Mungall et al.  and Hoehndorf et al.  have recently proposed automatic and semi-automatic methods to transform pre-composed phenotypic descrip- tions into a description logic (DL) based post-composed representation linked to domain ontologies. The integration of domain ontologies with post-composed phenotypic descriptions presents new challenges since most of the involved on- tologies are developed independently and may perform a different conceptual- ization for the same entities. Therefore, this integration may not always lead to the expected and proper logical consequences [5, 6]. In this paper we present first steps towards the logic-based assessment of the integration of phenotypic descriptions with domain ontologies.
This paper presents the first steps towards building the Predicate Matrix, a new lexical re- source resulting from the integration of multi- ple sources of predicate information including FrameNet (Baker et al., 1997), VerbNet (Kip- per, 2005), PropBank (Palmer et al., 2005) and WordNet (Fellbaum, 1998). By using the Predicate Matrix, we expect to provide a more robust interoperable lexicon by dis- covering and solving inherent inconsistencies among the resources. Moreover, we plan to extend the coverage of current predicate re- sources (by including from WordNet morpho- logically related nominal and verbal concepts), to enrich WordNet with predicate information, and possibly to extend predicate information to languages other than English (by exploit- ing the local wordnets aligned to the English WordNet).
In this paper, we describe first steps toward focusing on quantitative reasoning in an intermediate microeconomic theory course. We find student attitudes toward quantitative aspects of economics improve over the duration of the course (as we would hope). Perhaps more importantly, student attitude toward quantitative reasoning improves, in general. This result suggests that economics courses should be considered for inclusion as part of any effort to incorporate quantitative reasoning across the curriculum.
Transposable elements are often considered as selfish DNA sequences able to invade the genome of their host species. Their evolutive dynamics are complex, due to the interaction between their intrinsic amplification capacity, selection at the host level, transposition regulation, and genetic drift. Here, we propose modeling the first steps of TE invasion, i.e., just after a horizontal transfer, when a single copy is present in the genome of one individual. If the element has a constant transposition rate, it will disappear in most cases: the elements with low-transposition rate are frequently lost through genetic drift, while those with high-transposition rate may amplify, leading to the sterility of their host. Elements whose transposition rate is regulated are able to successfully invade the populations, thanks to an initial transposition burst followed by a strong limitation of their activity. Self-regulation or hybrid dysgenesis may thus represent some genome-invasion parasitic strategies.
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The First Steps team were not, and could not be expected to become, marketing experts. Addaction as an organisation did not have its own marketing department to take on this brief but supported the team by providing access to a mass e-mailing system provided by an external organisation to use to send out information about the training. However, the First Steps team had to provide the contacts, a difficult job in itself. In addition, their experience was that a ‘cold’ e-mail was relatively ineffective in producing bookings (only 6-9% of these e-mails were ever opened and, of these, only a small percentage led to bookings); what worked best was the labour and time intensive route of telephone follow-up and face-to-face conversations with local strategic leaders. Although this produced results, the three-person delivery team was too small to be able to market the product effectively to the scale required to achieve £40000 of sales, in addition to delivering the training across each large First Steps area (the whole of England divided into three), and doing the intensive partnership site work in five centres per area.
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Based on the resources available to the state and the project- ed increase in energy demand, the state will establish an ener- gy office, administered by my Energy Advisor, with an advi- sory committee to oversee the implementation of the 10-year strategic plan. The advisory committee will be comprised of a diverse group of representatives from throughout Utah with various interests, expertise, and perspectives regarding the production and consumption of energy. The energy office will be created by consolidating existing energy positions and functions currently dispersed throughout state government, thus creating a single, predictable voice on energy policy. The office will be responsible for monitoring and responding to any emerging issues in the energy sector and making sub- sequent recommendations to the executive office regarding necessary revisions to state policy. This committee will assume the task of developing the additional steps needed to respond to these emerging issues. Proposed actions will be identified and evaluated using economic models such as REMI to assess potential impacts on resources, economic development, and energy transmission.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce hybrid logic to the artificial intelligence community. We will do this by showing that hybrid logic is very well suited to express what is normally formulated in the situation calculus. We have chosen for a comparison with the very first situation calculus lan- guage, from McCarthy and Hayes (1969). Our prime reason for choosing this work, apart from the fact that it started the field, is that one can feel their struggle with the first order language they are using. They have to intro- duce λ–abstraction, and all the time they introduce abbreviations to make their formulas look intuitive. These abbreviations foreshadowed a number of later technical developments in modal logic (e.g., van Benthem’s celebrated standard translation into first order logic). In fact, we see McCarthy and Hayes as forerunners of the use of modal logic as a knowledge representation language and would not be surprized if they had used hybridized first order modal logic to state the situation calculus if only the right ingredients had been available when they wrote their article.
