First-Past-the-Post

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First past the post games

First past the post games

We now specialise the analysis to block patterns and Penney-Ante-type games. In Penney-Ante games, each player chooses a word. A die (with | T | faces each of which bears one of the elements of T , but not necessarily fair) is then thrown repeatedly until one of the chosen words occurs as a suffix of the play. The player who made the choice is declared the winner. For example, suppose the alphabet has two symbols a and b, one player chooses the word a and the second player chooses the word bb. There are just three complete plays of this game: the words a, ba and bb. The first player wins in the first two cases and the second player wins in the third case. Note that this is a first-past-the-post game — see example 1. Recognition of a block pattern (see example 3) is a special case of a Penney-Ante game with one player.
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No Matter Who Draws the Lines: A Comparative Analysis of the Utility of Independent Redistricting Commissions in First-Past-the-Post Democracies

No Matter Who Draws the Lines: A Comparative Analysis of the Utility of Independent Redistricting Commissions in First-Past-the-Post Democracies

This Note takes a comparative approach to assessing the value of IRCs in promoting proportionality and ending partisan bias by looking at four democratic countries that use both IRCs and “first-past-the-post” electoral systems with additional characteristics similar to those of the United States and analyzing their outcomes under several criteria for electoral equality. Because the focus of this work is on apportionment, and because the function and mode of election of the executive vary considerably among different countries, this analysis will exclusively focus on electoral policy with respect to legislative elections. This Note also develops recommendations for U.S. electoral policy with respect to IRCs. Finally, as very little comparative scholarship on redistricting has been done in the international field, 9 this
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Emergence of Independent Candidates: A Negative Binomial Regression Model of an Indian Parliamentary Election

Emergence of Independent Candidates: A Negative Binomial Regression Model of an Indian Parliamentary Election

The paper specifies a model of the first-past-the-post (FPTP) electoral system in which political parties themselves float independent candidates to gain electoral advantage, leading to a Prisoners’ Dilemma type game where each party tries to out-maneuver one another. Imposing some intuitively appealing assumptions on this game, we show that the total number of independent candidates across constituencies would follow a Negative Binomial distribution. Empirical results for the 2004 parliamentary election in India reveal a good fit of the Negative Binomial model to data. Results also help to identify a few major determinants of the spatial distribution of independent candidates in India. Results point out that the number of independent candidates across constituencies in a State in India is strongly influenced by political fractionalization in that State, with metropolitan and urban constituencies on an average having more independent candidates. We also find that elite politicians and their family members, ceteris paribus, face more independent candidates. Finally, results establish that number of independent candidates is typically less in reserved constituencies due to reduced number of potential candidates. Our results suggest that FPTP electoral systems as in India need to put appropriate institutional constraints that increase transaction costs of electoral participation for independent candidates.
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Women’s experiences of medical treatment for endometriosis and its impact on PRE EMPT trial participation: a qualitative study

Women’s experiences of medical treatment for endometriosis and its impact on PRE EMPT trial participation: a qualitative study

This study sheds light on the rationales underpinning patients’ decisions to enter clinical trials, which may be helpful to future studies. The ability to recruit and retain suitable participants to research, and in particular to ran- domised trials, remains a major concern [21]. Qualitative methods used early in the research process have been shown to improve recruitment, by addressing concerns that are identified by participants in preparatory work, in order to increase the relevance and acceptability of partici- pating in RCTs [30]. This study demonstrates that re- searchers would benefit from considerations of the complex ways in which participants’ past histories, current circumstances and future hopes with treatments offered in a trial comes to influence acceptability. Women in this trial were open to retrying treatments with which they had past negative or ambivalent experiences, especially in light of changed circumstances (in this case, the potential for the increased efficacy of treatments post laparoscopic surgery). Such findings are useful for recruitment strat- egies and can potentially inform how women are offered various treatment arm options. They also demonstrate how the processes by which the research is conducted may be designed to offer an element of choice and/or con- trol to participants.
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Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

