The present study has demonstrated that both US and MRI are more sensitive for visualization of inflammatory and destructive changes in fingers and toes of patients with PsA. The US inter- observer agreement was high for bone changes but was lower for inflammatory changes, whereas the intermodality (US ver- sus MRI) agreement was moderate to high. In comparison with RA patients, PsA patients showed more DIP joint changes. Furthermore, bone proliferations were more common and ten- osynovitis was less frequent in PsA than RA. Even though fur- ther studies are needed (for example, on definitions of pathologies, standardization of methods, sensitivity to change, and prognostic value), it seems evident that both US and MRI have major potential for improved examination of joints, ten- dons, and entheses in fingers and toes of patients with PsA.
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Recent research has shown systematic patterns of confusions between digits of the hands and feet. The present study addressed whether such confusions arise from early somatosensory maps or higher-level body representations. As the glabrous and hairy skin of the hands and feet have distinct representations in somatosensory cortex, an effect arising from early somatotopic maps may show distinct patterns on each skin surface. In contrast, if the effect arises from higher-level body representations which represent the digits as volumetric units, similar patterns should be apparent regardless of which side of the digit is touched. We obtained confusion matrices showing the pattern of mislocalisation on the glabrous and hairy skin surfaces of the toes (Experiment 1) and fingers (Experiment 2). Our results replicated the characteristic pattern of mislocalisations found on the glabrous skin reported in previous studies. Critically, these effects were highly similar on the hairy skin surface of both the toes and fingers. Despite the pattern of mislocalisations being highly stereotyped across participants, there were consistent individual differences in the pattern of confusions across the two skin surfaces. These results suggest that mislocalisations occur at the level of individual digits, consistent with their resulting from higher-level body representations.
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eral tender edema of the second through fifth toes (left more than right). There was a tender nodule over the left fourth interphalan- geal joint and tender macular lesions on the left lateral fifth toe and between the fourth and fifth toes, as well as cool toes and fingers. There were no abnormal nail-fold capillaries. Laboratory evaluations included normal complete blood cell (CBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein lev- els and negative antinuclear antibody (ANA) profile results. The patient began a therapeutic trial of extended release nifedipine (60 mg, every 24 hours), and symptomatic treatment, including keep- ing her feet warm and dry, was advised. In a follow-up examina- tion in the clinic 9 days later, the patient demonstrated significant improvement, with only slight swelling of her right second toe and discoloration of her left second toe.
movement would be upward. The light smoke rises straight, unless it is blown by the wind, while a stone, a block or a piece of iron falls straight when abandoned from a certain height. (Chalmers, 1990; Cohen Bernard, 1985; Drake Stillman, 1981; For Aristotle, the natural motion of an bject was a straight line, with the ascending or descending direction determined by the vertical line passing through the center of the Earth and by the observer. A heavy body would fall in a straight line tending to reach its natural place, which is round, speed being proportional to its mass: "the heavier the body the greater its speed" (Geymonat L, 1983; Redondi P, Galileo addresses this subject in the book Discorsi and Dimostrazioni Matematiche intorno a due Nuove Scienze ica ed ai Movimenti Localli, launched in 1638, concentrating on the movement of bodies falling in opposition to the Aristotelian theory, stating that the rate of fall is not proportional to the body mass, but dependent on external tance. In this sense, tells the legend that he would have done an experiment to confirm his theory, the famous Tower experiment, in which two iron balls with different masses were abandoned from the top of a tower of 100 fathoms high. A fathom is an old unit of length equal to 1.8288 m. According to the book, the larger ball hits the ground with a difference of two fingers compared to the smaller ball, as shown in an excerpt from the book Discorsi written in original Italian in a dialogue between Simplicio and INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Finally, we discuss the differences between the hand and the foot. The most essential difference seems to be found in a fact that, in the foetal foot, we had no evidence of a common tendon