and is influenced by nuclear background of parental lines. Kyu and Saxena (2011) reported three types of gene interactions i.e. digenic dominant epistatic interaction, incomplete dominant epistatic and digenic recessive epistatic. Saroj et al. (2015) studied the segregation patterns for fertility restoration in F 2 and BC 1 F 1 generations of the pigeonpea and indicated the involvement of recessive epistasis, dominant epistasis, and one cross indicated the duplicate recessive epistasis. In the present findings, since all of female parental lines were based on A 4 cytoplasm the differences observed in the inheritance of fertility restoration were attributed to the interaction of genes present in the restorer line and/or a probable variation in the expression of the weaker genes in different genetic backgrounds. The differential mode of action of restorer genes could presumably be due to the influence of the female parent genotype or to the variable expression of the weaker gene in differential segregation behaviour could also be due to the existence of certain modifiers influencing the penetrance and expressivity of the fertility restorer genes.
As the first practical cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) system used in hybrid seed production, the first molecularly characterized cms gene and the first cms system for which a restorer was cloned, cms-T and its restorer system have been intensively studied since their identification. The accumulated knowledge on the cms-T system mainly includes: i) The sterility-causing TURF13 protein is associated with mitochondrial inner membrane. ii) Both functional alleles of the rf1 and rf2a restorer genes are required to counteract the TURF13’s effect and to restore fertility. iii) rf2a encodes a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that is required for fertility restoration. iv) rf1 interferes with the expression of the T-urf13 gene, and the profile leads to a reduction in the accumulation of TURF13 protein. However, the mechanism that underlies how the mitochondrial TURF13 protein disrupts microspore development and how nuclear restorer genes restore the fertility is not fully understood.
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system derived from C. Cajanifolius cytoplasm (Saxena et al. 2005) has shown great promise because of its stable expression under various agro- climatic conditions, availability of reliable maintainers (B lines) and stable fertility restoration. The presence of greater genetic diversity among fertility restorers enhances the probability of breeding widely adapted high yielding hybrids. The information about the number of genes controlling fertility restoration (Rf or Fr) in the nucleus suppress the male sterile phenotype and allow commercial exploitation of the CMS system for the production of hybrid seeds. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetics of fertility restoration system in pigeonpea using F 1 , F 2 and BC 1
seasons) indicating that the season did not have much effect on fertility restoration of the A 4 CMS system. This was also evidenced by the two remaining cases (BC 1 of ICMA 4 88004 × IPC 511 in rainy season, and F 2 of ICMA 4 88004 × IPC 1518 in summer season) where segregation distortion was observed in one case in either of both seasons. The overall segrega- tion patterns of male sterile (S) and fertile (F) plants in populations derived from crosses between the A-lines (81A 4 and ICMA 4 88004) and three diverse R-lines (IPC 511, IPC 804 and IPC 1518) provided the evidence of dominant single-gene segregation for fertility restoration with 3F:1S ratio in F 2 and 1F:1S ratio in BC 1 populations. Du et al. (1996) also reported a single dominant gene for fertility restoration of A 4 cytoplasm in pearl millet, based on the study on a single cross evaluated in a single season. An earlier study found the dominant mono- genic control of fertility restoration of the A 1 -system of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility also in pearl millet (Yadav et al. 2010). The single-gene control of fertility restoration in the A 4 CMS system, as revealed in this study, will help breeders to easily diversify the genetic base of restorers due to ease in the restorer breeding procedure, which in turn will help to diversify the cytoplasmic base of pearl millet hybrids.
