She focused on figurativelanguage and how they are realized in the bahasa Indonesia translation text translated by Syaribah Noor Brice. According to Wales (2001), figurativelanguage or figure of speech is the device to create the imagination by comparing two or more different things and it violates the rules of linguistics. There are seven types of figurativelanguage, such as simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, litotes, metonym, and synecdoche. She also adopted Delabastita‟s translation strategies to identify figurativelanguage in the bahasa Indonesia translation text. Delabastita‟s strategies are figurativelanguage to figurativelanguage, figurativelanguage to non figurativelanguage, and zero translation. The first Delabastita‟s strategy is figurativelanguage to figurativelanguage. The first strategy is figurativelanguage to figurativelanguage which the ST figurativelanguage is transferred into a TT figurativelanguage. The second strategy is figurativelanguage to non figurativelanguage which the ST figurativelanguage is not transferred into TT figurativelanguage. The last strategy is zero translation which is meant that the original ST figurativelanguage was omitted. The translator omits the whole ST figurativelanguage occurred in a sentence.
To make a translation, it is necessary to know the technique of translating the foreign language into the target language. According to Bendana and Melby (2012: 13), translation is an operation which consists in rendering a written source text to a written target text that retains elements of information, form, functionality, and tone abiding by agreed- on specifications. In translation, a movie not only based on the source language but also be seen from the aspect of the translation quality. There are 3 aspects in rate the translation quality in order to produce a good translation. According to Nababan (2012:44), there are 3 the parameters of the translation quality, is accuracy, acceptability, and readability.
This research is aimed at examining the kinds of figurativelanguage and analyzing the meaning of those figurative languages in particular contextual meaning. The research type conducted by the writer is descriptive qualitative research. The data source of this research is taken from the manuscript of song lyrics of Coldplay Album. The writer employs documentation as the method of collecting data with the steps: collecting the data, reading, rewriting, and classifying the data. In analyzing the data, the writer examines the kinds of figurativelanguage found in Coldplay Album by referring to the theory from Larson in his book “Meaning-Based Translation” and Saeed in his book “Semantics". Describe the meaning of figurativelanguage sentence that found in Coldplay Album by referring to contextual meaning.
Computational work on metaphor has largely fo- cused on metaphor detection within individual sentences, for the purpose of identification of literal meaning, with an eye towards improve- ment of downstream applications like Machine Translation. This limited conceptualization of metaphor within these restricted contexts has al- lowed prior work to leverage local indicators to identify metaphorical language, such as the vi- olation of selectional preferences (Martin, 1996; Shutova et al., 2010; Huang, 2014) or the use of abstract vs concrete descriptors (Turney et al., 2011; Brysbaert et al., 2014; Tsvetkov et al., 2013). When detecting metaphor in an extended discourse, and especially for the purpose of mod- eling the use of metaphor in interaction, however, a broader conceptualization of metaphor is needed in order to accommodate the many places where these simplifying assumptions break down (Jang
In constructing the final project, I focused the research on the whole songs that related figurativelanguage in the lyric of Superman Is Dead’s song, compilation album. I took them because, after listening the songs and reading the texts I found many stanzas that contained sense of depression in figurativelanguage expressions. The data were gathered from the text of the songs. In order that I could easily understand the meaning of the songs, I started listening and reading them to discover their figurativelanguage in Superman Is Dead’s Songs lyrics mean as revealing sense of depression, and figurativelanguage of expressions and aesthetic aspect. I also used discourse analysis approaches to analyze the songs. I arranged some other sufficient data by doing library activities. I selected some books related to the subject matter to support my effort in conducting the analysis.
Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013). Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015). Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurativelanguage. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015). The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms.
