This review article overview the advancement in the oral dosage forms, application, formulation consideration, method of preparation, evaluation of new generation Anti migraine drugs. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) have been introduced in the market recently as they provide convenience and ease of use over other dosage forms such as orally disintegrating tablets. This technology evolved over the past few years from the confection and oral care markets in the form of widely accepted form by consumers, so FDOFs are gaining the interest of large number of pharmaceutical industries. Fast dissolving oral films is the type of drug delivery system which when placed in the oral cavity, disintegrate or dissolve within few seconds without the intake of water. FDOFs are very similar to postage stamp in their shape, size and thickness. These films have a potential to deliver the drug systemically through intragastric, used for local action. Migraine is a 20% of the population during the most productive periods of their working lives, women are affected up to four times more often than men. provides an account of various formulation considerations, suitable method of preparation of the new generation Anti migraine drugs like Almotriptan malate and Eletriptan HBR
The oral mucosa is conveniently and easily accessible and therefore allows uncomplicated application of dosage forms. A rapid-dissolving drug delivery system, in most cases, is a tablet that dissolves or disintegrates in the oral cavity without the need for water or chewing. More recently, fast-dissolving films are gaining interest as an alternative to fast-dissolving tablets to definitely eliminate patients’ fear of chocking and overcome patent impediments. In the present study, calculations for amount of drugs were determined, Rapid dissolving films containing GSH were prepared using solvent casting method. An aqueous solution of polymer was prepared in distilled water. For preparing the solution, polymer was soaked in water for some time (wherever required). This was followed by addition of GSH in the aqueous solution of the polymer. Now, plasticizer (PEG 400 and/or Glycerol), sweetening agent (Aspartame and/or Sucralose), citric acid and flavor were also added to this solution. In-vitro disintegration time (DT) of the prepared rapid dissolving films was determined visually in a glass beaker containing 50 ml water and swirling every 10 seconds. Average of 3 films was taken for this purpose. In-vivo DT of the prepared rapid dissolving film was determined by mouth in three human volunteers. Evaluation of taste was done by a taste panel with 2mg drug and subsequently one film held in the mouth for 10-15 seconds. For preparing rapid dissolving films, varying amount of Pullulan, METHO K3P, METHO E3P were taken. Solvent evaporation method was used for preparation of the film. Various polymers used in the study were: Pullulan, Metho K3P, Metho E3P, Metho E15P and Poly N10. PEG-400 and glycerol were used as plasticizer. Aspartame and sucralose were used as sweetening agent while citric acid was used as saliva stimulating agent
Synthetic amorphous silica is also used for surface coating of packaging materials [16,17]; it used in the pharmaceuticals, as carrier for various drugs and vitamins . It is considered a safe excipient in pharmaceutical drugs, based on the reports from FDA , the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)  and European Union . These reports confirm the safety of silicates and provide further support that silica is Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) when added either directly or indirectly to food; therefore, silica containing films can be considered edible.
A variety of drugs have been shown to be absorbed through the oral mucosa, following administration using solutions or conventional tablets or capsules. However, the conventional buccal dosage forms show two main disadvantages. Due to involuntary swallowing of the dosage form itself or a part of it and continuous dilution of the dissolved drug by the salivary flow, an important part of the drug may not be available for absorption and they do not
The films examined were Ektaspeed Plus film (Kodak Eastman Co, Rochester, NY, USA) and the Insight IP-21(Kodak Eastman Co, Rochester, NY, USA) were evaluated. The films were exposed using a Blue-X Dental X-ray equipment (70kvp/ 8mA). The study was conducted in the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in Meenakshi Ammal Dental College at Chennai, India. Patients are not included in this particular invitro study. A total of 80 dental x-ray films i.e., 40(E) Ektaspeed plus and 40(F) Insight dental films are included in this study. Ten sets of each film type (E/F) is taken. Each set consists of four films which will be exposed plus one radiographic film which will be unexposed (The unexposed films are used to determine the base-plus fog density). Together each set consists of 5x-ray films which are coded by exposure time using a system of lead letters placed at the film periphery. The codings of 1,2,3,4 is used for films to be manually processed and 5,6,7,8 is used for films to be automatically processed. The exposures are made in four increments:1,10,60 and 180 impulses. Film exposures will be made with a standard source –film distance of 30cm. Among the 8 sets of each type of radiographic film, 4sets being manually processed and 4sets being automatically processed. Among the 4 sets, the first sets of each film will be processed in fresh chemicals (one set is manually processed and the other set is automatically processed) on the first day of the experiment. The other sets will be processed in progressively depleted solutions in subsequent days as mentioned: 5 th day, 12 th day and 19 th day. The above mentioned days are considered as the processing days and the study will be