between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus muscles. The long courses of these tendons from the ankle to the toes are likely to provide a clear separation. The tendon sheath in the fingers and toes, including the annular pulley, showed a similar morphology, although previous descrip- tions appear to be limited to the finger [4, 24]. Thus, the morphology of the tendon sheath in the toes was a mini-version of that in the finger. The deep flexor tendon of the second or index finger was distant from the others, but the specific mor- phology at the origin of the lumbricalis muscle was common. However, in contrast to other ten- dons in the foot, the deep flexor tendon for the second toe was darkly stained, as was the case for tendons of the longus hallucis muscle. This fact, suggesting delayed or insufficient development of the muscle-tendon interface, seems to be related to a higher incidence (around 10%) of absence of the second lumbricalis muscle in the foot [18, 21]. In contrast to the hand and wrist, the foot had no area in which muscle fibres were absent along the deep flexor tendons: muscle fibres of either the quadrates plantae muscle or the lumbricalis mus- cles were associated at any proximodistal level. Moreover, the lumbricalis muscles were thicker than those in the hand, and the fibres of the flex- or digitorum brevis muscle extended distally to the level at which the adductor hallucis muscle was evident. This morphology (i.e. co-existence between tendons and muscle fibres) seemed to interfere with the development of a space and sheath along the tendon. In addition, because of the simple configuration of the merging with the
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Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is a rare disorder charac- terized by clubbing (acropachy) of the fingers and toes; thickening of the skin (pachyderma), usually of the face; excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis); and new bone forma- tion associated with joint pain [1, 2]. In 1935, the three dermatologists Touraine, Solente, and Gole recognized this condition as a familial disorder presenting in three forms, namely complete (periostosis and pachyderma), incomplete (without pachyderma), and the forme fruste (pachydermia with minimal skeletal changes) . PDP is also therefore known as the Touraine–Solente–Gole syndrome. Borochowitz et al.  previously established that the diagnosis should only be made when at least
Apart from fingers and toes, some languages also use extended body parts as numerals. For example, in Kaluli (2,500 speakers, PNG) no separate word for numerals exist, instead it’s the body part name that represents it. Kaluli counting starts with the pinkie finger of the left hand and by the time it reaches the right hand pinkie finger it has completed a full cycle (corresponding to thirty five). Similarly the Kobon (6,000 speakers, PNG) also use extended body part system. In fact Kobon completes a full cycle reaching twenty three, an odd number! Also after the midpoint (which is the ‘hollow at the base of the throat’) they attach the word ‘bong’ to the body parts meaning ‘the other side’; i.e. say ‘shoulder bong’ or ‘thumb bong’ etc. (Harrison, 2007)
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many opportunities for using their toes and do not use their toes strongly, the barefoot policy seems to not have benefit- ted them as much. However, the amount and content of physical activity were not measured in this study. In the future, analysis of physical activity will be necessary. In addition, there is a possibility that statistical significant differences were not found because the number of girls in the study (25) was less than the number of boys. Girls with- out untouched-toes increased from 28.5 % at the first meas- urement to 44.0 % 2 years later. If the number of girls increases in the future, significant differences may be found. In addition, the number of the untouched-toes in girls was 1.16, which was less even at the first measurement because the first measurement was conducted about a year after the children had entered the kindergarten. If the first measure- ment is conducted soon after entering the kindergarten, dif- ferent results may be obtained. This is also a point to be examined in the future along with increasing the number of boys and girls in the barefoot group for more accurate statistical meaning.
injury where the right foot trapped in the ATV’s uncovered chain. All patients had an isolated right foot injury without any serious associated injuries. The average time of presentation to ER was 3 hours 20 minutes with a range of 15 minutes to 24 hours. All patients were riding the ATV in the desert. Eight (16.3%) patients were wearing shoes. Fifteen (30.6%) patients were wearing sandal, 9 (18.3%) patients were wearing socks only, and 17 (34.6%) patients were barefeeted. All cases had a partial or complete amputation of one or more toes (Fig.1).
