthermore, the methanol extract was partitioned with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract (47 g) was separated by vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel eluted with n-hexane–ethyl acetate mixture with gradient amount of ethyl acetate (90:10, 80:20; 50:50 and 30:70) to give four major fractions A-D. The separation of fraction C (1.2 g) by flash chromatography with n-hexane-ethyl acetate (from 8:1 and 7:3) to give three subfractions C 1 -C 3 . Further purification of subfraction C 2 (150 mg) by radial chromatography with n-hexane-diisopropylether
Ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of F. limonia impair reproductive activities in male rats possibly by inhibiting spermatogenesis. It was found that administration of this extract to male rats brought about a significant weight loss of the reproductive organs of the rats, alterations in motility, viability and morphology of spermatozoa. From whole study it was finally concluded that Feronia limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic activity, and could then partially support the scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant in inducing sterility in male 39 .
Aim: The present study investigated the preventive effect and probable mechanism of ethanolic extract of Limonia acidissima (EELA) stem bark as compared to standard (L-dopa) in phenothiazine induced extra pyramidal side effects (catatonia) in experimental rats. The acute as well as chronic dose of chlorpromazine (CPZ) was administered to induce catatonia. Settings and Design: In case of acute study all the animals receive CPZ (8 mg/ kg) only on the 7th day followed by prior treatment of EELA whereas in chronic study all the animals receives CPZ (3 mg/kg) OD for 21 days followed by prior treatment with EELA for 21 days. Body temperature, Catatonic score, Muscle grip strength and locomotor responses were measured to evaluate the extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Methods and Material: The animals were divided into four groups in Control(CPZ)as Group1, Standard treated (L-dopa+CPZ) as Group 2, Test (extract 100 mg/kg+CPZ) as Group 3 and 200 mg/kg body weight as Group 4 and the effect of extract was evaluated in acute as well as chronic induced EPS in experimental rats. Results: Pretreatment with EELA at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the muscle grip strength, decreased the catatonic severity and increased the locomotor effect as compared to control. Increased body temperature (Hyperthermia) indicates that the action of extract is similar as atropine. Conclusion: The statics clearly shows that the EELA stem bark was shown dose dependent anti-catatonic potential in CPZ induced acute and chronic catatonia.
lant-based medicine plays an important role in cancer treatment, and 60% of currently used anticancer agents are derived from plant resources. Limonia acidissima is a tropical fruit distributed in regions of Burma, India, Malaya, and Sri Lanka. The ripe fruit is popularly used as a dessert and a source of beverages, creams, and jellies. It is also used as a tonic to treat dysentery, stomatitis, asthma, leucorrhea, wounds, and ulcer. Ripe fruit of this plant contains tyramine derivatives, acidissimol, acidissiminin, epxide N-benzoyl tyramine, and stigmasterol.
effective agent against Gram-negative infections. Its chemical stability and rapid bactericidal action has made it a first-line drug in a variety of clinical situations. However, nephrotoxicity is the major side effect of aminoglycosides accounting for 10–15% of all cases of acute renal failure. Studies have also shown that 30% of the patients treated with gentamicin for more than seven days show signs of nephrotoxicity. It has been shown that the specificity of gentamicin renal toxicity is related to its preferential accumulation in the renal convoluted tubules and lysosomes. There is a continuous search for agents which provide nephroprotection against the renal impairment caused by drugs like cisplatin and gentamicin, for which allopathy offers no remedial measures.  Thus, it is imperative that mankind turns towards alternative systems of medicine for treatment. Hence, the present study is an attempt to screen Limonia acidissima leaves for their nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activities.
In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the results are expressed as IC50 which is the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity was found to be highest in Phyllanthus emblica followed by Limonia acidissima, Syzygium cumini, Anacardium occidentale, Carissa congesta, Artocarpus hirsutus and the values were 22.52ug/ml, 115.95ug/ml, 226.73ug/ml, 683.73ug/ml, 2.24 mg/ml and 2.65 mg/ml respectively.
INTRODUCTION: The wood apple, swingle (Limonia acidissimia L.) is the only species of its genus, in the family Rutaceae. Besides wood apple, it may be called as elephant apple, monkey fruit, kathbel, and other dialectal names in India 1 . Other Indian names include Kotha, Vila, Vilanga, Kapith, Vela marum 2 . The fruit is a hard-shelled, many- seeded berry with its pinkish-brown aromatic sour- sweet pulp being the edible portion, the seeds embedded in it.
The ethanolic extracts of Limonia acidissima Linn and Ficus hispida Linn exhibits potent antidiabetic activity. The percentage inhibition of glycosylation was found to be dose dependent. Table 3 shown that sample 3 (Limonia acidissima Linn + Ficus hispida Linn) at concentration of 1 mg/ml (39.6%) has shown most effective as compared to the other samples of different concentrations.