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community organizations and academics in Rochester, New York designed to reduce in- home environmental hazards, including lead contaminated dust. An interactive museum was set up in a residential building within a low-income neighborhood with the purpose of reducing in-home environmental hazards by providing the local population with education and resources to maintain a healthy home environment. Events such as field trips or barbeques were set up in order to increase public interest. To educate the public, brochures on environmental health hazards that may be found in people’s homes and simple steps to keep a healthy home were distributed, demonstrations on how to properly remove lead-contaminated dust and other in-home environmental health hazards were done, and individual training on cleaning techniques was given (Korfmacher and Kuholski, 2008). The project is nationally recognized and has been adapted and replicated for other cities in the United States.
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In Fig. 11, the signal of the metal and LTCC cuvettes are compared. For better comparability, both signals were compensated for offset and smoothed by a moving average of 50 values. With both cuvettes, a similar signal level was reached; however, with the LTCC cuvette, the response time is much faster. Since the heating resistor is now integrated into the wall of the cuvette, a considerable part of the ther- mal transfer resistance is reduced. Consequently, the delay drops from 11 down to 1 s from the point in time when power was applied to the resistor to the first increase of the sensor response. The time constant decreases to a value of 118 s, which is a reduction of 35 %. It is assumed that this value is very close to the time constant of the ideal sensor without sample.
Deep learning developments in the last few years have shown tremendous im- provements in the analysis of data in many domains. Thanks to the huge amount of simulated data and later of real data, produced by CTA, these algorithms look well-suited and very promising. Moreover, the trained neural networks show very good computing performances during execution. Here we present a first study of deep learning architectures applied to CTA simulated data to perform the reconstruction of the particles energy and incoming direction and the devel- opment of a specific framework, GammaLearn, to accomplish this task.
We report the work-in-progress of collecting MedLexSp, an unified medical lexicon for the Spanish language, featuring terms and in- flected word forms mapped to Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Concept Unique Identifiers (CUIs), semantic types and groups. First, we leveraged a list of term lemmas and forms from a previous project, and mapped them to UMLS terms and CUIs. To en- rich the lexicon, we used both domain-corpora (e.g. Summaries of Product Characteristics and MedlinePlus) and natural language pro- cessing techniques such as string distance methods or generation of syntactic variants of multi-word terms. We also added term vari- ants by mapping their CUIs to missing items available in the Spanish versions of standard thesauri (e.g. Medical Subject Headings and World Health Organization Adverse Drug Re- actions terminology). We enhanced the vo- cabulary coverage by gathering missing terms from resources such as the Anatomical Thera- peutical Classification, the National Cancer In- stitute (NCI) Dictionary of Cancer Terms, Or- phaData, or the Nomencl´ator de Prescripci´on for drug names. Part-of-Speech information is being included in the lexicon, and the cur- rent version amounts up to 76 454 lemmas and 203 043 inflected forms (including conjugated verbs, number and gender variants), corre- sponding to 30 647 UMLS CUIs. MedLexSp is distributed freely for research purposes.
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As such, the Must Have requirements have been implemented by redesigning instructions of a STEM kit. To be precise, they were the instructions of the Arexx School Lab magic Light Kit, redesigned according to the implementation ideas of the ‘changing kits design’ category in table 5, the result of which can be found in Appendix F. In the new instructions, the order of the steps has not been changed, but the new instructions contain only the most vital information of each step in the original instructions, leaving out most tips and warnings. Information on which materials should be used to put two parts together has been deliberately left out, so users get the chance to either use screws delivered or grab their duct-tape, tie-rips, or any other material they can find. These two design choices will likely cause the users to make mistakes in the assembly process, which they will have to solve using their own insight. Doing so will improve their self-belief. Furthermore, the information about how LED lighting works is placed at the beginning, so users for whom the LEDs do not immediately work are confronted with an information gap they can fill by remembering what they learned at the beginning of the assembly process, possibly looking back in the
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Two conclusions can be drawn from these results: first, the lower precision yielded by SVC13 in Phase 1, as well as Phase 2 also for the ensembles dominated by SVC-based classifiers, actually have farther-reaching causes than one might initially suspect by looking at the final quality measures, since clearly the false positive rate is quite high (as evidenced by the small change in number of hypotheses when increasing the value of t); second, even though the performance of LR6 is also low in Phase 2, it is nonetheless capable of reducing the number of pairs to inspect by over 70% for t = 10 (i.e., at least half of the test posts), and over 90% for t = 15 (i.e., at least three quarters of the test posts). This last phenomenon is also observable for the ensembles in which Logistic Regression-based classifiers have an important role (E1, E4, and E5).
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First, the context module will be extended with contextual categorization that was not included in the simulation here (cf. Balkenius and Mor´en, 2000, Balkenius, 2003). Second, the control of attention will be under reinforcement control and a separate stage with sensory selection will be added (cf. Balke- nius, 2000). Third, there will be full interaction be- tween the subsystems that will allow, for example, automation of responses, reinforcement control of at- tention, context shifts and working memory. Finally, subsystems for involuntary attention will be included (cf. Balkenius, 2003). Another future goal will be to apply the model to a wider range of experiments.
