Challenges (or problems) faced when first starting university included being time-poor, personal issues, financial issues and family issues. For example, one student when asked “ When you first started uni, did you have many challenges in other areas of your life to get through before you could get on with study?” answered “I was initially worried about my writing because I didn’t put much time into English at school. I was moving back to Australia from Thailand but in the meantime I lived in Cambodia, and then there was the process of moving and setting up a new house. I was worried about time”. Another answered “Yes, I was working nearly fulltime as well as studying four subjects in my first semester. Combine this with nearly no sleep between working nights and driving to and from university from a distance for classes four times a week and the results speak for themselves at the end. So my time table was probably the most trying of all my issues. Also battling depression and anxiety on and off for the past three years really made motivation an issue and as a result of this I always opted for the easiest way of doing things which not surprisingly is not the best for your results at uni.”. Another student noted “I am a single mum and have part time care of my son (12) and almost full time care of my daughter (15). I considered how this was going to affect them as I know that the workload can be a little heavy at times”, and another student, “I was starting over as a single mum of a 2, 4 and 8 year old, and separating from my husband of 14 years”. When asked about the challenges with the question “If so, how much did those issues affect your ability to get on with study? And how much did those issues affect how easily you adapted to the use of technology at uni? ” one student replied with “My study was placed on the backburner until our youngest child reached school age. I have tried to keep up with technology; however I was very nervous submitting my first assignment via EASE. I had my husband sit with me while I attached the file to make sure I was sending the correct document. Sounds silly now, but I had worked really hard and did not want to blow it at the last hurdle”. Another student noted “The lack of sleep and motivation made me not really want to engage in new technology when I started, however having realised later that I really had to adapt or be left behind I soon got into gear. Simply put, I was just not interested in the way it worked when I started. The technology was not what I was used to and came across very intimidating at times. I mean the use of Microsoft office was good, but the use of SPSS and databases felt like it was beyond me at the time”.
With respect to English language proficiency, despite meeting the English language entry criteria of their receiving institutions, many NESB students still struggle to cope with the linguistic demands of their degree courses as a result of inadequate levels of proficiency, and therefore require language support. While this raises important questions around the suitability of ―gate-keeping‖ tests such as International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the validity of statements of test equivalence, and the way in which those tests are used by institutions, are questions beyond the scope of this paper. More relevant to current purposes is the fact that, while ESB students are, by definition, fully proficient in English, it is nevertheless sometimes the case that their language also requires attention for it can exhibit what are more accurately described as dialectal forms not in keeping with academic and professional standards and expectations. This fact suggests that, where necessary, this cohort should also have access to support designed to help modify their language behaviour such that it conforms to those standards and expectations. Whether for NESB or ESB students, such support might be integrated into the curriculum via a credit-bearing course, and/or through the kind of extra- curricula interventions typically offered by Learning and Teaching units and comprising consultations, workshops and online materials.
The research of psychological and pedagogical project activity of the first-yearstudents has been proved to be efficient with the levels introduced by the present article, including reproductive, productive and constructive levels. The levels’ research procedure has been supported by the experimental data collected from the experimental and the control groups. The results show that by the end of the second semester, the progress at the productive level is approximately three times more prominent in the experimental group, while the control group students do
While Marcia’s Identity Statuses Model (Marcia, 1966) is widely used in the literature relating to identity development, it is not with out criticism. Three criticisms of Marcia’s (1966) model are particular relevant based on the results of this research. First is the criticism that comes from Blasi and Goldis (1995) who argued that the identity statuses did not acknowledge the subject and contextual nature of identity development. The changing landscape of the workforce and need for increased education highlighted by Carnevale, Smith and Strohl (2010), and Arnett (2007) has changed the time frame within which adolescents must make their career decision, compared to the initial development of the Identity Statuses Model. Given the extended period of emerging adulthood in which most adolescents live, the importance of selecting a career at a young age may no longer be feasible in today’s society. The high percentage of students from this study who are currently in the diffusion status and the idea of emerging adulthood lend credence to the idea that the identity status may not fully capture the contextual effect on identity development.
Christine was finding university assignments a struggle but did not want to ask for help. A couple of weeks after the first interview her father phoned me and talked about how she had asked him to phone me because she wanted some help with her work. We set up a time to see each other. I was very aware that I was treating her differently from other students because first I saw her at a campus I do not normally work at and second I saw her on a day when I did not usually see students. As it was, we missed each other and the session did not go ahead. I wrote to each family the following week to thank them for their participation in the first interview and at the bottom of Christine’s letter I wrote that I was sorry I had missed her and hoped that everything was all right. Two days later, Christine’s father rang me to apologise about us not seeing each other and assuring me that she did turn up. I assured him that I was not offended and that these things happen. A couple of weeks later he phoned me again to tell me that his daughter was “ready to grovel now” for help and could I see her on the coming Friday afternoon? I agreed. Again it was on a day and at a campus I would not normally have been at on that day but I felt obliged to meet her both on a professional level as she was a struggling student and from a research perspective I thought it would make interesting data! This time we did meet and we spent a constructive time discussing her academic needs etc. Before she left I asked how her parents were and was very aware that this was not something I normally did with students because I did not usually know them, itself highlighting how removed students’ parents are from the university. She shared detailed and distressing personal information about how her mother was coping with her serious illness.