Figure 2(d) shows a TEM dark-field image of a region within a spherulite ob- tained from one of the superlattice spots within the diffraction pattern. The spheru- lite appears to consist of fingers of material that are bright and are likely to there- fore be of the ordered phase, with a dark, and therefore probably disordered material between the fingers. In common with many polymer spherulites the fin- gers within a spherulite are generally observed to be of uniform width and in order to achieve space filling whist maintaining a constant width the fingers undergo non-crystallographic branching .
After salt fingers have been disrupted, the initial growth of the salt fingers’ velocity, T and S anomalies is exponential (Stern, 1969; Schmitt, 1979a; Kunze, 1987). For given T and S gradients, the growth rate depends upon the wavelength of the salt fingers. The fastest growing fingers have a width that is set by a balance between lateral diffusion of T (which produces the buoyancy perturbation driving the anomaly) and the viscous dissipation generated by the shear between up and down going fingers. The growth rate of the fastest fingers is plotted as a function of R ρ in figure 6.1. Exponential growth does not continue indefinitely and the flux of T and S becomes limited by secondary instabilities that grow on the salt fingers. Many secondary instabilities have been recognized, such as the “collective instability” of Stern (1969) and other “varicose” instabilities of Holyer (1984, 1985), Howard & Veronis (1987), Veronis (1987) and Shen (1995). For active fingers at low R ρ , these instabilities have vertical wavelengths comparable to the finger width and growth rates that are only slightly lower than those shown in figure 6.1. In a laboratory experiment, Taylor (1993) made a comparison of vertical and horizontal wave numbers and showed that the salt fingers were characterized by small aspect ratio‘blobs’ rather than long ‘fingers’. Thus we expect active salt fingers to reach equilibrium fluxes after several e-folding times (λ 1 ) and at small aspect ratio.
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The first factor is dirt on the finger, be it a small particle, a few grains of dust or just a greasy finger. Liquids are usually the most problematic types, however optical sensors acquire anything what can be seen. Dry or moist finger is one of the most typical cases of damage done to a fingerprint. Whether it is because we wash our hands or we are nervous and our fingers are sweating or on the other hand we have very dry hands because of some lotion. Physical damage of a finger like cuts or abrasions is obviously damaging the fingerprint. Closely related to physical damage are skin diseases. There are ones which are changing papillary lines. And if the disease is severe enough to damage the dermis structure of ridges (papillary lines) there is no way of getting the original structure. Pressure can literally turn the fingerprint into a big black oval. Only contactless sensors are fully immune to the damage that the pressure can make. The change of pressure, a very big or a very low pressure or movement is also considered being a part of the next category of non-cooperative behavior. All these activities lead to a very thick or thin and blurred images. Non-cooperative behavior of the user is typical when the user dislikes biometric technology or simply tries to find the limits of its functionality. The user usually uses an unexpected pressure, moves when the device is scanning and/or places the finger in a wrong place or a wrong rotation.  
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Abstract—A mechanical gripper is used as an end effector in a robot for grasping the objects with its mechanically operated fingers. In industries, two fingers are enough for holding purposes. More than three fingers can also be used based on the application. As most of the fingers are of replaceabletype, it can be easily removed and replaced. The force that a robotic gripper applies to a part is typically used by engineers to select grippers but in actual practice it is not enough to select gripper. There are so many factors are to be considered while designing the gripper like mechanism for gripping, trajectories, parameters that influencing gripping task etc. So in this paper those factors are discussedin brief.
unique mark utilizing some current strategies , . At that point, by utilizing proposed coding methodologies, a consolidated particulars layout is produced focused around the details positions, the introduction and the reference focuses recognized from both fingerprints. At long last, the joined details layout is put away in a database after encryption utilizing RSA. In the confirmation stage, two question fingerprints are needed from the same two fingers, say fingerprints An' and B' from fingers An and B. As in the enlistment, remove the particulars positions from unique mark An' and the introduction from finger impression B'. Reference focuses are recognized from both inquiry fingerprints. This concentrated data will be matched against the relating format put away in the database by utilizing a two-stage unique finger impression matching. The verification will be effective if the matching score is over a predefined limit. Prior to all steps the preprocessing steps are carried out, for example, standardization, contrast improvement, concealing, separating and so forth. Therefore all the more clear edges can be acquired.
