In the developed materials, the teachers could facilitate the students’ knowledge construction, as they are required to practice and discuss the topics especially selected from their workplace. When the students are working to- gether, in discussion, pair work, or role-play, they can give and get other in- formation and enrich their nursing knowledge from their partners. Besides, the topics are presented in a series of tasks requiring the students to use the lan- guage, which has about the right level of difficulty for them, so that the lan- guage is still within their ability to use. In giving an explanation to the patients about the procedure of preparing the operation, for instance, the students are only required to use imperatives. As senior high school graduates, the students are supposed to have learned such patterns. Now, they only need to activate this knowledge. The difficult thing for the students, in this case, may be the vo- cabulary they have to use in their instructions, yet, they can work together with their partner to recall as well as to enrich the vocabulary they have learned pre- viously.
The first variation pattern shows that a significantly higher percentage of students with limited exposure to oralcommunication in English than those with non-limited exposure reported high use of 12 individual CSs. These strategies, which mainly involve the students’ employment of help-seeking and mother tongue (L1) as well as avoidance, are: ‘using all-purpose words instead of the exact intended ones’ (MS1), ‘thinking first of what one wants to say in Vietnamese and then constructing the English sentence’ (MS21), ‘asking the interlocutor to slow down’ (MR3), ‘keeping silent to gain time to think about how to express the intended message’ (MS14), ‘appealing for help from the interlocutor for how to express the intended meaning’ (MS27), ‘asking the interlocutor to simplify his/her language’ (MR1), ‘trying to translate into Vietnamese little by little to understand what the interlocutor has said’ (MR12), ‘appealing for assistance from someone else around for how to express the intended meaning’ (MS28), ‘appealing for assistance from someone else around to clarify the interlocutor’s message’ (MR7), ‘giving up when one can’t make himself/herself understood’ (MS38), ‘leaving the message unfinished because of some language difficulty’ (MS24), and ‘asking the interlocutor to use Vietnamese’ (MR4).
This work is founded upon theoretical work on communicative competence, as propounded by Canale and Swain (1980) and by Bachman (1990). According to Canale and Swain (see also, Canale, 1983), communicative competence consists of four indispensable components: grammatical (also known as linguistic), sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competences. Grammatical competence involves knowledge of lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence- grammar semantics, and phonology. Sociolinguistic competence is concerned with the knowledge of sociocultural rules of language and discourse. Discourse competence reflects the ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form meaningful wholes out of series of utterances. Strategic competence refers to the verbal and non-verbal communication strategies that might be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or insufficient competence. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners to reach a level of communicative competence, all four components are of critical importance, although the current study targets just the first two.
According to Dornyei and Scott (1995), communication breakdowns are usually caused by four problems which they classified as resource deficit, processing time pressure, own-performance problems and other-performance problems. These difficulties are referred to as problem-orientedness in which they are valid in defining problems that occur during communication. Resource deficit is a problem faced by learners due to insufficient knowledge of the target language (Jamshidnejad 2011). Due to this lack, the learners‟ target language speech system is said to be incomplete compared to the speech system of the learners‟ native language (Dornyei & Scott 1995, Dornyei & Kosmos 1998). The processing time pressure concerns with the difficulty of having too much time in constructing sentences in the target language (Dornyei & Scott 1995). According to Jamshidnejad (2011), this problem happens when learners are having spontaneous communication with the native speaker of the target language. Learners will usually apply fillers as their hesitation device and repeat the target language words for several times (Dornyei & Scott 1997). The own- performance problems are detected when learners realise mistakes in their own target language productions (Dornyei & Scott 1995, Dorneyi & Scott 1997). Usually, this difficulty is covered by paraphrasing, self-repairing and editing. The other-performing problems include the difficulties of perceiving what is said by the interlocutors (Dornyei & Scott 1997, Jamshidnejad 2011). Since learners have not yet acquired the words, structure system and idioms of the target language, they will find interlocutors‟ speeches confusing (Jamshidnejad 2011). The result is they perceive wrong meaning from the interlocutors‟ utterances.
being beginners. Second, students demonstrating ability in speaking English may not always impress their peers - trying to speak English with peers, if not prompted by the classroom tasks, can be seen as a showing-off act, and can be inconvenient for the other students. Third, because they share the same lingua franca (Indonesian), all the students prefer using Indonesian to English when interacting with one another and with their teacher (Suryanto, 2015). In addition, the allocated time for English tuition at secondary schools may not be sufficient to accommodate the different needs of the students in the classroom (Mustafa, 2001; Sahiruddin, 2013). All these reasons can lead to the absence of collaborative classroom tasks, where students and teachers may actively engage in. With this absence, promoting meaningful L2 interaction in the classroom can be difficult to facilitate because of the lack of language model in the classroom-based L2 interaction, which often comes from the teachers.