Amongst 275 test crosses, 57.45 %, 7.27 %, 35.27 % and 21.09 % were observed as restorers, maintainers, partial restorer and partial maintainers respectively for all the CMS lines included in the study. The pollen and spikelet fertility in the test cross progenies ranged from 0.0 to 94.66 and 0.0 to 81.10 per cent, respectively. The highest pollen and spikelet fertility was observed in test cross; RTN 17A/Pusa-44 (94.66 and 89.10 %) followed by RTN 3 x PR-115 (94.43 and 87.29 %). Among 55 high yielding varieties/ promising lines, 47 genotypes exhibited fertility restoration for any one of the CMS line. Out of 47 genotypes, 14 varieties (25.45 %) were identified as common restorers for all the five CMS lines of five different sources. The frequency of the male parents behaving as effective restorers was found to be maximum (65.45 %) for RTN 2A of ARC source followed by RTN 17A (60.0 %) of Dissi source, KJTCMS-6A (56.36 %) of WA sources, RTN 3A (54.55 %) of Mutant of IR 62829B source and RTN 13A (50.91 %) of Gambiaca source indicating that the fertility in these CMS lines were easy to restore. The genotypes, viz., IR-8866, BL-184AR, IET-13840-RP-66-67, RDN-97-3-2-37-14, PR-115, PKV- Makarand, GR-7, IR-54742-22-19-3, Pusa Sugandha-3, Pusa Sugandh-5, Super basmati, Phule Radha, RP-BIO-226 and GR-11, NVSR-20, IR-63879-195-195-2-2-3-2, IR-22273 and PR-118 were identified as effective restorers may be exploited to develop commercial hybrids and the genotypes, viz., VDN-9-10-1, SYE-4, GR-4, Gurjari, SKL-8, IR-34, SYE-6, SYE-5 and GR-5 were identified as maintainers may be exploited for conversion of CMS sources in above said locally adaptable genotypes.
cytochrome c biogenesis. A unique endonucleolytic B3Tx398/IS1112C was also made for inheritance studies. cleavage event is associated with fertility restoration of IS1112C and all derived lines exhibit strong tillering and the rice Chinsurah Boro II male-sterile cytoplasm ( Iwa- aerial branching traits, allowing near-immortalization of im- portant stocks. Progeny plants grown in the greenhouse were buchi et al. 1993), possibly releasing a transcript car-
The success of hybrid rice technology depends on the extent of heterosis realized, pest resistance and the grain quality of rice. To identify gall midge resistant, non aromatic maintainers and restorers, 114 germplasm lines were crossed with six CMS lines (2 indigenous and four exotic) to get one hundred fifty five hybrids (Rabi, 2012-13) and evaluated with 10 checks (Kharif, 2013) at Rice Research Station, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Based on pollen sterility and spikelet fertility studies, 49 maintainers and 31 restorers were identified. Screening hybrids and their parental lines for gall midge incidence indicated the involvement of dominant genes for gall midge resistance. Forty three hybrids, eleven maintainers and eighteen restorers were resistant to gall midge biotype 3. Gall midge resistant maintainers and restorers will be used for new CMS line and hybrid development respectively. The conventional method of restore line identification among rice germplasm pool is time consuming and labor intensive. Molecular mapping of fertility restorer genes in rice have yielded several closely linked DNA markers that can be used in identifying restorer lines. In order to utilize this available information effectively in marker assisted restorer line identification, validation of reported Rf3 and Rf4 gene linked DNA markers was carried out in this study. A total of seven DNA markers reported to be closely linked with two Rf genes of wild abortive CMS (WA-cms) were chosen. These markers were screened among twenty identified restorers and five maintainer lines. The genotypic data set was generated based on the specific PCR product size. Two DNA markers in combination (RM10313 and RM6100) showed 100% selection efficiency in identifying restorers in the germplasm and 90% selection efficiency in differentiating maintainers from restorers. These validated molecular markers linked to Rf genes would save time and money besides adding accuracy in identification of restorers.