Gesture recognition has a wide range of applications in Human-Computer-Interaction. This paper proposes an efficient and succinct method for gesture recognition, which takes advantages of 3D point cloud data. The 3D point cloud data is collected from depth camera, then it is transformed into binary image. Basing on binary im- age, three different appearance features are extracted, including the number of stretched fingers, the angles be- tween fingers as features and the gesture region’s area distribution feature. Finally, the decision tree is con- structed for gesture recognition. Extensive experimental results demonstrate accuracy and robustness of the me- thod proposed in this paper. As a result, this method can play a role in the application of real-time gesture rec- ognition.
The robotic arm had been fabricated in view of the objective of the project. The robotic hand is provided with two degrees of freedom that can be used to perform, though limited, some operations. With the principle aim being to replicate the human hand, the robotic hand consists of five fingers exactly like a human hand. The wrist of the human hand had been replicated to an extent that it can be used to support the five fingers and the servo motors that operate the five fingers. The joints here are fabricated keeping in mind that the movements of the finger can be obtained with the rotational movements with respect to the axis of the screws. The screw axis is perpendicular to the axis of the finger. These joints facilitate the replication of the movement of the human finger.
The phalangeal portion of the forefoot is extremely short relative to body mass in humans. This derived pedal proportion is thought to have evolved in the context of committed bipedalism, but the benefits of shorter toes for walking and/or running have not been tested previously. Here, we propose a biomechanical model of toe function in bipedal locomotion that suggests that shorter pedal phalanges improve locomotor performance by decreasing digital flexor force production and mechanical work, which might ultimately reduce the metabolic cost of flexor force production during bipedal locomotion. We tested this model using kinematic, force and plantar pressure data collected from a human sample representing normal variation in toe length (N = 25). The effect of toe length on peak digital flexor forces, impulses and work outputs was evaluated during barefoot walking and running using partial correlations and multiple regression analysis, controlling for the effects of body mass, whole-foot and phalangeal contact times and toe-out angle. Our results suggest that there is no significant increase in digital flexor output associated with longer toes in walking. In running, however, multiple regression analyses based on the sample suggest that increasing average relative toe length by as little as 20% doubles peak digital flexor impulses and mechanical work, probably also increasing the metabolic cost of generating these forces. The increased mechanical cost associated with long toes in running suggests that modern human forefoot proportions might have been selected for in the context of the evolution of endurance running.
total luxation) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint char- acterized by lateral deviation of the big toe and medial deviation of the first metatarsal ; hallux rigidus: a pain- ful condition of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe characterized by restricted motion (mainly dorsiflex- ion) and proliferative periarticular bone formation ; hammertoe: a flexion deformity at the proximal inter- phalangeal joint in which the metatarsalphalangeal joint is dorsiflexed, and the distal interphalangeal joint is in a neutral or hyperextended position ; claw toe: a dorsi- flexion deformity of the metatarsophalangeal joint and flexion deformities at the interphalangeal joints ; mal- let toe: a condition where the distal phalanx is flexed at the middle phalanx (with involvement of the distal inter- phalangeal joint) ; cock-up toe: an upward displace- ment of the toes ; metatarsophalangeal luxation (both partial and total): significant structural joint displacement with or without total luxation ; flat foot: a condition in which the arch of the foot breaks down, thus allowing the entire sole to touch the ground ; transverse arch flattening: transverse arch foot declination with protru- sion of the metatarsal heads ; dorsal or plantar hyper- keratosis: well-circumscribed, painful lesions known as callosities; plantar or dorsal skin ulcers: localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue over a bony prominence ; hindfoot varus  and hindfoot valgus ; poste- rior tibial disfunction: evidence of a clinically apparent flatfoot upon physical examination, showing weakness with inversion of the plantarflexed foot and an inability to raise the heel while standing on a single leg . Addi- tional definitions based on pain follow: on metatarsal compression: when lateral compression was applied to the metatarsophalangeal joints in the positive squeeze test [20,21]; during movements of the forefoot ; during subtalar movements ; in tibiotalar movements . Restrictions of the following were also reported: hallux plantarflexion ; hallux dorsiflexion; lesser toes plantarflexion ; lesser toes dorsiflexion ; eversion ; inversion ; tibiotalar plantarflexion ; tibiota- lar dorsiflexion .