I was freaking out … I didn’t know how I would go getting back into study after having a break for a year. Student 30 (F, 19, FinF) Clearly a substantial number of students (13/30) were displaying feelings of anxiety and held unclear expectations with regards to their studies. For these students transitioning to university could well have been an eye opener as described by Brinkworth, McCann, Matthews and Nordstrom (2009). Students faced new surroundings, unfamiliar people, and expectations that were not clear in their mind (Brinkworth et al., 2009). Their uncertainty may be explained by an examination of the personal backgrounds of the students. Using the same criteria as developed by Devlin and O’Shea (2012), 21 out of the 30 students interviewed were classified as ‘likely’ to have a low socio-economic status (LSES) background due to residing in postcodes associated with LSES (Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Education and Occupation), and first in family (FinF), having no close family member having experienced study at university. Lohfink and Paulsen (2005) found that students with an LSES background did not generally have ready access to accurate and up to date information as their family members had no first-hand knowledge, and limited anecdotal knowledge of what studying at university entailed. A 2010 survey of over 3000 firstyearuniversitystudents studying in South Australia conducted by Luzeckyj, et al. (2011) found that students from first in family backgrounds were usually more likely to make late enrolment decisions. Thus, if this study’s results are generalizable to the broader Australian firstyear student cohort, first in family students may have less time to access knowledgeable members of the community to get accurate information about university study and the life of a university student.
This study investigates the beliefs about language learning of firstyearuniversitystudents in Japan, employing the Japanese language questionnaire developed by Sakui and Gaies (1999). Two student discussion groups were also formed to provide further data. In addition to describing student beliefs, the study explores differences between student beliefs and teacher beliefs, change in student beliefs during a course of study, and relationships between student beliefs and second language proficiency.
Abstract In this study, our cross-case analysis of students’ lives challenges the conven- tional home–university model of transition and highlights the importance of acknowl- edging the influence of this complex symbiotic relationship for students who attend university and live at home. We argue that as with stay-at-home holidays, or ‘‘staycations’’, which are of such crucial importance to the tourism industry, so stay-at-home students or commuter students are vital to higher education and the term utilised here is ‘‘stayedu- cation’’. Through the narratives of ‘‘stayeducation’’ students, we see how family and community aspects of students’ lives are far more significant than previously realised, and our study suggests that these heavily influence the development of a student sense of belonging. Drawing upon biographical narrative method, this paper introduces three first- year Business and Economics students enrolled at different universities in London and explores their journeys through their transition through home, school and early university life. Ways in which key themes play out in the transition stories of our students and the challenges and obstacles for the individual are drawn out through the cross-case analysis. Findings support the existing literature around gender, class and identity; however, new insights into the importance, for these students, of family, friendships and community are presented. Our work has implications for academic staff, those writing institutional poli- cies, and argues for the creation of different spaces within which students can integrate into their new environment.
Why therefore are attendance rates so much higher in the US? One part of the answer may be due to differences in incentives. The grade in the classes surveyed in this study does not contribute to their degree grade, so the objective of the Irish firstyear student may be to pass rather than get honours. Our data finds that seven students passed without attending any class. Meanwhile, we ran a probit of pass/fail on the same set of regressors as in Table 3 and find that attendance at lectures (but not tutorials) has a small positive effect on one’s probability of passing, for the administrative sample. For the survey sample, attendance has no effect on probability of passing, even when we use the restricted set of covariates available for the administrative data. Thus, for above average attendees (the survey sample) attendance does not effect the probability of passing, whereas when we include low attenders, lecture attendance matters somewhat. Perhaps there is a threshold number of classes to attend, after which one’s chances of passing are not effected by class attendance, and that this threshold is quite low. Thus, low attendance could be explained by the irrelevance of attendance to passing, once a threshold is reached. Future research could consider modelling this possibility.
