Young people have developed elaborate sets of ideas regarding sexuality and their sexual roles well before they actually engage in sexual activity. These sexual “scripts” serve as guidelines for what types of sexual behaviors are appropriate for which people at what ages and with which partners (Crockett et al., 2003; Laumann et al., 1994). Adolescents who have intercourse at a young age may feel they have less power and may learn to take a passive role in sexual encounters. Such sexual scripts and the often negative subjective response to early sexual intercourse (e.g., low wantedness scores) may have long term consequences. This premise is supported by the literature. For example, in a survey of college women, Leitenberg et al. found that women who reported consensual sex at age 13 had more current symptoms of psychological distress compared to women who reported firstintercourse at age 14 or 15 (Leitenberg & Saltzman, 2003).
The results from this study are also less generalizable to girls under the age of 18 years of age and women/girls, who are not attending university, and who have not had sexual intercourse. Women aged 18 – 25 years of age participated in the current study and were asked to recount their age at firstintercourse and to reflect on experiences occurring across all past relationships. Despite that the average woman reported that they were 15.19 years old when they entered their first romantic relationship and that they were 16.68 years old when they engaged in their first form of sexual intercourse (be it vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse), caution should be used when making inferences about adolescent girls. Likewise, these results may not be representative of a population of women who are not attending post-secondary education. Women who are attending post- secondary school may have a unique set of protective factors that counteract the risk posed by engaging in sexual intercourse at an early age. Furthermore, as one of the main variables under study was age at first sexual intercourse, these results pertain solely to sexually active women. Women who have not have sexual intercourse, or who have sexual intercourse at a later age, are still at risk for dating violence victimization and future studies should explore the risk and protective factors associated with this subset of women.
Clinic based testing behaviour differing between ethnic groups among boys may indicate that boys’ testing pat- terns at this age is more influenced by same-ethnicity peers and less by national recommendations. In contrast, girls’ test activity was not associated with ethnicity. Early firstintercourse doubled the odds of clinic based testing and was positively correlated with number of sexually active years suggesting that it may reflect a longer sexually active period with more testing opportunities. In contrast, participants who just recently started their sexual career only had limited time to seek chlamydia testing. No con- dom use at first and last intercourse increasing the odds of clinic based testing suggests testing for safety reasons. While condom use at any occasion is a dyadic behaviour and negotiable between partners, chlamydia testing can freely be carried out by the individual. Higher lifetime number of sexual partners being associated with increased
The greater number of statistically valid analyses on Italian national samples refer to connections between church attendance on Sundays and age at firstintercourse (Ongaro, 2001; Cazzola, 1999; Castiglioni, 2004). Some of the results of a study on this topic are listed in table 2. For young Italians born in 1966-1977 and interviewed in 1996, attending mass on Sundays was the variable particularly associated with the statistical risk of engaging in first sexual intercourse. Among girls, the median age at firstintercourse ranged from 18.6 among those never going to mass, to 21.4 among those going to mass at least once a week. Among boys of the same two groups, the median age ranged from 17.9 to 21.2. Generally, the authors of the above studies explain these results as a sign of the effect of religiosity on sexual behaviour. However, until now in Italy it has never been possible to study the direction of this relation thoroughly. In the surveys on sexual behaviour, church attendance was asked at the time of interview. Quoting Castiglioni (2004, p. 29): “Religious youth delay their entry into sexual life, behaving consistently with the Church’s teaching. However, an inverse mechanism could be also operating. A precocious sexual activity could increase the distance from the Church’s moral norms, which could later lead them away from religious practice”.
While DeVos’ (2000) comment about data limitations is true – there are no longitu- dinal data archives similar to those supporting US and European research – the structure of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Reproductive Health Surveys (RHS) provides enough information on timing of key events to support an analysis of life course processes leading to cohabitation or marriage during the formative early adolescent (age 12) to young adult (age 24) period. In this study we focus on women from three Central American countries – Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua – that have recent DHS or RHS data. We focus on key pathways to union formation with a minimal specification that incorporates socio-economic proxies (education, rural, and ethnicity) and life events (firstintercourse and pregnancy) that should be strongly related to union formation. We focus on two research questions: 1) Does age at firstintercourse and pregnancy increase the risk of forming a cohabiting union and decrease the risk of formally marrying? and 2) Do the magnitude and timing of transitions to cohabitation and marriage differ systemat- ically in terms of geographic, ethnic, and socio-economic strata (particularly in terms of education)?
