As Denby notes, the male ‘self-dramatising underachiever’ character is at the centre of ‘the dominant romantic comedy trend of the past several years’ (ibid.). The romantic sex comedy is sold most commonly upon images of this type: lazy, failing, overweight, immature figures of boyish masculinity. In contrast to the playboy bachelor figure, casting frequently works against the norms of conventional Hollywood masculine attractiveness. Bodies may be ‘fat’ (Seth Rogen) or ‘weedy’ (Jay Baruchel), short (Jason Bateman) or tall, gangly and ‘soft’ (Vince Vaughn, Jason Segel). Once again, the association of masculinity on film with ‘hard bodies’ is a useful reference point. As I suggested in the chapter on lifestyle television, the trained, disciplined, ‘pathological’ hard body is marked as residual in postfeminist culture, because it does not fit with the new domesticated, soft and emotional masculinities that are presented as desirable for heterosexual coupling
Teaching political science and history faces large challenges in reconciling the aims of freedom and equality while maintaining social cohesion (Fernndez-Soria, 2013). It is therefore worthwhile to examine the role of an individual faced in an historical context with the most extreme threat to cohesion. The limitation of traditional political science in addressing these contemporary issues has been pointed out and the need for an innovative approach established (Murphy, 2014). The value of multidisciplinary approaches, the use of non-classroom environments, study trips, simulation, and student-student interaction have all been recognized (Bostock, 1999) (Bostock, 2008) (Murphy, 2014). In addition to these techniques, film and television documentary have some huge advantages in that they can transport students across barriers of time and space without leaving the safety and comfort of the classroom (Yow, 2014). In regard to political science, film and television documentary can demonstrate to students, in a very realistic way, the ever-present dichotomy between agency and structure, as shown for example in the fictional program The West Wing (Mobley and Fisher, 2015). In the case of Chiune Sugihara, now a famous Japanese diplomatic figure in World War II history, it will be seen that his role as an agent of saving peoples’ lives took place within a very powerful multi-structure of Imperial Japanese foreign policy administration and Nazi ethno-racial policy. This dichotomy must have added to it the ethical dimension, to which the political agent may or may not respond, and which the political science traditional approach can only take as a given (Mobley and Fisher, 2015).
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An accomplished television producer becomes acquainted with a former prosecutor turned aspiring Hollywood writer, who pitches to the producer an idea for shooting a film or TV show about the Mafia in his home state. Intrigued, the producer visits the state, where the former prosecutor arranges meetings with several police detectives who share with the producer stories about their experiences with organized crime and its participants. The producer subsequently drafts a screenplay for a cable TV series that would focus on the personal lives of mobsters. When the draft is complete, he sends a copy to the former prosecutor. Over the course of two years, the two have several discussions about the script and the project. Eventually, the producer succeeds in getting the show on the air, and it quickly becomes a major hit.
The relationship between surfaces plays a central role in the correspondence between sound and image. This might be most evident in sound design: ensuring surface heard matches surface seen (for example, a clipped hard thwack if someone in leather shoes crosses a polished wooden floor) or a lack of reverberation accompanying sounds made in a cluttered room with soft furnishings. But, as Splet makes clear, the construction of an aural surface does not necessarily involve a straightforward replication of the visual. Like other facets of film and television design, sound effects are dramatic: “Revealing its mandate to represent sound events rather than reproduce them, recorded sound creates an illusion of presence while constituting a new version of the sound events that actually transpired” (Altman 1992: 29). What’s more, this representation has an explicitly sensory dimension. Sound personnel, from Foley artists to sound editors and designers, are involved in an expressive production or performance of sound. 1 Writing on the art and craft of Foley
financial capital within Hollywood in six steps. First, it examines the broader concept of financialization and the role of passive institutional investment firms, which hold the largest stakes in nearly all Hollywood companies. Second, it documents the rise and influence of corporate venture capital within every entertainment conglomerate. Third, it analyzes the destructive effect of private equity, which has enacted leveraged buyouts of companies in all sectors of Hollywood, including production, distribution, exhibition, audience measurement, and trade press. Fourth and fifth, it focuses on talent agencies and content catalogues as particularly insidious cases of private equity extraction; and finally, it considers the role that this financial engineering is having in the further consolidation of Hollywood. Ultimately, this article argues that the financialization of the film and television industry is a dangerous development; financial engineering strategies are extracting capital and reducing operational capacity, further depriving Hollywood of the diversity and heterogeneity it might provide the public sphere.