In this work we propose a computational study of figurativelanguage in comparisons. To this end, we build the first large collection of naturally oc- curring comparisons with figurativeness annota- tion, which we make publicly available. Using this resource we explore the linguistic patterns that characterize similes, and group them in two con- ceptually distinctive classes. The first class con- tains cues that are agnostic of the context in which the comparison appears (domain-agnostic cues). For example, we find that the higher the seman- tic similarity between the two arguments, the less likely it is for the comparison to be figurative—in the examples above, sterling is semantically very similar to gold, both being metals, but song and gold are semantically dissimilar. The second type of cues are domain-specific, drawing on the in- tuition that the domain in which a comparison is used is a factor in determining its figurativeness. We find, for instance, that the less specific a com- parison is to the domain in which it appears, the more likely it is to be used in a figurative sense (e.g., in example (2), gold is very unexpected in the musical domain).
This paper proposes a technique to create fig- urative relationships using Mikolov et al.’s word vectors. Drawing on existing work on figurativelanguage, we start with a pair of words and use the intersection of word vector similarity sets to blend the distinct semantic spaces of the two words. We conduct prelim- inary quantitative and qualitative observations to compare the use of this novel intersection method with the standard word vector addition method for the purpose of supporting the gen- eration of figurativelanguage.
Since the Jakarta Post is the only English newspaper distributed in Indonesia including Pagaralam city in South Sumatera, it is worth-study for lecturers, teachers, students and those people who have interest in English not only to read but also to learn any language aspects found in the newspaper. It is also quite easy for us to buy in magazines agency because it has such a large selling area across Indonesia, while others are hard to find. Lecturers who teach reading for example, can use this authentic material for Extensive Reading because this is the only source available.
Poetry, as one of the literature subjects has many differences from the others. Learning poetry is not easy as learning fiction, drama or the others because the material of this subject is poem-words that consist of figurativelanguage and sometimes connotation and it is difficult to interpret. However, the language of poems is not only amusement and decoration, it aids to the poet’s messages to the readers, also entails in social fact, human mature, and personal experiences. Kennedy, states that many readers who have no trouble understanding and enjoying prose find poetry difficult. The difficulty of poetry is sometimes it can’t be understood and enjoyed on first reading, because a poem has to be read slowly, carefully, attentively and more than one reading. 5
The main purpose of communication is sending messages to other human. In sending the message, the sender does not only use an explicit message but also uses an implicit message, that the meaning of message is different from usual message. Explicit message is directly and clearly expressing something and leaving little room for interpretation. Implicit message is not directly expressing something, it uses visuals, body language, colors, etc. to interpret the meaning.
written, and every language is a historically evolved self-contained system, diverging, on a large scale, from other languages in the substance of expression. Language encodes all that is shared by a community. Thus, differences in cultural practices are also encoded in language. The Bible originates from cultures that are different from that of the Gĩkũyũ receptor. The Old Testament (OT) was originally written mostly in Hebrew; the New Testament (NT) was originally written wholly in Greek. This study assumed that some culturally bound terms and texts that refer to novel cultural practices in the Hebrew and Greek texts were literally transferred into the 1965 Gĩkũyũ Bible. Nida and Taber (1964) make it clear that there are not always formal equivalents between language pairs. The use of formal equivalents might at times have serious implications in the TT since it distorts the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language, and by extension, the message. This researcher is in agreement with Nida and Taber (1969) that dynamic equivalence is to be recommended in translating culturally bound practices, terms and figurative expressions. Nida and Taber (1982) argue that in dynamic equivalence, “Frequently, the form of the original text is changed; but as long as the change follows the rules of back transformation in the source language, of contextual consistency in the transfer and of transformation in the receptor language, the message is preserved and the translation is faithful.”