- Although the audio-lingual method is considered one of the traditional methods in teaching and its users are seen old-fashioned, the researcher believes that it is suitable to be used in teaching Englishoralcommunication as this method focuses on pronunciation and the needed skills of oralcommunication. This opinion agrees with many studies like  study that states the positive effect of using the audio-lingual method in teaching speaking skills,  study that showed the importance of using audio-lingual method to improve the students’ listening skill through phonetic symbols,  that proved the benefits of using Audio-Lingual method in teaching speaking skills,  who declared that the audiolingual method focuses on repetition some words to memorize which helps students to build their oralcommunication,  study proved that the audio- lingual method can enhance speaking skills like the topics that need comprehending being communicated fluently; selecting the suitable vocabularies for the blanks in the conversations; pronouncing the vocabularies and expressing sentences in good intonation and pronunciation; and using the correct structures during applying the audio-lingual method; Richards and Rodgers  study that stated that this method is a perfect method to be used in teaching foreign or second language as it gives the priority to listening and speaking before reading and writing in teaching language skills.
The third task (Appendix C1) involved asking the three speakers to each produce a 1.5–5 minute speech. The listeners then referred to the selected speech to answer true/false comprehension questions (Appendix C2). First, the use of speech in assessing comprehensibility allows a more authentic representation of spontaneous speech in daily communication. Second, a given topic of the speech is guided along with certain images and a storyline so that the utterances will be more logical and to prevent factors of failure in comprehension other than pronunciation. Third, keywords were specifically chosen so that the words that better express the phonological features of FilipinoEnglish could not be intentionally avoided by the speakers. Fourth, the use of true/false questions allows listeners to show their understanding of the meaning of utterances through the correct judgement of answers. Therefore, the comprehensibility of FilipinoEnglish to student teachers of English in Hong Kong may be investigated through the speech comprehension task. In task 3, wrong selections and blank answers were counted as wrong as they do not prove that the listeners were able to comprehend the speech and determine whether the statement was true or not. The intelligibility and comprehensibility scores were calculated by the number of correct answers over the total number of items. The dictation results were then analysed and compared to the errors or features produced by the speakers in the audio in order to understand whether the features affected the intelligibility and comprehensibility to the student teachers.
Attitude towards school in general Reasons for schooling:
Before students begin any lesson at school, there should be some questions answered. Why do they come to school? Is it because their parents send them there every morning? Or, do they come to school to be with their friends? Or, being at school is better than at home listening to their mum's nagging? Or, they simply want to learn? Only students know why they go to school. No matter what the students' reasons are, the teacher is ever ready to impart knowledge because that is his only reason for being at school, a place to give and impart formal education. Students’ level of responsibility: Once they know the reason why they go to school, then they should know their responsibilities as a student. Among others, do the tasks given, take part in class activities, complete the homework, take initiative to do extra work in addition to the ones given, and last but not least, respect the teacher.
9b After the late rice has harvested, people in Ningbo begin making rice cakes.
As the title The Story of Staple Foods suggests, this episode is to introduce various kinds of staple foods people in different parts of China enjoy, which are manifested by a series of stories about some real people. In the above examples, 6a, 7a, 8a, 9a are the first sentence to introduce some isolated story about a different local staple food. While in the source text, themes in each sentence vary, the topic of the description remains the same, namely, Chinese people and their varied staple foods. Unlike Chinese, which is a topic-prominent language, English is a subject-prominent language which , and most of the time the subject serves as the theme, so in the translated English version 6b, 7b, 8b, 9b “people” is chosen as the theme, while not the same ones as in the source language, originally “地扪在侗语里的意思”(the meaning of Dimen in Dong dialect), “与黎平米粉做法非常相似的是” (What resembles the way of making NIping rice noodles)，“中国以秦岭、淮河一线”(China along the line of Qinling mountains and Huai river)，“ 晚稻成熟之后”(after the late rice has harvested) in the source text. As the theme is the bridge to connect the known information and the new information, the original themes in Chinese are too scattered and may block the continuity of the text if translated literally. So to keep the translated documentary commentary a natural and coherent whole and to facilitate understanding and acceptance among the target language audiences, the translator restructured and transformed the sentence and arrange them according to the target themantic progression pattern.
endorsements are not accurate, companies may be harmed (p. 11).” Development of faculty in student grading and evaluation can provide a solid basis of expectations of student performance for an entire academic department. Developing rubrics that are used for grading research papers, presentations, essays, case studies, and other assignments can provide a foundation for student writing improvement while pursuing their degree programs. Over the past 50 years there has been a “consistent increase in the average grade point average (GPA) of college students at 4-year institutions;… grading leniency and the frequency of nontraditional letter grades are explanations” (Kostal et al, p. 11 &18). For employers who use GPA minimums during selection for interviews, organizations should take grade inflation into account. Providing guidelines, support, and departmental rubrics for faculty, especially adjuncts, could mitigate grade inflation and provide employers with a more realistic guidepost for hiring.
