The algorithm for fault modeling and detection is constructed with the help of MATLAB and Simulink.  The entire algorithm to compute fault in circuits is shown in Fig. 8. With the help of given algorithm we can easily detect the fault in analog VLSI circuit. In this paper we applied our algorithm to two circuits first is Biquadratic filtercircuit and second circuit is leap frog filtercircuit both circuit are benchmark circuit. Before the implementation of testing method, the method should be applicable to this circuit. [10,11]
Figure 12 shows the biqquadratic filtercircuit. Now we perform analysis on this circuit and analyze the effect of parameter variation on characteristics of circuit. First we calculate the transfer function of filtercircuit and then apply sensitivity analysis as given in equation (1), [18,19,20]
first level and the third level of gains are changeless. The second level of amplifi- cation uses voltage controlled chip as automatic gain amplifier, and the received signal peak is amplified, sampled and held, for maintaining steady output vol- tage. Besides, jamming signals of receiving can be filtered effectively by band-pass filtercircuit composed of capacitance and inductance. The electric circuit construction of design is simple and with fewer parts of apparatus, there- fore it tends out to be very small and cheap. Moreover, the SAW receiving cir- cuit and trigger circuit can be mixed into sonic sensor, it can be used in oil-water separation system and power window security control in the next step. Undoub- tedly, it possesses application prospect in the field of SAW sensors and it also has great values to other fields of SAW application.
Abstract—A compact helix structure implementation and associated design formula of lumped element second-order bandpass filtercircuit for high power frequency-hopping (FH) filter are proposed in this paper. The filter schematic provides one, two or three finite transmission zeros (Tzs), and these Tzs locate in the upper stopband to improve the rejection of stopband above the center frequency, especially the suppression of second harmonic with two Tzs. The filter is built on a common grounded helix coil of inductive coupled resonator tanks whose suspectance is tunable. Due to the parasitical capacitance of the helix coil, the filter has a feedback capacitor between input and output. Its working mechanism is revealed both mathematically and graphically. The measured results have a good agreement with the 3D full-wave electromagnetic simulation responses. The experimental filter has an insertion loss < 1.2 dB, a return loss > 15 dB, a 3-dB bandwidth of 5.8% ∼ 8.3% over entire operating range with the power handling capability greater than 49 dBm and the suppression of second harmonic better than 66 dB.
Abstract: Filters are some of the highly essential components used for operating in most electronic based circuits. Filters are most important and widely used to block some portion of signals according to frequency. Having a detailed knowledge of various filters. A designer will be able to design an efficient communication networks, by varying the cut off frequencies. Filters are required in computer, mechanical and some other fields too. As days passed by the usage of active and passive filters has gradually increased in the market. There are various types of Filters available, in which we are going to perform the simulation of Low pass, High Pass and Band pass Filter using Verilog Hardware Descriptive Language and Xilinx ISE 13.1 as a simulation tool. This paper provides a detailed explanation, circuit diagram, advantages, disadvantages, applications, working of Verilog code and simulation result of Low pass, High pass and Band pass filter. Using Verilog Hardware Descriptive language its simpler to understand and execute the functionality of filters then using other tools like MATLAB, Microcontroller, Microprocessor.
