Based on analysis of NHS datasets for the financial year 2017-18 the Commissioner’s report found that of those children referred to CAMHS, 31% received treatment within the year and 32% were still on waiting lists at the end of the year. Another 37% were not accepted into treatment or discharged after an assessment appointment. The report stated that this may be because they did not have a level of need which justified a clinical intervention, but it could also be because the local CAMHS service did not have the capacity to treat all the children who needed help. The report stated that the numbers of children not accepted into CAMHS varied considerably across the country from 7% of referrals to more than 80%. The Commissioner called for better lower level mentalhealth services including an NHS funded counsellor in every school.
The young offenders talked at length about how being isolated from their family and friends was a particularly difficult aspect of prison life. Visiting time was described by the majority as a time of excitement and anticipation where they felt part of the “outside world”. Some suggested how financial and geographical difficulties made visits difficult for their family, those who mentioned this appreciated the strain placed on their families in order to maintain contact:
These varied sources demonstrate a high contemporary interest in shifting the balance from intervention to prevention in work with young children. The systematic reviews from different nations show that there is international interest and faith that appropriate relationally based intervention and prevention is the best chance of changing outcomes for children in high risk families and communities. The challenge is significant. The topics reviewed in the 10 Cochrane Systematic Reviews identified with the search term ‘infant mentalhealth’ included: perinatal mentalhealth; parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parent and infant mentalhealth; group based programmes for improving psycho-social outcomes for teenage parents; group based programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment; massage for promoting mental and physical health in babies of under 6 months; psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating antenatal depression; financial benefits for child health and well-being in low income or socially disadvantaged families in developed world countries; home-based child development interventions for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families; home visits during pregnancy and after birth for women with an alcohol or drug problem and schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period. (See the Supplement 3, Cochrane Review for more detail). In nearly all cases these reviews showed there was either insufficient research, that research was not of a high quality or that it was inconclusive.
What we can say is that almost half of young people in Scotland reported themselves to be very happy and about 28% held very positive views about their school environments. Furthermore, for each of the variables examined, there was a consistent trend which reflected less favourable reporting among older pupils. These are recognised patterns among young people and may reflect an increasing awareness of the world around themselves, increases in actual or perceived pressures at home or school (such as exams) or pressures regarding life decisions, relationships or financial matters. In addition, adolescence brings with it a host of physical and psychological challenges which have been shown to have an effect on well-being. Given that, in general, the largest differences in the reporting of positive perceptions occurs between primary 7 pupils (11 year olds) and secondary 2 pupils (13 year olds), for both boys and girls, particular attention should be paid to the provision of appropriate and useful support systems during this transition period.
In addition to the impacts of the asylum process and public attitudes to asylum seekers in the UK, the dispersal system and levels of social and health support provided within the system, are also a factor that impact on mentalhealth problems (Murphy et al., 2002; Burnett and Peel, 2001; Summerfield, 2001). Data on patterns of utilisation of health services among asylum seekers and refugees is patchy (Crowley, 2003). Little is known about admission and treatment rates relative to the general population. Although the ‘Count Me In’ census has expanded ethnic monitoring, it does not record immigration or asylum status. Whilst in theory refugees are entitled to access health care in the same ways as the local population, it has been difficult for them to utilise these services to the same level (Murphy et al., 2002). Western constructions of mentalhealth are not always appropriate in cultures where problems may not be viewed as being located within the individual (Watters 2001). Many refugees experience difficulties in expressing health needs and in accessing health care (Burnett and Peel, 2001). Counselling is a Western oriented concept and its usefulness depends on individual’s socioeconomic background and cultural orientation (Burnett and Peel 2001). Webster and Roberston (2007) argue that many refugees are reluctant to use formal services and question whether clinic-based responses to mentalhealth needs are appropriate (see also Miller 1999). The disproportionate distribution of asylum seekers and refugees across the UK means that in some areas services can be overwhelmed and they lack the capacity to provide therapy to all who need it (Webster & Roberston 2007; Crowley, 2003; Summerfield, 2001). Language barriers and the quality and availability of interpreting services are a further problem. Research conducted with 435 GPs in London found three-quarters of respondents were not satisfied with interpreting arrangements (Summerfield, 2001). Lack of interpreting services means the use of more informal methods such as voluntary interpreters, family members and children. Inexperience or familiarity can cause misinterpretation, embarrassment and concerns around confidentiality (Kelley & Stevenson, 2006).