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also mapped to LG 3, with the closest markers ORS13 and ORS1114 at a distance of 1.6 cM. Considering the different origins, these two Rf genes are probably not the same. The H. angustifolius amphiploid was the only one of the ﬁve tested that restored male fertility for CMS 514A, while three amphiploids (H. atrorubens, H. grosseserratus, and H. angus- tifolius) restored male fertility for CMS GIG2. The H. mollis amphiploid failed to restore the male fertility for either CMS (Sunﬂower CMap). Therefore, these two CMSs are likely not the same. Currently, the allelic relationship analysis between Rf 4 and Rf 6 is under investigation to provide more informa-
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The characterization and quantification of genetic diversity within closely related germplasm is of major importance due to its rational use of genetic resources. Analysis of genetic variation among genotypes is of fundamental interest to plant breeders, as it contributes immensely to selection, monitoring of germplasm, and also to prediction of genetic gain (Chakravarthy and Rambabu 2006). The A1 cytoplasm, one of approximately 21 known CMS systems for sorghum, remains the primary CMS system used for hybrid seed production (Schertz et al., 1989). The inheritance of fertility restoration in A1 cytoplasm crosses is dependent on the parental lines involved through one or two major genes Table 2: Characteristics of the SSR primers used and their chromosome location, product size, number of
High live birth rates (20%) were obtained naturally after WOCP&TP in this study, and the first filial gener- ation of rats gave live birth to second and third genera- tions. All the offspring were alive and normal in appearance, suggesting that the nature of successive gen- erations was unaffected by cryopreservation. This posi- tive finding holds promise for the clinical application of fertility preservation in women who require ovarian cryopreservation. However, further experimentation, such as molecular testing, is required to investigate any influence of cryopreservation on genetic stability. In addition, not all rats that cycled regularly got pregnant. It is likely that adhesions around the transplanted ovary and uterus physically obstructed gamete transport and/ or caused ovulatory dysfunction, based on postmortem findings. Further studies are required to resolve this. However, in clinical practice, fertility restoration in women following WOCP&TP need not to be totally
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The fertility restoration performance of the genotypes varies with genetic background of CGMS lines. More emphasis should be given to utilize proper rice genotypes, as parental lines to achieve the goal of developing superior hybrids with better grain quality. The identified restorers and maintainers from this study are locally adapted. The restorer lines viz., ADT 43 and AS 10070 could be utilized to develop good grain quality hybrids with medium slender grains and ADT 37 can be used to develop coarse grain hybrids. New restorer can be developed through recombinant breeding which can expand the genetic base of restorer by pyramiding complementary traits from diverse sources according to breeding objectives. The maintainer lines identified could be utilized in back cross breeding programme, for development of their male sterile versions. Being the popular and well adapted varieties, conversion of CO 51 and ADT 47 into CGMS lines could be useful to develop rice hybrids with marketable grain quality and consumer preference. Conversion of the popular and well adapted varieties like TKM 9 and PMK 3 could be of great use in the development of drought tolerant rice hybrids. Many CGMS lines were developed in rice through back cross breeding by earlier workers namely, Shen Xian-hua et al. (2013) and Thiyagarajan et al. (2013).
Because Rf1 is a gene for male-fertility restoration, expres- sion patterns of these genes in anthers helps narrow down the coding region of Rf1. RNA samples from NK–198 anthers, leaves, and roots were subjected to reverse transcription (RT)–PCR analysis. Primers for bvORF12–bvORF35, genes located in the region delimited by genetic markers mP-A16 and mCP-L6 (Hagihara et al. 2005b) (see Figure 1), were designed; a single primer set was expected to amplify bvORF18–bvORF21 because these genes were very similar (Figure S5) (quadruplicated genes). Results of the 21 RT – PCR analyses are summarized in Table 1 (see also Figure S1). Transcripts of all genes except bvORF22, bvORF28, bvORF29, and bvORF34 were detected in all organs exam- ined. No amplicon was observed in any organs when the bvORF28- or the bvORF29-speciﬁc primer set was used, whereas organ-speciﬁc expression was observed in bvORF22 and bvORF34, whose transcript levels were below the de- tection limit in leaves and roots, respectively.