Virechana dravyas. Because the excessive usage of known plants may lead to their ex- tinction and definitely at that movement search for newer plants begins. So before fac- ing such pathetic situation there is a need to evaluate different Virechana dravyas men- tioned in different Ayurvedic texts among which Nighantus are treasure banks of single drugs. Among all Nighantus, Bhavaprakasha nighantu has its own specificity in describing plants and modern Nighantu period starts with JOURNAL
In a scene from Alejandro González Iñárritu’s 2006 film Babel, one afternoon a deaf- mute Japanese girl, Chieko, gossips in sign language with a school friend via her mobile phone’s web cam. The scene’s linguistically estranged nature encapsulates how language in itself is a technology, a system which reaches across borders of silence to allow understanding. We are only able to interpret language through shared knowledge of its systems and, in many cases, through the aid of devices which collapse the barriers of proximity in time, space, and in this case, vision. It is indicative of the contemporary paradigm of network society that this scene occurs within a film which explores worldwide repercussions of (mis)communication, and that Babel belongs within a genre which in recent years has frequently thematised systems of interconnection, exploiting digital narrative technologies and in effect practicing Fredric Jameson’s concept “cognitive mapping” (Jameson 54). However, while they may appear to value difference and diversity, in many cases these films use cognitive mapping as a tool for totalisation, divulging narratives of smoothed-out differences and equalised circumstances. Within this emergent paradigm of interconnectedness continues the problem of how to relay the postmodern promise of endless complexity, without subordinating difference to a simplified reduction of totality.
Thin film deposition can be defined as the transportation of a material into gas phase either by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. This material during this gas phase will then be transported towards a substrate in order to form a thin film. In general, there are two types of deposition techniques. Firstly, physical vapor deposition (PVD), which is a large group of techniques that are used to synthesize thin films in vacuum conditions where high vacuum conditions are required in the deposition system to minimize the incorporation of large impurity concentrations . Examples of PVD methods include thermal evaporation, cathode arc deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and reactive sputtering deposition . Generally, in these techniques, the material is vaporized by bombardment of the target with ions, electrons or photons. The second kind of deposition techniques is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In CVD when the chemical reactions are applied, the vapor will be produced and the thin film will be formed .
According to Hussein (2005), p. 15), “Africa’s long tradition of oral artistry still wields a remarkable influence on the contemporary life of its society”. Film being a medium of expression within this “life” is not exempted from the exertion of the oral tradition. Film, an art form initially imported into Kenya currently draws from and rearticulates the Kenyan indigenous culture’s oral traditional codes. The entry of foreign art forms into the indigenous sociocultural network of Africa called for ways that would find a conducive middle ground suitable for the coexistence of forms of expression which ini- tially seemed dichotomous. For African film, finding this position was inevitable. Looking at films such as Wend Kuuni, Xala, among others, there is evidently a heavy reliance on the continent’s indig- enous oral tradition. This becomes more pronounced within the postcolonial context of their produc- tion which, has been widely characterised by a hybridity of cultural products including film (Diawara, 1992). This is why any theorisation of African cinema calls for a descriptive more than a prescriptive approach. African film should be understood in terms of its ability to fit within as well as to modify the established universal film codes. Even though Diawara (Ibid) attempts a vivid categorisation of African film, Murphy (2000), p.14 says “we do not yet have the theoretical basis to talk about na- tional or ethnic film styles. Instead ... (he proposes) an approach that attempts to negotiate the re- lationship between the ‘universal’ and the ‘local’ aspects of filmmaking.”