being. Conversely, if this gap is narrow, global well-being would, all things being equal, expected to be high. In those with medical illness, appraisal is thought to be based on various standards of comparison (Rapkin, Schwarz 2004). In this cohort, judgment of health is made with reference to previous health, extreme experiences, observations of other patients and communication with healthcare providers (Rapkin, Schwarz 2004). In light of these findings regarding global well-being, a model of global wellbeing (see Fig. 1.) can be produced, accounting for the relative roles of self-related constructs, objective and subjective quality of life. As we are particularly concerned with social determinants of well-being, it would be pragmatic to delineate the role of social capital and its input into objective and subjective quality of life. The effect of mental illness on constituents of this model will be explored in the second part of this paper.
This exploratory study is the first to measure global subjective wellbeing(SWB) in UK reg- istered mentalhealth nurses (MHNs). It was undertaken as phase one of a mixed meth- ods PhD study into the SWB and experience of mental illness of UK MHNs. UK MHN well- being is of interest because of the combination of an unprecedented demand for mentalhealth care and a dwindling mentalhealth nursing workforce (Royal College of Nursing, 2014). The vacancy rate is highest in mentalhealth of all of the nursing professions and there is a risk that demand for mentalhealth nurses may outstrip supply in the UK by 2016 (Centre for Workforce Intelligence, 2012). The Boorman review of NHS staff wellbeing (Boorman, 2009) linked health care staff wellbeing to organisational performance and rec- ommended that NHS employers took a preventive approach to staff wellbeing and mentalhealth. In 2016 the Mental Heath Task Force commissioned by the Department of Health has called for all NHS organisations to provide workplace interventions to support staff mentalhealth (MentalHealth Task Force/ NHS England, 2016). Taking account of the SWB of the MHN workforce may proactively addressing national nurse recruitment, reten- tion and performance concerns.
Understanding human health behavior is a difficult challenge. There are various possible explanations to why people behave the way they do, but not a single theory or model has dominated research or practice in health-related behavior so far, explaining a healthy lifestyle and a positive mentalwell-being. One main aspect of living healthy is being physically active. Regular physical activity is becoming more and more an essential part of everyday life. Physical activity can be defined as “any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure” (Caspersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985). Activities like shopping, lifting bags or vacuuming the house are examples of being physically active. Physically active people benefit from a great variety of aspects by moving enough and staying in shape. They improve their muscular structure and cardio-respiratory fitness, their functional health, have lower rates of heart diseases, high blood pressure, strokes, diabetes and mental illnesses like depression (World Health Organization, 2015). According to in ´t Panhuis, Luijben and Hoogenveen (2012), being physically active also leads to a higher life expectancy. The Dutch population over 20 years of age can add 0.7 years for men and 1.2 years for women to their life expectancy by being physically active. The population over 65 years of age benefits even more of being active. In comparison to risk factors such as smoking and overweight, being physically active adds the highest plus on life expectancy, with an average of 0.6 years for men and 1.0 years for women (in ’t Panhuis, Luijben, & Hoogenveen, 2012).
One experiences time stress when you worry about time. You worry about the number of things that you have to do within a given time. You feel trapped, unhappy and hopeless if you fail to achieve something important. Common examples of time stress include worrying about deadlines, rushing to avoid being late for a meeting or office  .
One of the issues raised in nursing services management is the low level or lack of job satisfaction. Reduced attention quality, leaving work and absence from work are some of the negative effects of low job satisfaction. (14). Lack of job satisfaction is one of the important factors in nurses quitting their job (15). Job satisfaction is an underlying attitude to create tendency, interest, talent and preparation in order to give proper response to the working environment in personal and social features and includes the features and requirements of a job with external environment and interpersonal relations with working situation (16). Psychologists also believe that environment ergonomics and design may reduce physical and mental stressors and pressures inside the working environment (17) . Using the environmental psychology principles in location designs (especially due to the treatment of environment which is discussed in the holistic medicine) promotes mentalhealth and wellbeing (18). Watching the nature from a window increases the sense of wellbeing (19); also, using natural elements in the work environment results in the following positive outcomes: Reducing the environmental stress and increasing calmness (18), less depression and more mental compatibility (20), positive effects on happiness and quality of life (21), acting as a buffer against the stressful events (22), improving individual health (23), increasing the compatibility, having a sense of safety, experiencing positive emotion, reducing angriness and increasing patience (24) .