Table 4 shows that the shorter the subsequent relationship following sex, the higher the odds of subsequent regret. Those men who never had sex with their first partner again were 4.5 times more likely to report regret than men whose subsequent relationship with the first partner lasted five years or more. For women the impact of relationship duration was even larger. Those women who did not have sex with their first partner again were almost 13 times more likely to report regret. Analysis of the interaction between age of firstintercourse and the duration of the subsequent relationship (not shown) showed that the odds of regret were substantially decreased for those who had sex before age 16, but who then went onto have a relationship of more than six months, but less than a year. The extent of decrease does not though fully compensate for the impact of early sexual intercourse and relatively short relationship duration, both of which strongly increase the odds of regret.
Sexual intercourse ≤ 1 time/week. Concerning Last sexual intercourse, only 20% of women had Last sexual intercourse < 48 hours. While 6.3% current used of antibiotic. More than half of women reported current IUD used. According to use of vaginal douching, 21.3% women had douching > 1 time/week, 11.3% used douching inside vagina, and 13.7% had recent use < 48 hours. The present results agreed with Wiset et al., (2004) who noticed that 0.9% reported a prior history of sexually transmitted diseases and 0.6% had had more than 2 sexual partners in the past 3 months. Nearly 90% had only a single sexual partner through their lifetime and about 60% reported having 1 or less sexual intercourse per week. Another study conducted by Verstraelen et al., (2010) who reported that BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This goes in line with Madhivanan et al., (2008) who clarified that no significant association was demonstrated between bacterial vaginosis and days since last menstrual period, days since last sexual intercourse and prior history of sexual transmitted diseases. Although not statistically significant, bacterial vaginosis tended to be more prevalent among women with a lower age at firstintercourse, higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, current smokers, and less prevalence among women with current antibiotic use. However, bacterial vaginosis was significantly more prevalent among women who used douching inside the vagina than those who never douched [OR = 3.98 (95% CI 1.85-8.33), p < 0.01], and significantly more prevalent among women using IUD than non-IUD users [OR = 1.84 (95%CI 1.22-2.79), p<0.01]. There was no significant association between BV and IUD use. Moreover , Joesoef et al., (2001) who emphasized that an increase risk of BV in IUD users, with the explanation that IUD might change the vaginal flora in favor of the growth of bacteria associated with BV and should be screened prior to IUD insertion. Also Gallo et al., (2011) who observed that 94% of the BV positive cases were using vaginal douches which confirms that vaginal douches represent a risk factor of BV acquisition. Previous observational studies by Mangot-Bertrand et al., (2013) suggested a strong association between vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis. Moreover, Pourmarzi et al., (2014) demonstrated that douching at least once per month, recent douching within 7 days and douching for symptoms or hygiene was associated with BV.
Based on findings from previous studies and the 10% change-in-estimate rule, we included participants’ age, participants’ age of firstintercourse, participants’ lifetime smoking, husbands’ lifetime smoking and condom use in multivariable models. The association between age of firstintercourse and high-risk HPV infection and multi- type HPV infection remained significant (all p-values < .05). Participants’ smoking status was strongly and significantly associated with the two HPV-infection outcomes. Using no HPV infection as the reference group, the odds of being infected with high-risk-type HPV were 24.2 in women who ever smoked compared to those who never smoked. Smoking also increased the odds of being infected with multiple types of HPV (OR = 15.4). Regular condom use was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of multi-type HPV infection (p = .032). When we further compared 50 multi-type high risk cases with 99 single- type high risk HPV cases, the results were comparable to previous findings.
In conclusion, these results contribute to continuing debates around the important and complex association of several factors with early initiation of sexual activity. The findings suggest that interventions aiming to delay firstintercourse may need to consider targeting aspects of indi- viduals' connection to their school and family as well as gender. Furthermore, the results do not support the need to consider socio-economic background, religion or self- esteem of the individuals in intervention design in this age group of adolescents and in these types of non- denominational schools in Scotland.