She is hardly alone in this method of education. Images from television and film are pervasive in today’s classroom, just as they are in society at large. These images shape, and are shaped by, current societal views and values. As such, they provide what can often be a valuable tool in educating and informing the public. This is the premise of Timothy Lenz’ book: Changing Images of Law in Film and Television, a part of the Politics Media & Popular Culture Series.
Jones and DeFillippi argue that in the USA, ‘the boundaryless career system challenges its participants to improvise their home and hearth around the unpredictable vicissitudes of frenetic project activity and involuntary unemployment’ and for many film professionals ‘family life had been deferred, denied, or at least compromised during their careers’ (1996: 93, 94). The informality of film and television employment has a major impact on practitioners, especially women who are often adversely affected by the precarious nature of freelance employment and a male- and network-dominated work place. Work patterns, childcare, money and freelance culture affect women practitioners’ decisions to have children or not and whether they are able to sustain a film or media career as parents. While parenting and childcare do not need to be the exclusive responsibility of women, it is striking in our research that few, if any, interviewees discussed this in relation to men, reinforcing assumptions about the gendering of responsibility for childcare. In the UK context, our findings lend support to research from Skillset that highlights motherhood – but not fatherhood – as a key factor in understanding the persistence of gender inequalities in film and television.
Producers are the creative individuals who have the language acumen in solving various problems in life. They deliver works to the view of public. When a script is visualized, the views on the work can be distinguished differently through explicit and implicit. Audiences or people are born into different educational backgrounds. Most audiences prefer to see stories that are explicitly delivered while a large number of literary works are implicit; invites readers to think and interpret by individual understanding. All information is not delivered directly. This is what distinguishes literary and non-literary works in terms of the quality of the story. Quality literary works should be adapted to film and television drama to familiarize the work to the audience. This scenario plays the role of the creators, especially writers, directors and publishers in a bid to fulfil the dream of a country to raise dignified manuscripts.
Diane: It’s wonderful to be invited to be part of such a project, and being given the opportunity to examine Christmas horror from a number of diverse perspectives, including the folk horror that is related to my ongoing research. My current PhD work is on folklore and folk horror in British television of the 1970s, including television films and plays: a lot of which had an unsettling atmosphere with narratives around pagan rituals, witchcraft, ghostly hauntings or the eerie British landscape with a horror or fantasy element. A number of these programmes are only recently gaining attention and has yet to be attributed with the social significance they deserve, many of which were originally screened in winter or around Christmas time so are embedded into the culture of Christmas without necessarily being about Christmas. Yuletide Terror allows the consideration of Christmas horror as a concept overall as well as the individual film sand programmes, and I can’t wait to cosy up by the fire to read my copy and discover more fearful festive gems.
Such statements are closely related to debates over who should have the power to decide what regional film production can and should be, in which regional film workers underline the importance of television drama and fiction film as an engine for development and continuity in their region because it usually involves more people, longer working periods, and higher budgets than shorts- and documentaries. Earlier, this has been obstructed by government’s policies designed to strengthen the NFI and fiction film in Oslo. Now the new film policy goes in a different direction, and em- phasizes regionalisation. However, several film workers question whether the regions contribute to increased professionalization, and to the success of Norwegian film on the international market. This scepticism is not limited to the film industry. According to Mangset (2002, p.80), the cultural field is centralised, and many artist and cultural experts are sceptical towards a cultural political decentralization. One of the arguments is that film should not be used as a tool for regional development. Inherit in this argu- ment, is an understanding of Oslo as the center of professionalism and quality, and the regions as contributors of diversity and regional development. As production compani- es that both have a strong regional attachment and make critically acclaimed films, the companies challenge the understanding of the regions as mere ‘film cultural perip- heries’ (Rambøll, 2005) or just contributors to regional development. This discussion concerning center and periphery exemplifies how film policy in Norway is comprised of two complementary strands: the development of strong regional production clusters and the positioning of Norway on the international film arena.