negative memories, and create a positive future narrative. Help clients use these narratives as a bridge to actualize change so they become less biased and move more freely between the Past, Present, and Future time perspectives as needed. Jacobs et al. (2013) stated that writing skills, motivation to acquire new technology skills, and time management were reasons for occupational therapy online learners’ attrition. As a solution to attrition, Jacobs et al. emphasized the importance of providing external, focused, supportive student services; this supports the use of time perception identification and intervention that this current study suggests. Occupational therapy academicians may choose to use the ZTPI to help identify and provide focused services to academically at-risk occupational therapy students.
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Investigating the Prevalence of Anorectal Complications and the Factors Influencing it During Pregnancy and After Child Birth in Natural Delivery and Cesarean Among the Pregnant Women

Investigating the Prevalence of Anorectal Complications and the Factors Influencing it During Pregnancy and After Child Birth in Natural Delivery and Cesarean Among the Pregnant Women

In another study conducted in Paris whose results were published in 2002, 165 pregnant women were analyzed during the third three months of pregnancy and also in post-childbirth phase. 9.1% had anal complications during pregnancy which included 13 cases of Hemorrhoid and 2 cases of Fissure. This rate reached a level of 35.2% in post-childbirth period which included 33 cases of external Hemorrhoid and 35 cases of Fissure (21). The prevalence rate of Hemorrhoid and Fissure in the above mentioned study was close to our research. Using a bigger sample in our study as compared to the above mentioned study is our point of strength.
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Blowing Away Shot Pain: A Technique for Pain Management During Immunization During Immunization

Blowing Away Shot Pain: A Technique for Pain Management During Immunization During Immunization

For the first set of 75 children information was obtained from the parents regarding the child’s age, past painful experiences, past medical experiences, age at last shot, any known lear[r]

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“I Know, But I Have No Proof”  Authentic Past and Aesthetic Truth in Post War Italy

“I Know, But I Have No Proof” Authentic Past and Aesthetic Truth in Post War Italy

In this article, I have tried to document the reasons why and the extent to which the Italian public memory of the strategy of tension period has undergone a process of aestheticising. I have illustrated the importance of recognising the role of the arts (and in this case especially of the cinema) in making alternative un- derstandings of a difficult past possible, without claiming to resolve any of the dilemmas involved. It has been argued that film is exemplary as a site of reveal- ing truth, making mourning and reconciliation, as well as potential political change possible. However, some concluding remarks are required also in rela- tion to the specificity of the Italian case. In Italy, the role of the arts in perform- ing the trauma process for very difficult pasts is necessarily amplified by the lack of functioning legal and institutional arenas. In several cases, trials have been stopped and judges killed to prevent them from investigating further. Therefore Italian citizens gain their knowledge of the recent past mainly from films, theat- rical performances, and exhibitions, as shown in the case of Romanzo di una strage , the film about the Piazza Fontana bombing directed by Marco Tullio Giordana in 2012. To understand past events in their country, Italians must go to the theatre, museums or the cinema. However, in the end, they have “only” been to the theatre or at the cinema. Put otherwise, public knowledge of this particular past has been produced through the aesthetic mode of production. It is here argued also that the history of its existence as “knowledge without proof” articulated and shared have made room for more criticism and articulation in art as well as other realms of cultural production. This public knowledge has a “de- gree of truth” not comparable, for example, with that of traditional historical or political discourse. In the end, citizens will be induced to think that “perhaps it tells the truth, but it is only a film”. Thus reaffirmed is a type of “conspiracy narrative” in regard to those traumas: plausible, yet the degree of reality pro- duced through aesthetic codes is insufficient to compete with other narratives in the nation’s public discourse. However, commemorative rituals in Italy are op- portunities for civil and political society to contribute to the values of democra- cy. They are also significant for the hegemony process, in that they make de- mocracy possible.
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Review Essay: German Cinema—Terror and Trauma: Cultural Memory since 1945