The next step is to determine the coupling between resonators 1 and 2. However, this cannot be easily done in a dual-mode resonator. By simulating a coupled of perfect square resonators, it will most likely overestimate the coupling strength since the final filter required perturbed square patch resonators to couple the degenerated modes rather than a perfect square patch resonators. Here, we propose a novel method to determine the coupling between resonators 1 and 2 by simulating two dual-mode square patch resonators as shown in Figure 8(a) and deduced the coupling coefficient from the eigenmodes. There are 6 coupling paths in the coupled dual-mode square patch resonators as shown in the left node diagram of Figure 8(b). However, half of the coupling paths, i.e., k 1 0 2 , k 12 0 and k 1 0 2 0 , are very much weaker
Abstract: The article describes about the design and implementation of advance version of Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is All Digital PLL. Research work is on ADPLL where parameter ripple is reduced by applying the technique of ripple reduction technique. Ripple reduction technique reduces the use of Kth counter, Kth counter comes under consideration when enable is ON. Phase locked loops are most widely used in communication system. Most of the PLL’s that are used currently are hybrid type PLL’s where all the blocks are assumed to be digital. The circuit design of ADPLL consists of Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO), loop filter and Phase Frequency detector (PFD). Here phase detector used is Ex-or gate, for loop filter, Kth counter is used and Increment/Decrement circuit is used as DCO. Divide-by-N counter is used for feedback system. The output of the DCO is going in the PFD through the feedback network. Xilinx Vivado suit 2018.2 tools is used for simulating Verilog code. Board chosen in vivado is zed board Zynq. First, with the help of circuit diagram of ADPLL Verilog code is being written on project window. After compilation of code it is simulated with the help of test bench. After that it is going to be implemented and verified with the board zedboard. Number of LUTs used are 32 and Flip Flops used are 35. This paper presents an all digital approach for the design, simulation, synthesis and implementation of FPGA based ADPLL centered at 195.31 KHz using Verilog HDL code. The proposed design methodology resulted in reduction of ripple, power dissipation, junction temperature of board. Proposed research work further can be used in communication for frequency synthesizer. Any system whether it is from communication or digital etc ADPLL is common to use for ripple reduction at its output. So ADPLL is basic building block in any type of communication system.
This thesis explores the use of acoustic wave technology to address some of the limitations in passive LC filter networks. Acoustic wave devices are based on the use of piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectricity is a linear property in which polarization occurs when the material is subjected to mechanical stress. Inverse piezoelectricity refers to the appearance of mechanical stress upon application of an applied voltage. Early investigators in acoustic wave filter design acknowledged that higher performance passive electric filters could be realized by exploiting the coupling of electrical and mechanical fields in piezoelectric materials [10,11]. Earliest cases of such filters consisted of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators, which are discussed in detail in Section 2.1.
investigated, such as tri-band antennas , tri-band filter  and tri- band transmitter . The design method to control every operating band with sufficient freedom is the key in the design of multi-band components. Meanwhile, the design difficulties are enhanced to great extent with the increase of the number of the operating bands. Thus, the investigation on the quad-band components is rather rare. At present, the investigation on quad-band antenna  and quad-band branch-line coupler  have been implemented. Moreover, the concept of extended composite right/left-handed (ECRLH) has been proposed to provide a novel method to design the quad-band components [6, 7]. ECRLH inherently exhibits two left-handed passband and two right- handed passbands. From the lower frequency band to the higher frequency band, these passbands are left-handed, right-handed, left- handed and right-handed ones, respectively. Then, several special realizations of ECRLH have been proposed [8, 9]. In , the quad- band impedance inverter, quad-band power divider and quad-band branch-line coupler based on ECRLH are investigated systematically. Whereas, the quad-band filter cannot be designed utilizing ECRLH, because there is no gap between the left-handed passband and the right-handed passband in the lower frequency band and the higher frequency band, respectively. Thus, dual-band filter is achieved utilizing the above magnitude property of ECRLH. Until now, only  has proposed one circuit model of the shunt open-circuit ECRLH to design the quad-band filter, but no realization has been proposed. In both  and , through electromagnetic coupling, the dual resonant mode property of the stepped impedance resonator is utilized to design the quad-band bandpass filters.
Filters can be realized in lumped type or microstrip line type. The lumped element filter design generally works well at low frequencies, but two problems arise at microwave frequencies. First, lumped elements such as inductors and capacitors are generally available only for a limited range of values and are difficult to be implemented at microwave frequencies, but must be approximated with distributed components. Secondly, the normal lumped inductors and capacitor components introduce stray capacitance and inductance from leads. In low frequency applications large inductors and capacitors are needed to cause a bulky system, which is often discouraged. Moreover, the lumped element circuit can work efficiency at lower frequency range because the wavelength will decrease to short on higher frequency and while for distributed elements suitable operate at higher frequency and wavelength will become too larger when into lower frequency range (Gowthami et al. 2014).