The consequent oversupply of labour has provided fertile ground for a growth in the use of unpaid labour in the UK film and television industries, notably in the form of unpaid ‘work experience’. A survey of 1071 freelance workers by Broadcast magazine found that 75% had done unpaid work experience - a saving for employers of some £28 million (Strauss, 2005). Hours were often long; an online survey in February 2005 showed only 42% of freelancers working less than a 48-hour week (Dacey, 2005). In Broadcast’s 2012 survey, 43% of freelancers said they had either worked for free or below standard rates in the past five years, on the promise of later paid work – which in 61% of cases did not materialise (Neilan, 2012). Indeed, while government policy responded (DCMS, 2008) by attempting to create formal creative apprenticeships, minutes from the 2011 meeting of the government’s Creative Industries Council noted that ‘the culture of unpaid internships within the creative industries has… made paid apprenticeships a hard sell to small businesses’ (BIS, 2011).
Ernest Giglio’s Here’s Looking at You: Hollywood, Film and Politics performs similar functions to the other works discussed here, and is particularly keen to assess the historical veracity of a series of films and television programmes. The discussion is extensive, covering everything from Hollywood’s Cold War blacklisting of suspected Communists, through the film industry’s propensity for propaganda film-making, as well as looking at the war film, and how conflicts in which the United States has been involved are represented in mainstream cinema. Of particular relevance here, however, is his analysis of the representation of politicians and the political system. Although he recognises that films such as Independence Day and Air Force One ‘reinforce a macho image’ of the presidency, he decries the credibility of such images and their lack of historical accuracy. 26 Just as there appeared to be the beginnings of a rigorous analysis of the ideological implications of the president-as-action-hero phenomenon, Giglio chooses instead to question the value of these kinds of films, and is seemingly caught between a dislike of the ‘bland’ treatment of American politics in more sober, serious pictures, and a desire to see films which more accurately reflect ‘the facts and the historical record.’ 27 Although astute in his observation that, where Hollywood chooses to place the world of politics as a central narrative device ‘it serves as a framework for more familiar plots, such as assassination thrillers or as an ambiance for love and romance’, this is not followed up with discussion of the implications of representing politics or the presidency within these generic frameworks. Instead, Giglio prefers to note the more obvious fact that, in these cases, ‘the politics is diluted.’ 28 He does raise
The increased economic impacts created by the fi lm and television industry have been accompanied by increases in the broader economic and social benefi ts created by the industry. For example, since the inception of the tax credit, there has been a proliferation of training and educational programs to encourage youth to enter the industry. At present, there are over fi fteen Georgia colleges and universities providing certifi cates and degree programs in fi lm and television related disciplines. There are also a number of programs targeting unemployed Georgia citizens and preparing them for a career in the fi lm and television industry. Further, over 20 fi lm festivals occur in Georgia annually which attract tourists and local residents, as well as fi lm makers, actors and other related professionals. Examples include the Savannah Film Festival, the Atlanta Film Festival, and the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.
complementary expertise. More important was the Gutch’s underlying assumption that the producer’s role was to support creative talent ‘through being highly involved with the writer and director’. 61 Thus Gutch was an ideal partner who could be trusted to run a separate company because Herbert was convinced that its values and ethos would mirror that of its bigger ‘brother’ rather than generate a competing sub-culture; both companies were able to work together to encourage a diverse array of creative talent. Gutch became a shareholder in Warp itself and, as both Managing and Development Director, was party to all its major strategic decisions. 62 Warp X produced ten feature films on tiny budgets – usually between £400,000 and £800,000 – from 2008 to 2013, designed to provide creative opportunities for first-time directors without the pressure for box-office success. These included controversial documentaries such as A Complete History of My Sexual Failures (2008); and fiction films that ranged from the brashly commercial Donkey Punch (2008), a titillating holiday slasher; to the crossover Kill List (2011), a crime thriller about two hit-men that combines domestic realism with occult horror; and Berberian Sound Studio (2012), an art-house film whose experimental soundtrack and visual design emulates the breakdown of its protagonist, a timid British sound engineer working on a brutal Italian horror film. In spring 2015 Gutch decided to step aside from his joint role to focus on specific film and television projects as an
Course work in this program is designed to provide the student with the ability to review, present and critically evaluate film and television content of several different genres, modes of production and cultural, historical and political influences. Students will be required to research and apply underlying concepts, principles and techniques of analysis. Through combined classroom, studio and work placement experience, students learn how to question assumptions in defining and solving problems. They are required to develop lines of argument to defend their own creative choices and support theoretical hypotheses. Combining increasingly sophisticated approaches to theoretical and conceptual models of study, students gain deeper understanding of practical methodologies by examining the theoretical approaches behind them. This melding of intellectual approaches with hands-on practice informs the creative choices that they make, and allows students to defend, critically evaluate and propose solutions to their own work and the work of their peers.