Review Essay: German Cinema—Terror and Trauma: Cultural Memory since 1945

Let us start by unfolding the book’s major theoretical standpoints. In the first section, titled “Terror, Trauma, Parapraxis,” Elsaesser articulates the ways that trauma theory can offer a pathway to help us understand how sensitive historical incidents, which are entrenched in collective memory, reverberate in the present. He suggests that contemporary traumatic historical phenomena not only force us to look into the past to seek sufficient interpretative schemata, but also redefine and reformulate our relationship with the past. According to Elsaesser, in the present historical period, in which the collective “common projects,” e.g. the struggle for social justice and the desire to change the world, are notably absent, shared traumatic memories from the past and the present remain (problematically) the sole collective narratives which can establish a group identity. But what renders historical events such as the Holocaust, and the                                                                                                                          
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Women’s experiences of medical treatment for endometriosis and its impact on PRE-EMPT trial participation: a qualitative study

Women’s experiences of medical treatment for endometriosis and its impact on PRE-EMPT trial participation: a qualitative study

other three [22], page 238. In addition, we have demon- strated how willingness to enter the PRE-EMPT trial was bound up with previous experience and future expectations of medication, as well as the control offered by the option to reject a particular treatment post-surgery. Overall, women did not report one post-surgery treatment option (including the no-treatment group) as more un- acceptable than any others. However, individually, women had strong feelings about which treatments they found objectionable based on their past negative experiences, or those of their friends and family members, with that par- ticular treatment. These strong treatment preferences shape participants ’ views on randomisation, with half indi- cating they would have declined the trial if they had not been allowed the element of choice over which trial op- tions they would (and would not) be randomised to. Simi- larly, research on women ’ s participation in a trial comparing surgical techniques for stress incontinence found that non-participants were not averse to clinical tri- als per se but had strong preferences about specific as- pects of treatment, in particular for a specific product and a general anaesthetic [28].
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Heritage in Britain: lifelong learning, archaeology and partnerships

Heritage in Britain: lifelong learning, archaeology and partnerships

2002 Partnerships for Post-Compulsory Education: learning how they work in England, Learning and the Past Conference, International Centre for Education in Development in association wit[r]

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Vol 7, No 2 (2020)

Vol 7, No 2 (2020)

Following the theory of cultural trauma (Alexander, 2004), the political and civic initiatives can be conceptualised in the context of remembering and forgetting as the memory carrier groups, which tried to bridge the gap between the traumatic communist past and its current representations, which were claimed to be too conciliatory towards communist legacy. Public presentation of the activities and materials of the new memory initiatives was dominated by the ‘coming to terms with the past’ discourse which operated with the formula ‘loss of national memory’. We may conclude, using the concept of Gil Eyal’s (2004) traumatic will to remember, that the very normalcy of the future could be secured only through the confession of historical guilt and the assumption of responsibility for the crimes of communism. Memory was to protect the society from the return of the moral failures of the past. Pavel Žáček, the assistant director of in 1995 established Úřad dokumentace a vyšetřování zločinů komunismu (Office for the Documentation and Prosecution of Communist Crimes) and future founder and first director of The Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes, also used the metaphor of healing the social trauma through revealing the truth about the past in his analysis Boje o minulost (Fights over the past):
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Making Sense of the Past: (Re)constructing the Local Memorial Landscape in a Post-Soviet Base in Poland

Making Sense of the Past: (Re)constructing the Local Memorial Landscape in a Post-Soviet Base in Poland