The desired inverter switching signals of the shunt active filter are determined according the error between the compensate currents and reference currents. According  produced a paper on Fuzzy Logic controller for shunt Active Power Filter; the paper presents Active Power Filter based in detection load current and harmonic voltage at the point of installation by using the fuzzy logic method and to improve compensation capability of APF. The shunt APF is implemented with PWM current controlled voltage source inverter and switching patterns are generated through a fuzzy logic control. A fuzzy logic-based PWM control technique is used to generate the gating signals. Switching signal obtained  after proper amplification and isolation are given to the switching devices of the PWM converter. The DC link capacitor voltage is maintained constant by a fuzzy logic controller. Fuzzy logic is characterized by seven sets of membership function for each input and output variable by using Mamdani-type min operator and defuzzification using the centroid method. The performance of fuzzy logic controller is found to be excellent, total harmonic distortion is (THD) reduced and improve by tuning the fuzzy rule based using an expert view to produce more effectiveness and accuracy of controller.
The Surgelogic™ IMA series surge protective device is a modular parallel transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS). The IMA device is a multi-stage suppression circuit consisting of field-proven, fast- acting, 34 mm metal oxide varistors (MOVs). A surge suppression path is provided for each mode, line-to-neutral (L-N), line-to-line (L-L), line-to-ground (L-G), and neutral-to-ground (N-G). Each surge suppression mode is individually fused and uses circuitry with thermal cutouts to isolate the TVSS and ensure shutdown in the event of MOV damage during severe overvoltages, even when operated on high fault current power systems. The suppression elements are encapsulated in a UL recognized potting material—another performance element that provides additional protection. A filter provides a high level of EMI/RFI noise attenuation. On-line diagnostics continuously monitor the device status, and LEDs signal loss of a suppression circuit. An audible alarm with an enable/disable feature and dry contacts are included in the standard diagnostic package.
In addition, after implementing the conventional and CFOA based low pass filter and high pass filter it was observed that the responses of the two filters are almost identical to their respective conventional circuits. The presence of inductor can be removed completely from the filter structure to make it less bulky and expensive. The shape of response can be set by varying resistors as variable inductance for low frequency filters are not practical. These filters imply a minimum No. of capacitors, resistance and CFOA as compared to . Such fil- ters are suitable for fabrication of integrated circuit technique as we replace the inductor with the equivalent CFOA. The above conversion can be used to produce more active low pass filters and high pass filter. So, finally we can say that the CFOA based filter is a good step towards establishment of active filters.
Historically, liquid lines were sized to minimize the pressure losses within the piping circuit. Then, as now, movement of oil through the piping is not a concern because oil is miscible in liquid refrigerant at normal liquid-line temperatures. For the liquid line and its components, keeping the pressure drop at or below the traditional 6 psid [41 kPa] requirement assures that a solid column of liquid refrigerant will be available at the expansion valve.
Bandpass filter is an electronic device that are used in both transmitted and received signals which have to be filtered first at certain center frequency between two specific frequency (bandwidth) . Bandpass filter is an important component which must be found in transmitter and receiver. A transmitter or receiver without a filter will not be able to filter in or out specified wanted frequencies. In the rapid advancement and developments in wireless telecommunications technology nowadays, with a major increase in the market demand which intended the government sector to seek for invention and developments of new applications in wireless communications.
The microstrip filters have been designed on a substrate which has thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 4.4. The open-end and T- junction effects should also be taken into account for determining the final filter dimensions. The optimum design demonstrates substantially impro- ved performance with a steeper stop band response . Design-Fig 3(a) have been designed for improve the response of L-resonator band stop filter. It designed for a three order microstrip Band stop filter in Chebyshev prototype with Passband ripple of 0.05 db. The desired band-edge frequencies to equal ripple points are f 1 = 1.25 GHz and f 2 = 3.75
The pressure variation in the fukuda unit and the whole pneumatic circuit was the reason for the rejection. From the specifications it was understood that the Filter, Regulator, Lubricator (FRL), which is also called pressure service unit causes variation in the pressure. Thus, the modification of the pneumatic circuit was done with automation studio software There was only one filter, regulator, lubricator (FRL) to control the pressure or the flow of air to the fukuda units. So individual control was not impossible. In order to solve the problem, the number of FRL units were increased to two and thus the required pressure is supplied to each fixture and the drop-in pressure is controlled. The non- return valve was included between the distributor and compressor. So, by designing the new circuit the rejections were controlled and solved.