It is desirable that the research tool we propose provides a common point of access for researchers working on film and television, with a common dis- play format and details of access. Furthermore, sample image/audio/video files would help researchers to gauge the necessity of a research trip, while extensive web space would allow the tool to act as a repository for epheme- ral digital sources. Evidently such a project would require the co-operation of libraries and archives, significant infrastructure, and creative solutions to the problems of copyright and intellectual property. A substantial amount of initial cataloguing would be required, especially with the BBC’s collection — which remains largely uncatalogued post-2000 — and given the size of the task, it may be necessary to limit the project’s scope, at least at first. Film and television music taken broadly could include advertising jingles, for example, and we are aware of the collections of Johnny Johnston and Cliff Adams jingles at the History of Advertising Trust. The project would also need to be hosted by institutions that could maintain and continue to expand the resource, as more composers, archives, and private individuals opt to include their collections under its umbrella. Online digital libraries hosted by well-endowed universities — such as the Oxford Digital Library (http://www.odl.ox.ac.uk/) — are a possibility in this regard. One major hurdle to this proposed project, however, is posed by the stringent applica- tion of intellectual property rights.
Across the three years of the BSc programme you will be asked to produce a variety of different kinds of written and practical assignments for both formative and summative assessment. In Year 1, for instance, the Image and Sound Technologies module is assessed by an examination, the Introduction to Film and Television Production Methods is assessed by way of two group assignments plus individual reports, while the Cinema: History and Analysis and Television: History and Analysis modules are assessed by way of essays. On each module, clear instructions will be provided in the module documents as to the detailed aims of these assignments and the specific criteria by which they will be assessed.
On completion of this degree programme, students are expected to have developed a range of transferable skills including: fluency in writing and oral communication, the ability to formulate and evaluate their own arguments and those of others, to translate subject-specific knowledge and skills to new environments, the ability to find and use relevant information resources, to manage their time effectively, and use basic word-processing, information retrieval and IT skills; the ability to work co-operatively with others. Although there is no practical component in the degree, students will have ample opportunity to participate in practical work generated by Single Honours students in Film & Theatre in the Department of Film, Theatre & Television.
Angelo & Cross, (1993) stated that classroom assessment interpretation helps college instructors to obtain useful feedback on what, how much, and how well their learners are learning. This exploration addresses the concern that many adults in higher education are left feeling inadequate after completing radio/television/film production courses. A comparison was made to the observation of the fact that traditional students appear to adapt more quickly to radio/television/film production course in higher education environment. This research focuses on elements of radio/television/film production courses that are barriers or hurdles to learning from an andragogical perspective. This study discussed whether thinking skills are required within the subject area and if the classroom exercises that tend to engage traditional and non-traditional learners are best assessed within the context of real-world situations (Airasian, 2000). The purpose of this study is to validate the assessment of andragogical focus of educators in journalism and mass communication production courses and fill the gap in significant emptiness of adult learners in higher education. The study also discussed the andragogical behavior of individual learners’ learning outcomes and attitudes, values, and self-awareness toward their learning experience. It briefly reviewed performance assessment, and finally examined reliability and validity of classroom-learning assessment. The investigator concluded by analyzing the conflicting perceptions and unanswered question that pedagogical behavior helps traditional learners adapt better to the classroom learning assessment instrument in radio/ television/film production courses. Therefore, instructors teaching radio/ television/film production courses should design their production project, classroom learning assessment to provide barrier-free environments that facilitate equal opportunities by arranging reasonable accommodations in academic adjustments, supplementary assistances and services, training, session, and practical assistance to both non-traditional and traditional learner.