communist period, there were also the system’s former beneficiaries (who frequently wished to create a secure old age for themselves in a new place, without suffering any consequences for their past deeds); the representatives of the Northern Group of the Soviet Army who managed to return to Borne after a period of several years (the Rus- sians, the Ukrainians); civilians who inhabited the surrounding settlements during the period when the Soviet forces were stationed at the base, and who supported them- selves, to a significant extent, by trading with the soldiers; and, lastly, citizens who avoided participation in the public life. Nevertheless, in the context of reconstructing the local memorial landscape and forging collective identity, agency is not only a matter of personal choice or will, but also an achievement and a matter of recognition, in which not everybody’s voice is listened to. It turned out soon enough that in Borne Sulinowo active agency went into the hands of the representatives of political power who sup- ported the changes taking place in the country, of economically successful entrepre- neurs who contributed to the town’s development, local associations (often founded or managed by private investors), and to a lesser extent the pensioners who have repre- sented a significant proportion of the town’s inhabitants ever since it was founded as a civilian settlement. However, some voices were inaudible, for example the voice of former German inhabitants of the settlement (Germans do not live in Borne Sulinowo and do not participate in the debates on the subject of its past) and of the few Russian- speakers who returned to the former base after the withdrawal of Russian Federation forces (this group of inhabitants stays out of the way and as a rule does not participate in the life of the local community).
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Performance of Tomlinson Harashima Precoding and Dirty Paper coding for Broadcast Channels in MU MIMO

Performance of Tomlinson Harashima Precoding and Dirty Paper coding for Broadcast Channels in MU MIMO

The above mentioned broadcast channel techniques are used to remove the interference in the communication system. Dirty Paper Coding is a technique of precoding the data effect the interference can be canceled to some interference that is known to the transmitter. Tomlinson- Harashima Precoding (THP) in Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE) is to cancel the post-cursor ISI in the transmitter, where the past transmits symbols are known without possibility of errors. The presented results show that the Dirty Paper Coding and Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding BER performance.
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Post Soviet Integration Breakthrough  Why the Customs Union Has More Chances Than Its Predecessors

Post Soviet Integration Breakthrough Why the Customs Union Has More Chances Than Its Predecessors

Let us first look back at the history of the emergence of the new generation of integration bodies in the post-Soviet space. The early 2000s saw the first calls for taking a more pragmatic approach to integration and abandoning idealistic rhetoric. Nevertheless, until quite recently the post-Soviet states have cooperated in but a few areas to handle issues of the common infrastructure created in Soviet times, specifically railways and electric power generation facilities. Attempts to breathe new life into existing organizations only worsened the contradictions. The two organizations set up in 2006 – the Eurasian Development Bank (EDB) and the CIS Interstate Humanitarian Cooperation Fund – can be viewed as the first portents of change. Unlike the previous initiatives, the objective of the new organizations was to support specific projects (banks handling the development of infrastructures and the economy, or foundations providing for culture and education projects), not general norms or policy coordination. The focus on specific cooperation objectives kept these two bodies from turning into new paper-pushing bodies.
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A Cognitively Designed Error Correction Log for Facilitating the Learning of Grammatical Structures

A Cognitively Designed Error Correction Log for Facilitating the Learning of Grammatical Structures

These findings for the ECL are not surprising as the de- sign of the ECL guides learners to study their errors and corrections (two cognitive processes of noticing-the-gap and noticing) and then provide an explanation for why they made the error (the cognitive process of noticing with metalinguis- tic understanding), while the instruction to study the error and correction provides opportunities for facilitating only two cognitive processes (noticing-the-gap and noticing). The finding that there were no group differences in the delayed post-test for the study group, however, is surprising as previ- ous studies have found direct WCF plus study outperformed control groups receiving no WCF. As mentioned earlier, it is not known whether learners in the study group were actually attending to the WCF. Considering this, a possible explana- tion for the failure of the study group to outperform the con- trol group in the delayed post-test could lay in the context. R. Ellis (2004) reports the two major individual differences affecting language acquisition are motivation and aptitude. In the context where this study was undertaken, it has been demonstrated that learners are, by and large, extrinsically as opposed to intrinsically motivated (Kocatepe, 2017). Second language learning research has shown intrinsically motivat- ed learners outperformed extrinsically motivated learners and amotivated ones (Noels, Clement & Pelletier, 2001). As there was no observable reward for the learners to complete the study, perhaps this contributed to a failure to attend to the WCF when asked to study the feedback for the direct WCF plus study group. As discussed in section 2.1, Schmidt (2001) acknowledged that alertness is seen as priming ori- entation which facilitates detection. However, for the direct WCF plus ECL group, the participants were guided to first study the WCF after writing down the error and the correc- tion, and then they provided a metalinguistic explanation during the completion of the ECL. This then is potentially good news for teachers who may work with learners that are extrinsically motivated or amotivated, but clearly this issue is in need of further investigation.”).
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Abstract Background: Long after completion of tuberculosis (TB) therapy, many patients with previous pulmonary