In addition, when interpreting the results of the present study, some methodological limitations should be kept in mind. First, the present study was cross-sectional, and of correlational nature. Causality thus cannot be inferred. An alternative interpretation, that high levels of well-being in older adults lead to an increased ability to Describe, Act-Aware and Non-React, is possible. Yet, our interpretation is grounded in previous research and theoretical accounts demonstrating that increases in mindfulness levels lead to increases in well-being (for example: Bohlmeijer et al., 2015; Brown & Ryan, 2003). Second, only self- report measures were used for data collection, potentially introducing biases. For example, participants might be answering in terms of their desired rather than actual behaviors or the semantic interpretation of the items might vary across participants (Van Dam, 2011). Moreover, the questions about the validity of the FFMQ-SF, as well as the debate over the definition of mindfulness remain (for example: Coffey et al., 2010; Grossman & Van Dam, 2011). Therefore, we cannot be certain to what extent the FFMQ-SF actually represents dispositional mindfulness. Development of objective measures which mitigate these issues would improve future studies. Third, we did not assess the previous meditation experience of the sample. Quality of observing, which can change with meditation experience, has been found to affect the association between the facet Observe and psychological outcomes, including well-being (Baer et al., 2008, 2018; Desrosiers et al., 2014). Assessing previous mindfulness experience in future research should provide a more accurate picture of mindfulness.
Medicine has always been regarded as a popular choice in tertiary education. As a result of an excess of applicants, only candidates with excellent academic attainment can successfully enter Medicine. Therefore, the medical program is even more competitive and stressful for students who are accepted  if this stress is ignored, they are likely to produce further stresses.  The current study found that one in two students were screened positive for mental distress. The overall prevalence of mental distress among undergraduate medical students was 35.8%. These results goes in-line with the study conducted in USA.  and Malaysia.  that reported; approximately 50% of students experienced stress & burnout and 10% experienced suicidal ideation during medical school and that 41.9% of the medical students have mental stress respectively. The present study illustrated the presence of high level of psychosocial (27.2%) and anxiety (24.7%) among medical students. These results partially agree with most studies carried out locally and internationally which stated that highest levels of distresses were anxiety and depression.  Also, comparing our findings with other studies conducted in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students was 48.2%  and another study conducted in Jizan University, reported that the prevalence of stress among medical students was 71.9%.
Mentalhealth is described by WHO as an integral compo- nent of health, and as: 'a state of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community' . Mentalhealth is not simply the absence of mental illness. It is the foundation for well-being and effective functioning of individuals and communities . Poor mentalhealth predisposes people to mental ill- nesses, which are common in all populations. Mental ill- nesses are associated in all settings with indicators of poverty; including low levels of education, poor housing and low income , and with other illnesses including HIV infection . Substance misuse, violence and health problems such as HIV and depression are more prevalent and more difficult to cope with in conditions of low income, limited education and unemployment . Emerging evidence indicates that mentalhealth can be promoted by public health actions with vulnerable popu- lation groups . Just as physical health can be pro- moted, so too can mentalhealth. A recent WHO report  draws on a public health framework proposed ini- tially by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation [15,16] that identifies three key social and economic determinants of community and individual mentalhealth: social inclusion, freedom from discrimination and violence, and access to economic resources.
In recent years, because of the many structural changes and their impact on the occupational health of workers, and particularly their occupational mentalhealth, a new concept has emerged in France, i.e. psychosocial risks. The French Ministry of Work and Employment (2013) describes psychosocial risks as encompassing “risks to health, mental as well as physical, created by work through social and psychological mechanisms”. According to Nasse and Légeron, “there is no consensus about the identification of causes of psychosocial risks, the extent of their occurrence, and, a fortiori, on the meaning of actions that could prevent, cure or repair them” (2008, p. 5). Moreover, and as highlighted in Nasse and Légeron’s report (2008), the concept of psychosocial risk remains poorly defined because “the wide variety of themes developed in [this] word [...] is a source of confusion. These themes include [...] the determinants and effects, without distinguishing between causes and consequences. This confusion stems not only from the diversity of risks, but also from the complexity of the links between them” (2008, p. 6).