gait between being barefoot and wearing shoes may affect these results. Many previous studies reported that step length, cadence (step frequency), and foot pressure when contacting the ground differ when barefoot and when wearing shoes (Franklin et al., 2015; Lythgo, Wilson, & Galea, 2009; Wegener, Hunt, Vanwanseele, Burns, & Smith, 2011). Additionally, rear-foot strike at landing during running is facilitated when wearing shoes because shoes attenuate landing impact (Wegener et al., 2011). On the other hand, forefoot strike pattern at landing hap- pens frequently when barefoot (Lieberman et al., 2010). These differences in gait and landing affect foot shape (D’Août, Pataky, De Clercq, & Aerts, 2009; Morio et al., 2009; Rao & Joseph, 1992). D’Août et al. (2009) re- ported that foot width is greater in habitually barefoot walkers than in habitually shoed walkers. Rao and Joseph (1992) examined the relationship between footwear and flat feet in 2300 participants aged from 4 to 13 years, reporting that people who habitually wear shoes have more flat feet than people who do not. Sachithanandam and Joseph (1995) also reported that wearing shoes beginning in childhood affects flat feet. As just described, there is a relationship between going barefoot/wearing shoes and foot shape. In addition, because a forefoot strike pattern is used (Lieberman et al., 2010) and the anterior foot load is high when barefoot (Wolf et al., 2008), load is added to the toes (Hughes et al., 1990; Stokes et al., 1979). Hasegawa et al. (2007) reported that the me- tatarsal-phalange joint’s range of motion is greater when walking barefoot compared with walking with shoes; the toes are also utilized when barefoot. On the other hand, as shoes compress toes, at least somewhat, their mo- bility is limited when wearing shoes. These differences affect the toes’ shape. Although the previous study was conducted with elementary schoolchildren (Enishi, Yamasaki, Hirakawa, Matsunaga, & Ono, 2008), it reported that deformation of the first and fifth toes is less for children who attended an elementary school following a ba- refoot policy than for children who did not. From these previous studies, it seems that the condition of toes dur- ing standing changes by increasing the amount of barefoot activity. Children who attended kindergartens fol- lowing a barefoot policy spent most of the daytime barefoot, thus increasing barefoot activity time. Inferentially, differences in barefoot activity time affected differences between groups in percentages and numbers of children with untouched toes.
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Apparatus and stimuli. Tactile stimuli were delivered on the fingers of the left hand using five solenoid tappers (8 mm in diameter; M&E Solve, UK) driven by a 9 V square wave. Our decision to stimulate the non-dominant hand was not especially motivated by strong theoretical considerations. However, we had a practical reason, stimulating the left hand was much easier with respect to our laboratory set-up and stimulators. The apparatus was controlled by means of a National Instrument I/O box (NI USB-6341) connected to a PC through a USB port. Tactile stimulation was delivered for 5 ms. All participants clearly perceived this stimulation when delivered in isolation to each finger before the experiment. To assure that when in operation the stimulators produced an equal force to the fingers a piezoelectric pressure sensor (MLT1010, AD Instruments, Dunedin, New Zealand) was used to measure the intensity of each tapper. Tactile stimulators were attached on the back of the fingers on the second phalanx centred with respect to the width and length of the finger using double-sided adhesive collars (ADD204 19 mm OD, 4 mm ID). The hands rested on the table aligned with the participant’s body midline in a comfortable position (Fig. 1A). In this way, the stimulators exerted a similar pressure on all body parts.
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