One of the basic facts of polyhedral combinatorics stated that the vertices of the fractional vertex cover polytope FCOV(G) of a graph G are all half- integral, and they are integral if and only if G is bipartite. Here, we formulate a counterpart of this statement for graphons. To this end, we first define a counterpart of vertices of a polytope. Suppose that L is a vector space, and suppose that X ⊂ L is a convex set. Recall that a point x ∈ X is called an extreme point of X if the only pair x ′ , x ′′ ∈ X for which x = 1 2 (x ′ + x ′′ ) is the pair x ′ = x, x ′′ = x. The analogy between vertices of polytopes in a finite-dimensional vector space and extreme points of a convex compact set X ⊂ L ∞ (Ω) is provided by the Krein–Milman Theorem which asserts that X equals to the closure of the convex hull of its extreme points. The Krein–Milman Theorem is indeed relevant in the current setting as FCOV(W ) is a convex compact set in the weak ∗ topology on L ∞ (Ω).
The paper introduces the Multimodal Russian Corpus (MURCO), which has been created in the framework of the Russian National Corpus (RNC). The MURCO provides the users with the great amount of phonetic, orthoepic, intonational information related to Russian. Moreover, the deeply annotated part of the MURCO contains the data concerning Russian gesticulation, speech act system, types of vocal gestures and interjections in Russian, and so on. The Corpus is on free access. The paper describes the main types of annotation and the interface structure of the MURCO. The MURCO consists of two parts, the second part being the subset of the first: 1) the whole Corpus, which is annotated from the lexical (lemmatization), morphological, semantic, accentological, metatextual, socioligical point of view (these types of annotation are standard for the RNC), and also from the point of view of phonetics (the orthoepic annotation and the mark-up of accentological word structure), 2) the deeply annotated MURCO, which is annotated in addition from the point of view of gesticulation and speech act structure.
On the other hand, super coordinators connect to each other to form the peer-based system. Super coordinators can serve as logical mediators, and/or query nodes. Schema mappings happen between two (or a small set of) super coordinators. Together with mappings in their clusters, super coordinators can make use of relevant data anywhere in the system by using schema mappings. As a result, query processing needs two mapping steps: one step happens between super coordinators via mapping schemas and data translating; the other one happens before super coordinators translate this query into local and/or inter- source subqueries. Actually the peer-based system can be regarded as a super-peer system where each super coordinator has only one data source(see Figure 3).
challenge is related to the DHBB guidelines and has to do with normalization of person names. Since the first version of DHBB, the editors have tried to standardize the different types of information included in the dictionary. For this, they developed general writing guidelines that state how the information should be written, the preferred order of stat- ing facts, and so on. For instance, there are rules for writ- ing names of people, institutions, political parties, social movements, treaties, historical episodes and places. Some of these rules aimed at facilitating information retrieval in the earlier printed versions of the DHBB or at making the dictionary accessible to the general public. For example, the spelling of proper names follows some general orthog- raphy principles of that time: the letters ‘Y’ and ‘W’ are re- placed by ‘I’ and ‘V’ (‘Darcy’ becomes ‘Darci’, ‘Oswaldo’ becomes ‘Osvaldo’), in some cases ‘Z’ becomes ‘S’ (then ‘Souza’ becomes ‘Sousa’ and ‘Menezes’ becomes ‘Mene- ses’). Such rules may appear unusual and dispensable in modern times when data is digitized and expected to be re- trieved by search engines capable of answering more ad- vanced requests with wildcard, range, and fuzzy queries. In later versions these normalization rules were dropped and therefore entity names across entries might be inconsistent. Similar to this issue is the Brazilian orthographic reform that took place in 2009. Some of the changes made in- clude extinguishing the use of some hyphens and accents, like “infra-Estrutura” (infrastructure) that has become “in- fraestrutura” and “assembl´eia” (assembly), now “assem- bleia”. All these variations must be in the lexicons in order to improve the parser processing and semantic classifica- tion.
In the preceding sections, we have outlined evidence for the existence of a common pre-placodal domain and have suggested that local inducing signals act on restricted regions of the pre- placodal domain to induce specific cranial placodes. In the case of the otic placode, FGF signaling from the hindbrain and cranial paraxial mesoderm underlying the presumptive placode is a strong candidate for an otic inducer. Induction of cranial placodes would thus occur in two steps – induction of the pre-placodal region being a necessary prerequisite to subsequent induction of specific pla- codes. There is some circumstantial evidence for such a two-step model of otic induction. For example, cranial ectoderm taken from within the pre-placodal region rapidly expresses otic markers when cultured with FGF2, whereas ectoderm from the same axial level but lying lateral to the pre-placodal region is unresponsive to FGF2 (Martin and Groves, 2006). Moreover, young anterior epiblast that
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Each expanding and developing system requires some feedback to evaluate the normal trends of the system and also the unsystematic steps. In this paper two lexical- semantic databases – Princeton WordNet (PrWN) and Estonian Wordnet (EstWN)- are being examined from the visualization point of view. The visualization method is described and the aim is to find and to point to possible problems of synsets and their semantic relations.