In order to study where respondents lived when they had their first sexual intercourse, we use the place of main residence during the first fifteen years of his/her life (Note 4). This may not have been the respondent’s actual hometown, but we assume that it is a fair reflection of the environment in which the first sexual intercourse was experienced. Individuals living abroad at age fifteen and individuals who did not indicate any residence location are excluded. The municipal data are then aggregated at the provincial level. Given the methodological focus of the present work, we limit our attention exclusively to the sub-sample of women. Finally, cases in which age at first sexual intercourse was not given are excluded from the analysis (32). The final data set includes 4,006 female cases. Among them, 47.6% used some contraceptive methods during their first sexual experience. The sample distribution across age and cohorts is reported in table 1.
Results: The mean frequency of intercourse during pregnancy (1.6 times/ week) was less than before pregnancy (3.5 times/week). Husbands were the main initiators of sexual activity (44%) while the wives only rarely did so (0.7%). Some (13.3%) women felt it served to keep husbands around. Coitus during pregnancy was gratifying in 64.7% and painful in 37.3% of respondents. Most (45.4%) believed coitus was harmful for the foettts. Others (28.7%) thought it did not make any difference whereas 4.7% believed that it made a difference if the foetus was female by gender. 22.7% women believed that coitus during pregnancy caused abortions early in pregnancy and 6.7% that it induced pre-term labour. 26% did not know the means by which the harmful effects were produced but still maintained their beliefs. Some (10.7%) thought it could actually help widen the birth canal and facilitate labour. Majority (85.3%) -believed that frequency should be lowered during pregnancy, 10% thought that it should be continued as before and 4% that it should be stopped completely
Basically in view of psychology, the age of adolescence is the beginning of a phase of social development. Social development of adolescents sometimes even more worried about his social life outside of the social bond on in the family. Social development of teenagers in this phase is the point behind the limelight. The social environment as a major concern. At the age of adolescent socialization and social interaction with peers grew vast and complex compared to the previous period included intercourse with the opposite sex (Afria, 2012). Based on these conditions, according to erikson (in Desmita, 2005) one of the tasks of development during adolescence is a complete identity crisis, so expect formed a stable self identity in late adolescence.
Table 4 describes adolescent sexual habits. 40.3% (223/553) of sexually active adolescents had multiple partners with as many as 8 reported. Although this be- havior was more frequently reported in boys than in girls, 43.0%; 95/221 and 37.4%; 128/342, respectively, they were statistically comparable. More than 50% of sexually active adolescents surveyed had at least one sexual intercourse monthly (57.8%; 320/553). This occurred more often in boys (59.7%; 126/211) than in girls (55.9%; 194/342). Sexual orientation was predominantly heterosexual (83.6%; 462/553), with practically equal proportions in boys and girls, (82.0%; 173/211) and (84.5%; 289/342), respectively. Vaginal penetration was the most common type of sex (66%; 365/553) but it often occurred alongside oral sex, in boys (26.2%; 145/553) and girls (23.4%; 80/342). Only 1/3 sexually active adolescent consistently used condoms (31.2%; 167/553) and it was more often male con- doms (OR = 1.56; p < 0.001).
Erectile dysfunction is treated with 5-phospodiesterase inhibitors as Mirodenafil, which has shown its efficacy and safety in Koreans, however; no information in other populations is available. An open clinical trial study was designed to evaluate the ef- ficacy and safety in real life of a fixed-dose of Mirodenafil in Mexican patients with erectile dysfunction. Forty-seven male patients received a 100 mg tablet of Mirode- nafil, during 12 weeks. Primary outcome efficacy measure was the percentage of male patients with successful intercourse. Secondary outcomes measures included patient satisfaction, mood and self-esteem level. Safety assessments included laboratory tests, vital signs, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings, and inci- dence of adverse events by patients. Oral administration of Mirodenafil improved in an 80% - 90% the number of successful intercourses from 7 to 84 days of treatment. Moreover, patients reported a significant increment in their sexual satisfaction, mood and self-esteem. Mirodenafil treatment did not modify vital signs nor anthro- pometric parameters during 84 days. Mild headache was the most frequent adverse event (17.0%) and there were no severe adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Data suggest that oral Mirodenafil is safety, well tolerated and effective in the Mexican population with erectile dysfunction.