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The precise delivery of male to female gametes during reproduction in eukaryotes requires complex signal exchanges and a flawless communication between male and female tissues. In angiosperms, molecular mechanisms have recently been revealed that are crucial for the dialog between male (pollen tube) and female gametophytes required for successful sperm delivery. When pollen tubes reach the female gametophyte, they arrest growth, burst and discharge their sperm cells. These processes are under the control of the female gametophyte via the receptor-like serine-threonine kinase (RLK) FERONIA (FER). However, the male signaling components that control the sperm delivery remain elusive. Here, we show that ANXUR1 and ANXUR2 ( ANX1 , ANX2 ), which encode the closest homologs of the FER-RLK in Arabidopsis , are preferentially expressed in pollen. Moreover, ANX1-YFP and ANX2- YFP fusion proteins display polar localization to the plasma membrane at the tip of the pollen tube. Finally, genetic analyses demonstrate that ANX1 and ANX2 function redundantly to control the timing of pollen tube discharge as anx1 anx2 double- mutant pollen tubes cease their growth and burst in vitro and fail to reach the female gametophytes in vivo. We propose that ANX- RLKs constitutively inhibit pollen tube rupture and sperm discharge at the tip of growing pollen tubes to sustain their growth within maternal tissues until they reach the female gametophytes. Upon arrival, the female FER -dependent signaling cascade is activated to mediate pollen tube reception and fertilization, while male ANX -dependent signaling is deactivated, enabling the pollen tube to rupture and deliver its sperm cells to effect fertilization.
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Disease management has become prominent in aquaculture due to emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens and overuse of chemotherapeutic agents. One among the developmental strategies to control disease outbreak is by enhancing the fish immunity using immunostimulants. The use of dietary herbal immunostimulants can improve the immune defence of fishes, providing resistance against infections. The present study evaluated the possible effects of Limonia acidissima L. fruit (wood apple) supplemented diets on the growth, innate immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Catla fish. Catla catla fingerlings (mean weight 5.0 ± 0.5 g) were separated into four groups and cultivated in 100-L tank. Each group was fed with diets supplemented with 0 g, 1.5 g, 3 g and 6 g per 100 g feed twice daily. Fish were examined for growth and innate immune parameters at 30 days interval up to 120 days. Results revealed that wood apple supplemented diets enhanced the growth and innate immune responses of Catla during the feeding trial. Growth performance, haematological parameters, biochemical parameters and immunological indices significantly (p < 0.05) increased in fish fed with experimental diets. The relative survival percentage after A. hydrophila challenge increased in fish fed with Limonia acidissima diet. Thus, the result suggested that fish fed Limonia acidissima Fruit supplemented diet enhanced growth, improved immune system and increased survival rate in C. catla fingerlings.
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Experiments with old cultures:When the work of the present project was taken up, there already existed prolonged cultures of proliferating shoots raised from shoot meristems, micrografts and nodal stem-segments taken from field- grown healthy plants of C. limonia. Production of plants of respective Citrus limonia was taken up by utilizing such cultures.
splits into two branches (Fig. 6B). One climbs dorsally and innervates a small chordotonal organ (COIIIa) estimated to have between 10 and 15 scolopale caps. This chordotonal organ appears to be anchored dorsally to a cuticular wing base Fig. 6. Schematic diagrams of the peripheral projections of mesothoracic wing nerve IIN1c in Hamadryas feronia. (A) The right half of the mesothorax viewed from the midline, showing nerve root IIN1 and its branches a, b and c. The largest branch, IIN1c projects laterally, around the anterior edge of the dorsoventral flight musculature (dv), and passes under the tegular arm (tga). It then sends a fine branch (N.Teg) to the tegula (Teg) before dividing into three branches: N.I, the most anterior branch; N.II, the middle branch; and N.III, the most posterior branch. Dashed lines illustrate nerves and structures lying behind the dorsoventral flight musculature. Sc, Scutum; dl, dorsolongitudinal musculature. (B) Lateral view of the left mesothorax (anterior is to the left), with scales removed. The three primary wing nerve branches (lying beneath the integument) are shown: N.I innervates the anterior wing veins; N.II innervates chordotonal organ II (COII), which attaches to the inner surface of the tympanal membrane (Tm) of Vogel’s organ and continues up the radial (R) vein; N.III innervates two smaller chordotonal organs, COIIIa and COIIIb, associated with the inner surface of the proximal edge of the Tm. An, anal vein; Ba, basilar sclerite; C, costal vein; Cu, cubital vein; Eps, episternum; M, membranous ampulla; plwp, pleural wing process; Sa, subalar plate; Sc, subcostal vein.
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da Estrela, 3 km S Manteigas, 1000 m, deciduous forest, 9.v.1994 (P. Oosterbroek & C. Hartveld leg.), labelled ‘PORTUGAL Beira Alta / Serra da Estrêla / P.Oosterbroek / & C.Hartveld’ // ‘3 km Z MANTEIGAS / decid. forest 1000 m / 9 V 1994 ST.31’ [both printed, white labels] // ‘HOLOTYPE / Limonia / hartveldae sp. n. ♂ / J. Starý 2017’ [printed, red label]. The specimen is micro-pinned on a stage of polyporus, all legs attached but of hind left leg only femur is present; apex of abdomen cut off, terminalia dissected and placed in a sealed plastic tube with glycerine, pinned with the specimen.