thickness of absorber layer (CIGS) was 1 µm while the thickness of the window layer CdS film was 300 nm. The X-ray Diffraction results have shown that all thin films were polycrystalline with orientation of 112 and 211 for CIGS thin films and 111 for CdS films. The direct energy gaps for CIGS and CdS thin films were 1.85 and 2.4 eV, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy measurement proves that both films CIGS and CdS films have nanostructures. The carrier concentration, Hall mobility and the conductivity of CIGS and CdS thin films were calculated by hall effect measurement showing that p = 3.56×10 10 cmG 3 and
silica Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolyze with ethanol which was stirred for 15 minutes. HCl was added into the mixture and stirred for another 10 minutes. After deposition on 1 x 1 cm corning glass using spin coating technique (two-step timer), the films were heated at 60˚C for 10 minutes and finally annealed at 150°C for 1 hour. The films were characterized by using Rudolph/Auto EL Ellipsometer, Shimadzu Spectrophotometer, Perkin Elmer Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The results showed that the films thickness and refractive index were in the range of 105.2 to 112.4 nm and 1.35 to 1.38, respectively. The films were transmitted 70-80% of light (in visible range) with various bondings of C-H, Si-O-Si, Si-C and Si-OH. Surface roughness of the films was increased from 30.6 nm (silica thin film) to 140.5 nm (hydrophobic silica thin films) after modification have been done on the films by using TMCS (heated at 40˚C). It was found that the water contact angles increased when time of reaction increased from 109° to 124°.
The technique employed for the preparation of thin polymer films in the present study is the solution-cast technique. The polymer PVA is the host and potassium thiocyanate is dissolved in triple distilled water which is taken as solvent in adequate reciprocal composition. The two solutions are then mixed and stirred at room temperature for 6-8 hours to obtain homogeneous mixture. The mixture is cast on to polypropylene dishes and allowed to evaporate in hot air oven to obtain desired polymeric complex.
manipulate the distribution of graphene at the air–water interface via edge–edge interactions. In this study, pristine graphene suspended in organic solvent was prepared through adaptation of a previously developed process involving the non-‐invasive exfoliation of graphite. Successful deposition of graphene at the air–water interface was achieved by manipulating the vapor-‐pressure of the graphene dispersion through solvent mixing. Through careful control of density, by following the pressure-‐area isotherm during monolayer compression, it is possible to precisely tune the electrical conductivity. The resulting assemblies can be easily transferred to glass and other substrates using the Langmuir– Schaefer horizontal deposition method producing thin films with tunable electrical conductivity that exhibits percolation-‐type behavior. A major advantage of this process is that the conducting films require no further treatment unlike their graphene-‐oxide counterparts. Moreover, the physical properties of these assemblies can be easily controlled which is a precursor for graphene-‐based electronic applications.
Thin films are being used for many applications like electronic, magnetic, photonic, chemical, and micromechanical devices and systems. Metallic films are used in ICs to interconnect devices , as magnetic storage media in magnetic devices, as protective and decorative coatings, and as active device elements in thin film transistors, solar cells, and detectors [2,3]. Piezoelectric ceramic films are used in surface acoustic wave transducers ; ferroelectric ceramic films are being investigated for use in nonvolatile memories , and ceramic films are being investigated for use as high- dielectric constant interlevel insulators for integrated circuits. For all these applications the growth of the films must be reproducibly controlled to control their performance and reliability, which requires the control of their microstructure and understand the mechanism of thin film growth. There are known trends of behavior for materials in general which can be understood in terms of the fundamental kinetic processes through which the structures must evolve. Thin films are formed usually by nucleation of isolated crystals on a substrate surface by condensation from a vapor phase, by electrodeposition, from liquid solutions, films grown from their melts etc. These nuclei then grow into the external phase both perpendicular and in the directions of the pla ne of the interface. Lateral growth causes the impingement, coalescence of crystals, leading to the formation of grain boundaries and defines at least the initial grain-structure of the film. These process are schematically shown in the figure 1 (a) and (b).
molarities of solutions were equal and kept 0.1 mol/lit. in the sol-gel process. Before deposition, the glass substrates were first degreased by detergent, rinsed thoroughly by deionized water. Then, the substrates were cleaned ultrasonically in a mixture of ethanol and acetone (each of 50% in volume) for 15min. After that, the cleaning process was repeated with deionized water in ultrasonic cleaner. Next, the substrates were dried in an oven at 100°C for 30min. Finally, the substrates exposed to nitrogen gas. Three sets of films with different thicknesses were deposited by dipping substrates into the solutions for one, two and four times. The samples were dried in an oven at 150°C for 15min to evaporate the solvent and remove organic residuals and the coating process was repeated. Finally, the films were annealed in a furnace at 500°C for 2h in ambient condition.