The trial will be the first to show if screening for chlamy- dial infection can reduce the incidence of PID in a British population. It will also show if non-invasive screening of high risk, difficult to access groups such as women aged <20 and those from black ethnic minorities is feasible out- side health care settings. Over 40% of young people in the UK now attend higher education adding to the generalis- ability of the results. If the intervention is effective, extending such screening programmes to the community should help to reduce the burden of PID. Finally by pro- viding new information on both the effectiveness of screening and on the natural history of chlamydial infec- tion and the influence of BV, the study will contribute to the evidence base for the UK National Strategy for Sexual Health. The trial will report in December 2008.
change because of the CLBP). To explore the change of the frequency of intercourse, we proceed by calculating the mean difference between the monthly intercourse fre- quency before and after low back pain onset. Question 8 of ODI was also used to assess sex life difficulties in our patients. In addition, we studied the sexual quality of life using the French version of the sexual quality of life ques- tionnaire (SQOL - F  for women and the SQOL - M  for men). The SQOL-F has 18 items and the SQOL-M contains 11 items, each with a 6 point ranging from “com- pletely agree” to “completely disagree”. Except for item 4 which corresponds to the only gender specific question, the male and female versions of the SQOL are very similar. The SQOL-M has seven fewer items than the original SQOL-F instrument: two on relationship; one related to emotional well-being; three related to frequency and avoid- ance of sexual activity; and one on the overall enjoyment. The items that have been removed in the SQOL-M are the ones that worked well for women, but did not work so well in a male population . For example, questions on the sexuality-related emotional connection with the part- ner (e.g. “when I think about my sexual life I feel close to my partner”) may not resonate with men in the same way they do for women. Similarly, questions re- lating to avoidance and low frequency of the sexual ac- tivity because of sexual problems may be more relevant to the female sexual dysfunction than to the male sexual dysfunction . The SQOL-F and SQOL- M are valid instruments for assessing the impact of the sexual dysfunction on the quality of life [7,8]. They showed good psychometric properties (convergent val- idity, discriminate validity and test-retest reliability) [7,8]. Total score of SQOL ranges from 0 to 100 [7,8]. Increasing scores employ better sexual quality of life. According to the data of the original validation study, men and women without a sexual dysfunction had high mean scores on the SQOL (87.13 and 90.1, re- spectively [7,8]).
Results: A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years) (p < 0.01). 93.2% of male youth reported more than one sexual lifetime partner compared to 63.0% of the females. Only 50% of males compared to 43% of females had ever used a condom and fewer than 8.3% of female youth used other contraceptive methods. 27.1% of pregnancies were unplanned and 60% of abortions were induced. 42.0% of female youth had received gifts/money for sexual favours. The HIV prevalence was 15.3% and 7.5% for females and males respectively. The prevalence of other STIs was relatively low. Among male youth, use of alcohol or illicit drugs was associated with increased risk of HIV infection. However, the age of sexual initiation, number of sexual partners or the age of the first sexual partner were not associated with increased risk of being HIV infected.
 The counsel for the Petitioner has also referred to a decision of the Constitutional Court of South Africa in National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality and Ors. v. The Minister of Home Affairs and Ors. (Case CCT 10/99) wherein it was held that Section 25(5) of the Aliens Control Act 96 of 1991, by omitting to confer on persons, who are partners in permanent same-sex life partnerships, the benefits it extends to spouses, unfairly discriminates, on the grounds of their sexual orientation and marital status, against partners in such same-sex partnerships who are permanently and lawfully resident in the Republic. Such unfair discrimination limits the equality rights of such partners guaranteed to them by Section 9 of the Constitution and their right to dignity under Section 10. It was further held that it would not be an appropriate remedy to declare the whole of Section 25(5) invalid. Instead, it would be appropriate to read in, after the word ‘spouse’ in the section, the words ‘or partner, in a permanent same-sex life partnership’. For similar reasoning, in relation to the increased incidence of child abuse in recent times, it has been argued that the words ‘sexual intercourse’ in Section 375 IPC must be given a larger meaning than has been traditionally understood.