Abstract Background: Long after completion of tuberculosis (TB) therapy, many patients with previous pulmonary

lung function tests. Although, the present study on post-tuberculous spirometric changes in SN Medical College showed that 45.5% of subjects with a past history of treated pulmonary TB experienced lung function impairment, with mixed pattern being the most common disorder. In a Canadian study of 25 newly diagnosed TB patients treated with DOT that correlated PFTs with computerized lung tomography, four subjects(16%) had impaired lung function and one subject had severe impairment (an FEV1 of <1.0 l) [21] . That study found that pulmonary function impairment present at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis was not significantly changed after six months of therapy [21] . A Latin American study identified impairment associated with tuberculosis from a population view found that persons reporting a prior TB diagnosis were more than twice as likely to have airflow obstruction [22] . In a retrospective study of South African men sufficiently fit to be employed as gold miners, pulmonary impairment was found to be stable 12 months after the TB diagnosis [23]. In another study from South Africa, pulmonary impairment observed in hospitalized TB patients at the beginning of treatment improved modestly but still persisted after six months of treatment [24] . A recent cross-sectional study of MDR-TB patients from India revealed that almost all (45/47 or 96%) had abnormal PFT values, and 98% had residual radiological sequelae despite completing standardized and recommended anti-TB therapy; these findings suggest that PIAT is worse in patients with drug-resistant TB [25]. The data from our retrospective, non-selected and racially heterogeneous cohort of tuberculosis patients treated with DOT were insufficient to establish a relationship between drug resistant TB and changes in PIAT. However, we were able to demonstrate that impairment identified after completion of treatment remained stable after weeks or months of observation. These findings support a recent report by the TAMI group, from Taipei, Taiwan, in which pulmonary impairment
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Human security benchmarks : governing human wellbeing at a distance

Human security benchmarks : governing human wellbeing at a distance

Instead it has reflected the UN’s tendency over the past decade to subsume these within ‘threat clusters’ to enable the adaptation of the concept and related development goals to the post[r]

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Revitalizing the Successful Past in the North: Narratives of Change in the Peripheral Post-Industrial City of Kajaani, Finland

Revitalizing the Successful Past in the North: Narratives of Change in the Peripheral Post-Industrial City of Kajaani, Finland

Abstract: Finding a new destination for declining industrial communities is a common European trend, wherein local, national and EU interests are intertwined and sometimes contested. New meaning is sought, among other things, in economics, political activity, and images of the past. This article analyzes local development narratives in the case of the “northern periphery”. This paper highlights how the shrinking town of Kajaani, Finland, reacts to the state’s changing role in regional industrial strategies by comparing different local interpretations of future expectations. The research material comprises interviews, city strategies, and editorials from a local newspaper. This paper suggests that the previously dominant narrative of decentralization still holds sway in the minds of the local advocates. However, it is flavored by the narrative of the knowledge-based economy forming three interrelated local narratives: the narrative of the small town; the narrative of closure; and the narrative of traction. The analysis shows that a northern model city of former industrial policy is seeking to reform and develop its original strengths. However, strong links to previous doctrines of state regional policy still frame the potential of local interpretations and make them specifically Nordic development narratives.
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Living on the Past: The Role of Truth Commissions in Post-Conflict Societies and the Case Study of Northern Ireland

Living on the Past: The Role of Truth Commissions in Post-Conflict Societies and the Case Study of Northern Ireland

Any method of truth-seeking that falls solely under the auspices of the British state, however, is likely to be regarded with suspicion by large seg- ments of Northern [r]

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