Organic thin film solar cells are potential next generation solar cells. Many p-type semiconductors have been used in organic solar cells, but there have been far fewer reports involving n-type organic semiconductors. Developing new n-type organic semiconductors is therefore desirable. Polysilane thin films were spin-coated from solutions containing phosphorus (P), and the ef- fects of P addition on film microstructures and electronic properties as n-type semiconductors were investigated. Microstructures of poly-methyl-phenyl- silane (PMPS), dimethyl-polysilane (DMPS) and deca-phenyl-penta-silane (DPPS) thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PMPS thin films doped with P (PMPS(P)) were amorphous upon annealing at 300˚C, while DMPS(P) and DPPS(P) thin films exhibited crystalline structures. PMPS(P) and DMPS(P) thin films exhibited decreased electrical resistances upon P doping. The energy gaps of PMPS(P), DMPS(P) and DPPS(P) were 3.5, 3.9 and 3.8 eV, respectively. Decreased pho- toluminescence intensities of PMPS, DMPS and DPPS were observed upon P doping. The desorption of phenyl and methyl groups from PMPS(P) thin films was observed from Raman scattering measurements. Solar cells con- taining polysilane(P)/poly[3-hexylthiophene] heterojunction structures were fabricated and exhibited photovoltaic behavior.
TiB x N y thin films with a thickness of 100 nm were fabricated employing the magnetron sputtering technique in an unbal- anced configuration. A series of films was grown under the same negative substrate bias voltage (Vb = − 40 V) varying the nitrogen (N 2 ) flow. The sputtered gas (Ar) pressure was set constant for all the experiments. Table 1 presents the mate- rial samples, the deposition techniques with the main growth parameters (eg, substrate bias), and the physicochemical properties. The study of the composition of the TiBN samples was realized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in an ultra high-vacuum chamber (Pb , 10 −8 Pa) after sputter etching
Ever since the accessibility of modern medicine increased all over the world, the rampant and misuse also increase considerably. A continuous research resulting in introduction of the newer compounds is going on. Many of these are being introduced and used without complete of drugs. The pharmacist because of different reasons is unable to practice the rational drug therapy that is supply right drug, at right time in right dose to the patient. The present article takes the help of some published reports to explain irrational or misuse of drug leading to fatal effect. The article also highlights the major reasons involved in the irrational use of drugs. Not only the irrational use but the drugs having the adverse reaction and hazardous effects are also used in large amount in developing nations due regulatory reasons. The use of these drugs without the complete knowledge has also a major problem. In this article the author has given emphasis on the drug hazards and rational use of drug by giving some reports like US FDA, different hazardous effect of drug. Author has also explained the rational use of drug in terms of medical, socio economic and some legal aspects along with reasons for irrational use of drug and obstacles exist in rational drugs, also includes some steps to improve rational drug prescribing method, and conclude that drug may act as a God or may act as a Devil if not used properly.
Research on the use of epigenetic drugs for a variety of clinical conditions is an active area of epigenetic research at present and a few epigenetic drugs have already been approved for clinical use. Many psychotropic drugs that are currently in use have been shown to influence epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in addition to other mechanisms of action. The most prominent and best example of this is the mood stabilizer valproic acid or its salt, sodium valproate. Valproic acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid, has been commonly used as an antiepileptic drug since the late 1960s. It was marketed in France in 1969 but was not licensed in the USA until 1978 (Porter and Meldrum 2009). More recently, it was found to have mood-stabilizing effects in patients with bipolar disorder. It has some well-established mechanisms of action as an antiepileptic drug which could contribute to its mood- stabilizing effect: it prolongs the inactive state of sodium channels after depolarization; it potentiates the action of GABA at neuronal synapses where GABA is released, and it blocks T-type calcium channels in thalamic neurons. However, in addition to these actions, it is thought to act