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Premature ovarian failure after chemotherapy is individ- ual and dependent upon type and dose of the adminis- tered cytostatic drug, patients ’ age and pretreatment ovarian reserve [8, 13]. Menstrual cycle resumption may occur within the first year after chemotherapy [13, 14]; however, there is always uncertainty over the personalised probability for fertility restoration. A recent study focused on a very early phase of ovarian function recovery for young breast cancer patients, claiming that recovery may follow two different patterns, i.e. demonstrating slow or fast recovery pattern . In women belonging to the slow recovery group, all growing follicles are likely destroyed, possibly due to a higher individual susceptibility to chemotherapy. Conversely, women with a fast recovery may still have some antral follicles left, which resume their growth after the end of treatment . The development of the primordial follicles from the quiescent state to the growing antral follicles takes about six months to accom- plish in human ovaries, explaining the relatively slow cycle restoration [13, 15]. In certain patients, the restoration, if any, may take months or even years. Indeed, the patient in the current study received six cycles of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in 2010 – 2011 and had a slow and partial recovery to experience irregular oligomenorrhea by the year 2012.
tively quick to apply as approximately 2-3 ha can be treated in one day (Landlife 2008), although ex- act area will depend of soil type. However, it is suggested that an ecological impact assessment be carried out before treatment to ensure that the soil profile type is suitable for this treatment (Hesling- ton here but not Kirkby). This should be carried out using the method outlined here – 7 depth samples per ha (Stolbovoy et al. 2005). Another situation where fill inversion tillage was considered was to assist with restoration of acid grassland and heathland on ex-arable land at Minsmere in Suffolk in the 1990s (R. H. Marrs, pers. comm.). At Minsmere, there was a need to reduce soil pH, exchangeable Ca and extractable P, but full inversion tillage was deemed inappropriate because there was no significant change in any of these soil properties within a 1 m depth profile (Marrs et al. 1998). Once the decision is made to use full inversion tillage then its impact can be tested statistically using the method out - lined here and monitored through time if required.
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The aim of this work is to study the effec- tiveness of experimental introduction by gy- necological service into medical practice of the clinic of the sanatorium “Okzhetpes” “Almaty” of free specialized and high-tech medical care with the use of endovideosurgery and their in- fluence on restoration of women’s fertility.
Preparation of two T. reesei MAT1‑1 inbred strain lines In a first attempt to identify genes that are absent or mutated in T. reesei QM6a but functional in sexually reproducing wild-type isolates, and thus are potentially responsible for the observed female sterility of strain QM6a, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of the T. reesei strains C.P.K. 1282 (MAT1-1), C.P.K. 170 (MAT1- 1) and C.P.K. 938 (MAT1-2). The two MAT1-1 strains were chosen as they reproduce sexually with QM6a and C.P.K. 938 mates with the two MAT1-1 strains. Compara- tive genome analysis of these strains revealed cumulative sequence differences between them and T. reesei QM6a of a magnitude ranging from 21,000 to 141,000 SNVs (single nucleotide variants) in all exon regions preventing the straightforward identification of genes responsible for female sterility. Therefore, we used an inbreeding strat- egy first to narrow down the number of candidate genes. We crossed QM6a with different available MAT1-1 wild- type strains followed by backcrossing of the MAT1-1 progenies with QM6a to establish inbred strain lines (see Additional file 1: Table S1). Thereby, strain CBS999.97 was identified as the ideal candidate since these crossings were highly reproducible. Fruiting bodies were formed within 5–10 days vs. 10–20 days for the other tested wild- type strains. Furthermore, the sexual fertility of the prog- enies was highest from crosses with CBS999.97 whereas the progenies of the other crosses lost their sexual fertil- ity to cross with QM6a after one or two generations.