361 Capital believes strongly in the advantages of exposure to managed futures strategies. Managed futures strategies have played an important role in portfolios for many years, and after the dust settled on March 9, 2009, the benefit of managed futures in a portfolio during the 2008 crisis was undeniable. For example, from September 2008 through March 2009 the HFRX Systematic Diversified CTA Index (a benchmark for managed futures strategies) was up 14.14% while the S&P 500 was down -36.71%. In response to such dramatic returns, many advisors re-evaluated their asset allocation mixes and determined that the correlation and performance benefits from allocating to the managed futures category was worth serious consideration. Many took it a step further and actually implemented the strategy. To put this into perspective, $232 million flowed into managed futures in 2007; this space grew to approximately $7.5 billion between 2008 and 2011. There was only one problem…THEY WERE NOT PERFORMING! At least not from 2009 through 2012. Since then, advisors and clients have grown tired of waiting for the performance of 2008 to return. Which is understandable because the average performance of managed futures strategies were down an average of -3.23%, according to the HFRX Diversified CTA Index. This number only gets worse if you examine the small universe of managed futures mutual funds that were available over the same period.
The first significance of this study is to help BE lecturer to better understand the factors impeding the learners and their OEC needs to reduce the impeding factors in BE classroom. This is importan to do, considering that the learners who have taken prereqisite subjects still face problems o f using OEC to participate in the learning activitie in BE classroom and the factors causing the problems and the the solution the learners need to reduce the impeding factors still are not optimally explored. Second, a major contribution o f this study is to provide new insights by exploring both the learning and target oralEnglishcommunication needs of the learners in BE classroom context. As mentioned early that previous studies (Ferish, 1998 and Hanim, 2008) have documented that oralEnglishcommunication needs of learners in Engineering field are associated with the target needs o f learners. Little attention or even no has been given by the previous researchers to focus on both the oralEnglish learning and the target needs o f learners. This study examined both the learning and the target needs o f learners to explore the complexity o f OEC Englishcommunication needs o f the learners to address the gabs in the literature. The study develops an oralEnglishcommunication needs of the learners, the framework was expected to give insights how to relate between the factors impeding the learners and the things they needs in developing OEC competencie in the BE classroom. It was also hoped that it will become a theory that suit best with the other contexts which are similar charcteristics with the current study. The findings o f this research was also expected to be a valuable refererence for establishing oralEnglishcommunication needs in which theoritically can be adapted and adopted for developing BE subject
Englishoralcommunication competency of the Thai civil engineering students in this research was studied with the proposed tools aiming to assess their ability in the specific language components. By the first instrument, students were ranged at the average level of competency demonstrated from their performance but in the real workplace, their Englishoralcommunication competency are stated at average to low quality as similar to other countries in ASEAN (Yin, 1988; Gordon, 2002; Orsi and Orsi, 2002; Riemer, 2002; Cowling, 2007; Yasin et al., 2010). Significant errors mostly found as grammatical errors when giving personal information and describing situations of accidents showed the lack of knowledge of basic structures in English. But, with the pictures of specific context like safety equipment and signs used in the construction workplace, students showed an acceptable level of communication with the application of their schema knowledge even though they made errors in structures and lack of vocabulary in some specific tasks. This finding demonstrated that pictures representing vocabulary needed in the field of their workplace with the target language could be important stimulus for Englishoral competency improvement. Tratnik (2008) has mentioned that special lexical, semantic and syntactic characteristics of technical language with communicative function enable people in a professional field to convey the meaning more specifically. Therefore, the teaching of English for specific purposes should be good enough for developing communicative strategies for non-native speakers. Considering on the details of this finding, in term of pronunciation the participants made mistakes frequently are the omission of the final sounds and giving wrong pronunciation which may come from different language systems. Teaching the system of English pronunciation to provide the ground knowledge for pronouncing correct vocabulary and pointing out the differences of pronunciation in Thai and English language systems can help develop the students‟ oral competency though it may take long time to reach the goal.