The purpose of this study was to examine the overlap between mentalhealth problems and mentalwell-being across different dating violence profiles (not victimized, victims and combined) among Canadian youth, while also exploring co-occurring and moderating of binge drinking. In order to determine mentalhealth problems, we examined levels of both depression and anxiety. We examined anxiety due to the fact it is the most common form of mental illness for children and youth in Canada, with a prevalence of 6.5% (Kirby & Keon, 2004), and depression because 3.2 million Canadian youth between the ages of 12 and 19 are at risk for developing depression (CMHA, n.d). By comparing levels of depression, anxiety, and well- being, we were able to develop a more holistic perspective when comparing the similarities and differences among different dating violence profile typologies. In this section, we will discuss preliminary findings, findings in context of previous literature, limitations of the study, implications for both practice and policy, and future directions.
Well, especially this age, it’s just, it comes from peers, like, kind of that pressure to always fitting—to always fit in and, like, always be talking to other people, but sometimes we have to take that time off for ourselves, for, like, self-growth, and how we can still be bright and colourful just on our own. Well, it’s again, like, taking time, doing things like gardening and like, finding that balance in our lives, just focusing on multiple things, not just one, in order to—in order for that self-growth to happen.
area and super-output area) we were able to explore the relationship between mentalwell- being and factors at individual, household and area level. At household level there were some impor- tant significant confounders, including being on housing benefit, being unemployed or retired, being council tenants and requesting re-housing. It was surprising that objective physical attributes of the dwellings such as height of housing and age of the dwelling were not significantly asso- ciated with mentalhealth. All the objective area level factors (Table 1) were also found to be non-significant. Weich 19 has recently reported the lack of consistent association between area factors and common mental disorders and has suggested that the areas used to assess the association between environment and mentalhealth are generally too large to enable the moderate association between area and common mental disorders to be examined. In our study people’s perceptions of factors in their local environment such as access to green spaces and feeling afraid to walk out during the day time were independently associated with mentalhealth. This suggests that simple dwelling categories such as house type and number of bedrooms are not as important as how the street/estate works on a day- to-day basis at a very local level—the level of the street or block, e.g. noise levels, needles and syringes left lying around. It also suggests that low level immediate problems on the street or in the block e.g gangs of youths intimidating people, are more important than area level characteristics such as crime figures, a finding supported by Clark’s review. 8
Adopted children tend to live in more affluent house- holds, households in which the primary language is English, or where someone has attended college. These factors can affect the health and well-being of the chil- dren independent of their adoptive status. Most of the health status differences we examined are not reduced when the higher affluence of adopted children’s families is controlled. Adopted children are more than twice as likely as biological children to have special health care needs. Our results suggest that even if adopted and biological children had the same demographic character- istics and prevalence of special needs, adopted children would be more likely to have consistent insurance cov- erage, receive preventive and dental visits, receive care in a medical home, and receive needed mentalhealth care.
The Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a cross-national research study conducted in collabor- ation with the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The study aims to gain new insight into, and increase our un- derstanding of, young people’s health and well-being, health behaviors and their social context (Currie et al. 2011). By 1983 the HBSC study was adopted by the WHO Regional Office for Europe as a collaborative study. HBSC now includes 43 countries and regions across Europe and North America. The international standard questionnaire produced for every survey cycle enables the collection of common data across all partici- pating countries and thus enables the quantification of patterns of key health behaviors, health indicators and contextual variables. These data allow cross-national comparisons to be made and, with successive surveys, trend data is gathered and may be examined at both the national and cross-national level. The international net- work is organized around an interlinked series of focus and topic groups related to the following areas: body image, bullying and fighting, eating behaviors, health complaints, injuries, life satisfaction, obesity, oral health, physical activity and sedentary behavior, relationships: family and peers, school environment, self-rated health, sexual behavior, socioeconomic environment, substance use: alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, and weight reduction behavior. This study has the approval of the S. João Hospital scientific committee, an ethical national committee and the
Financial future of people depends on how they control themselves in present and make the right decisions. People usually delay their targets, sometimes they try to restrict their behavior by imposing strict rules and deadlines to achieve greater performance, however too strict deadlines can often lead to lower self-control because these rules are not set optimally (Ariely and Wertenbroch, 2002). Self-control problem is also explained by Shefrin and Thaler (1988) in Behavioral Life-Cycle (BLC) Hypothesis. According to BLC hypothesis, people focus on current problems and benefits rather than long term advantages. People make mental accounts to use available resources by dividing wealth into three classes such as current income, current assets and future income (Thaler, 1985). People lack control over their income and spend more on current requirements rather than saving more for retirement and other future needs (Moffitt et al., 2011).