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genetic backgrounds because of which different segregation ratios are obtained in different combinations of CMS and restorer lines. In order to evolve hybrids that are superior in yield potential to the existing ones and adaptable in newer areas, one essential component of the requisite methodology is to identify newer potential restorer and maintainer lines from locally adopted material through systematic generation of new crosses and their proper evaluation. Therefore, there is a need to identify an effective restorer line having tightly linked Rf genes, so that marker aided selection can be used as a tool to identify restorers at an early stage of crop growth, there by such identified lines can be utilized to effect hybrids in the very present season. Keeping these points in view, present study was planned to characterize newly developed lines into maintainer and restorers based on floral fertility and SSR markers markers linked to fertility restorer gene. 2 Material and Methods
Giant prolactinomas are a rare entity; they are mainly found in men, are locally aggressive, invading the cavernous sinuses and skull base bones, and extending to the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx (1, 2). Giant prolactinomas are very rarely found in women and are described mainly in postmenopausal women. Consequently, the present clinical case of a young woman with a giant prolactinoma with the restoration of fertility is of interest. At the present time the main method of treatment of prolactinomas, including giant prolactinomas, is dopamine agonist therapy, which is effective in achieving normalization of the PRL level and eyesight, reduction of the tumour volume in the majority of patients and restoration of fertility (3, 4, 5, 6). We present a woman with a giant prolactinoma. Despite the giant size of the tumour which invaded the skull base bones, high PRL level and primary amenorrhoea, cabergoline was effective in normalization of the PRL level, tumour shrinkage, menarche and pregnancy induction which led to the birth of children.
The parameters of soil fertility in the 3-field short rotary grain and vegetable crop rotation were relatively high. The humus content in the control was equal to 2,07%, for versions with organic-mineral fertilizers - 2,30-2,79%. Fertilized variants of nitrogen contained 30,8-37,8 mg/kg (control - 29,4 mg/kg), potassium - 380-540 mg/kg (control - 305 mg/kg). The absorption capacity of the soil is reduced bases - 15-17mg eq./100g at baseline - 20-21 mEq./100g. Amongst the predominant cations is calcium (85-87%). The content of heavy metals in the soil within the permissible limits, however, their level increases, which can lead to contamination of soil and products. Texture of the soil has changed for the worse (fraction <0,01 mm from 43-45% to 54-57%). Improvement of soil fertility parameters can only be achieved when organic and mineral fertilizers vegetable crop rotation system. Fertilizer increased the yield of potato tubers to the control (18,7 t/ha) at 17,11-51,34%. Increase crop of onions from fertilizers to the control (28,5 t/ha) was 6,2- 15,6 t/ha (21,75-54,74%). Harvest of sugar beet from fertilizers increased from 26,5 t/ha (control) to 31,9-42,1 t/ha. Additionally received 20,38-58,87%. Most effective on potatoes N180P180K180, onions and beets - N150P90K120. In tubers increased solids content (24,86-25,18%) and starch (16,0-17,8%). Quality bulbs and roots varied little depending on the conditions of mineral nutrition.
(TBTO and MSCs vehicles control) and Group 5(TBTO and MSCs treated group) rats were given (0.062) mg/kg b.wt TBTO twice a week for 3 months and then injected intravenously with a single dose of MSCs (3x10 6 cells in 0.5 ml phosphate buffer saline) per animal. After 5 months, male rats were allowed to mate with untreated females and then dissected. Serum samples were collected and testis sections were imune-histochemical stained for detection of CD44 positive and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells. Results showed that, TBTO caused significant reduction in the body weight, fertility rate and reproductive functions. The Seminiferous tubules appeared atrophied with obstructed lumen and oligospermia. However, the depletion of germ cells and decrease of PCNA-were noticed. Transplantation of MSCs markedly restored the reduction of body weights, fertility rate, serum testosterone, LH, FSH hormones, testicular enzymes, sperm counts and improved testicular DNA fragmentation. In the testicular tissue, CD44 positive cells were detected after 3months of MSCs transplantation with increase in the proliferative capacity (PCNA) stained cells. Even more, MSCs transplantation showed normal spermatogenesis process and complete recovery in germinal layers. In conclusion, MSCs transplantation can restore male fertility after disruption induced by tributyltin oxide in rats. If this protocol was proven to be functional in human, this would provide a new therapeutic concept for male infertility treatment.
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