From a theoretical standpoint, perfectionism would have an impact on the career decision-making abilities of individuals. Based on multidimensional model of perfectionism (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), it is possible that perfectionism can be linked to negative outcomes when personal standards and dysfunctional thoughts are intertwined. To the extent that personal standards are accompanied by negative thoughts, vulnerability to maladaptive outcomes like depression (Blatt, 1995), eating disorder (Goldner, Cockell, & Srikameswaran, 2002), and suicide (Blankstein, Lumley, & Crawford, 2007) increases.
Whyhave a website
Your online presence can be a very basic website with several simple pages, or it can be something more advanced, sprouting interactive features, complex forms, and a mobile app to boot. While physicians have diﬀerent needs than restaurant or ecommerce shop owners, some prefer to have all the bells and whistles on their site, while others might even question the very need for an online presence.
There are two possible reasons for this alarming picture of the participants’ vocabulary knowledge. The first reason may be the lack of input in EFL contexts. For second language vocabulary learning to happen, learners need to have a lot of exposure to the target language (Webb & Nation, 2017). However, in EFL contexts such as in Vietnam, the input is very limited; classrooms appear to be the main environment for learners to get exposure to English. The lack of input would limit the chances of learning the most frequent words incidentally. The second reason may be the lack of a systematic focus on high- frequency words, especially the most frequent 1,000 words in EFL learning programs. Dang, Webb, and Coxhead (under review) found a strong correlation between the words perceived as being useful by Vietnamese EFL teachers and the words learned by Vietnamese EFL learners. This suggests teachers play a significant part in Vietnamese EFL learners’ vocabulary development; that is, the words that teachers introduce to students are likely to be learned by learners. Dang and Webb’s (2020) survey with experienced Vietnamese EFL teachers revealed that textbooks and tests are among the key factors affecting teachers’ selection of words for instructions. Yet O’Loughlin’s (2012) study of the vocabulary in the New English File textbooks, the course book which happened to be the textbook used by the participants in the present study, revealed that these textbooks contained a substantial number of low-frequency words while having an insufficient number of high- frequency words (1,435 out of the most frequent 2,000 word families). Similarly, in a thorough analysis of the reading texts in the
Hewitt and Byng (2003) referred to participation being vital for many people but also to the mistaken notion that ‘all people with disabilities want to participate and do things’ (P53). In discussing the roles they undertook, the group members recognised that active civic involvement was not appropriate for everyone with communication disability. One participant thought that having limited education and poor communication would reduce credibility in certain situations. Lack of confidence, fearfulness and stress were believed by four of the group to prevent people from civic participation. They thought this anxiety may be related to communication, such as being worried about ‘poor speech’, but was also present at a more general level. One participant thought if people with difficult, dominating personalities were encountered this was a deterrent. Another member referred to difficulty of coping with ‘public exposure’. Three of the group spoke about there being a stage of readiness for participation which an individual may not have reached and which may be related to self-image and willingness to ‘turn your back on the whole thing’ (q).
NB: The Portfolio Assessment piece for this unit is writing to argue – ‘Is Holes a fairy tale or a modern day adventure story?’ Pupils should be introduced to this idea at the start of the unit. Students can then keep a record of evidence as they read the text. One suggestion would be to issue pairs with post it notes and as part of the plenary students write quote on post it and add to wall chart. Great for display!
Furthermore, it would be critical for schools to pay close attention to students’ own voices as to how their emotional sequences unfold while doing homework and how these sequences are influenced by other factors in students’ lives. Specifically, it would be beneficial to listen to students discuss their coping strategies or worked examples in managing homework emotion. Indeed, as shown in one previous study (Xu & Corno, 1998) that some students are capable of managing their emotion from time to time. During homework sessions, for example, students were using positive self-talk (e.g., “That should be easy.”). Some students were able to calm themselves after feeling frustration or disappointed with their work. When one boy became frustrated with his homework, he said he sat in his chair quietly for a while, tried to “think of something else to do or just go to another homework assignment.” Instead of thinking, “This is not going to work because this is too hard,” another girl said she tried to look on “the bright side.” She cheered herself up by telling herself, “I know I can do it.” This overt statement of self-efficacy helped her, she said, to see that it could become easier for her.
A fluent speaker, as Tam (1997:39) observes, may well make grammatical errors but will speak or write efficiently (without pauses). They will be able to converse freely and talk with native-speakers about many different subjects. Fluency generally increases as learners progress and become more comfortable using the language. So, language teachers who concentrate on fluency help their students to express themselves in English. They pay more attention to meaning and context and are less concerned with grammatical errors. Typical fluency activities are role playing and more communicative activities where English is used as a medium of communication rather than an end in itself.