This paper aims to critically review current studies with respect to definitions, methods, and results on the comprehension of metaphor, metonymy, idioms, and proverbs under the following clinical conditions: aphasia, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, brain injuries, specific language impairment, and Williams Syndrome. A comprehensive search of experimental psycholinguistic research was conducted using EBSCOhost, PsychInfo, PUBMED, and Web of Science databases. Thirty-eight studies met the review inclusion criteria. Results point to deficits in figurativelanguage comprehension in all conditions considered, lack of clear definitions of the phenomena investigated, and varied methods throughout the sample. Patients’ difficulties are attributed to multiple factors, such as a lack of Theory of Mind, executive dysfunctions, and poor semantic knowledge. The study of nonliteral aspects of language comprehension in clinical populations reveals a range of disparate impairments. There was no specific feature about metaphor-related phenomena identified that could, on its own, account for the difficulty some populations have to understand figurativelanguage. Rather, metaphor-related language comprehension difficulties are often part of pragmatic, linguistic, and/or cognitive impairments. Keywords: Figurativelanguage. Metaphor. Metonymy. Proverb. Clinical populations.
Although the problem of similar languagetranslation has been an area of research inter- est for many years, yet it is still far from be- ing solved. In this paper, we study the per- formance of two popular approaches: statisti- cal and neural. We conclude that both meth- ods yield similar results; however, the perfor- mance varies depending on the language pair. While the statistical approach outperforms the neural one by a difference of 6 BLEU points for the Spanish-Portuguese language pair, the proposed neural model surpasses the statisti- cal one by a difference of 2 BLEU points for Czech-Polish. In the former case, the language similarity (based on perplexity) is much higher than in the latter case. Additionally, we re- port negative results for the system combina- tion with back-translation.
After looking at the figurative languages commonly used by Kakong Community, the conclusion and implication can be drawn as follow: first, the types of figurative languages commonly used by the Kakong community are similes, metaphors, and idioms. Second, the functions of those figurative languages are to criticize, to insult, and to give comment to something. Third, using figurativelanguage is more preferable for Kakong community when giving advice, suggestion, and criticism because they are considered more polite than direct language. Fourth, Kakong people have the obligation to save their language. Fifth, preserving figurativelanguage as one of the old culture heritages needs to be considered by extending further research. Seven, people of Kakong village should be proud of having figurativelanguage and they are supposed to use them continually. The last, the hidden values in figurative languages need to be understood to get a better relationship in social life.
This paper investigates the use of figurativelanguage as one of the main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, and Design) Talks,a new science popularising genre. Drawing upon Wikberg’s (2008) similes classification,which analyses the patternsas ADJ/ADV as, is like N, is like V-ing N, and V like N,the paper examines the use of similes as an explanatory strategy for knowledge dissemination. Focussing on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the TED talks held between 2006 and 2012,the study shows how TEDsters use similes to compare complex scientific concepts to everyday life experiences;to breach the expert/non expert barrier so that non-experts can participate in the scientific findings;and to look at science as ideas to be discussed rather than information to be passively received. The study also reveals that rather than focussing on culture-bound similes, these audience-oriented talks tend to avoid local cultural references that would not be understood abroad.
In assigning polarities to senses, three annotators participated. Two of them mapped senses to GI, and the third refereed any disagreement. The annota- tors aligned metaphorical and expanded senses from WordNet, considering synsets and GES, with the cor- responding senses from GI and took into account the polarity orientation (pos/neg) assigned to these senses. As synsets and GES denote the contextual use of the given sense, they can also reveal its polarity orien- tation in a given context. For each corpus subset (metaphors and expansions) there were two sets of senses, one extracted manually and one using auto- matic WSD. The annotators performed the alignment of all four of these sense sets with GI, which was ex- ploited in the experimental evaluation. The results for the four polarity alignment tasks concern disagree- ment upon polarity alignment between annotators. In particular for metaphors, annotators disagreed in 10 senses for manual and 13 senses for automatic dis- ambiguation, out of a total of 128 senses. Moreover for expansions annotators disagreed in 20 senses for manual and 24 senses for automatic disambiguation, out of a total of 243 senses. In preliminary research we performed an extra alignment with GI in order to detect if the figurative senses investigated are polar. Results show us that according to GI, the majority of metaphors (positive: 38.28%, negative: 35.15%) and expansions (positive: 31.27% negative: 37.8%) are po- lar. This verifies our initial hypothesis concerning the polarity of metaphors and expansions.