As indicated in the introduction the context of a service mathematics course presents further complexities. Certainly, situations within service maths courses have been reported to be problematic due to the diversity of student backgrounds and perceived motivations to study mathematics out of context (Taylor & Mander, 2003). However, in this study the issues that are most outstanding are the ones associated with the affective domain. Interviews revealed, not surprisingly, that a number of students had high levels of mathematics anxiety. These students indicated that it was not uncommon for them to avoid studying mathematics in preference to other courses or other activities. Such behaviours have been widely reported in the literature over many years (e.g., Hembree, 1990; Balogˇlu & Koça, 2006). One aspect that is relevant to the current study is Zettle and Houghton’s (1998) work on the belief that maths anxiety is socially unacceptable to male students. As the population investigated was predominantly male, the presence of mathematics anxiety combined with a reticence to ask for help could be
When students enrol at university, there is an expectation from the staff that students will make the adjustment from high school, or their current working situation, to their higher education institution. There is recognition that this transition is not easy for some students, and many institutions now have transition units to assist in this process. It is possible that the number of students who are at risk could be reduced if this type of structure were implemented more thoroughly across universities and students had improved understanding of the expectations of them by universities. Pancer et al. (2000) examined student expectations about university and subsequent adjustment in the firstyear in a longitudinal study of the transition to university. Two hundred and twenty-six students (158 females and 68 males) completed a pre-university questionnaire, and another questionnaire near the end of their firstyear. They found that students with more complex expectations about university tended to adjust better to stressful circumstances than did students who had simpler expectations.
The hypothesis that the training provided by the Thera- peutic Communication Program (TCom) improved the students' communication skills was supported by the externally rated SPIR instrument but not by the other two measurement perspectives. Based on the SPIR, partici- pants in TCom, even those without a psychology back- ground, increase their engaging responses and decrease their disengaging responses in hypothetical challenging clinical encounters. The continuous operation of TCom at the University of Toronto, despite a lack of research to date clearly demonstrating its educational effectiveness, is a result of very positive ratings of the program by students and by their teachers and patients. Further research at dif- ferent medical schools and other professional schools could be used to assess the effectiveness of similar pro- grams on communication and these other capacities. Lon- gitudinal studies could assess the maintenance of enhanced skills over longer periods of time.
The research started with a sample of 84 first-year undergraduate students and the make- up was as follows: 47 students of 1st year of Biochemistry (B) and 37 students of 1st year of Biotechnology (LB). Participating students were volunteers. The sample consisted of 84 students 77% of whom were female and 23% were male and the average age of the subjects was 18 years old. The students came from public (58%) and private (42%) secondary schools with medium socio-economic status. The selection was performed using stratified sampling, seeking homogeneity within each stratum and heterogeneity among strata. The number of students is considered adequate -greater than 10% of students enrolled, according to the recommendation by Colás Bravo & Buendía Eisman (1998).
http://mojem.um.edu.my 26 adjustment, the probability of them dropping out is high. Hence, indigenous students need to be equipped with effective strategies to adapt to the new challenges in the university or else they will risk developing psychological issues which are very common among ethnic minority students (Sharifah, Samsilah, Aminuddin, Kamaruddin, Mohamad & Jaimah, 2011). The findings of this study were congruent with past studies (Purdie & Buckley, 2010). Indigenous students are facing adaptation and low self-esteem issues. To understand these challenges, the students’ demographic profile must be taken into account. This study discovered that indigenous students with certain demographic profiles (e.g., female, first-generation, firstyearstudents, in pre-diploma programs) seem to be more vulnerable to the challenges of higher education. Unfortunately, university has not customarily spent on measures to support indigenous students during transitioning into higher education and during their university enrolment (Whalan & Wood, 2012). Hence, the lack of institutional support is among the challenges that indigenous students have to endure. In the case of the selected Malaysian public universities, academic support may be provided to enhance indigenous students’ English language proficiency, to help them adapt academically. In terms of socio-emotional adaptation and low-esteem issues, counseling intervention may be provided to help them adapt social-emotionally.
However this result may also relate to intended career choices for these students, who had greater representation in Agriculture, Environmental and Related studies at University (Figure 2). Year 12 Biology may have been favoured over other sciences because of its perceived utility value in future plans for Agriculture, Environmental and Related tertiary studies. However the converse may also play a role: the greater representation of rural and regional students in Agriculture, Environmental and Related studies may well relate in part to their stronger biological background at school. In terms of research question three, the greater representation of rural and regional students in Agriculture, Environmental and Related studies at university is also not surprising, given that many of these students will have come from farming families and farming communities, and given that agriculture is so characteristic of, and such an important source of employment in rural and regional Australia. This is consistent with data from the Australian Government Department of Industry Innovation Science Research and Tertiary Education (2012) and previous years that non- metropolitan applicants to university are more likely than their metropolitan counterparts to apply for courses in Education, Nursing, and Agriculture, Environmental and Related studies.
language proficiency for the purpose of achieving higher scores on standardized tests, such as the TOEIC. With studies correlating exposure to authentic input and development of target language skills (Ahmed, 2017), an L2 instructor can integrate material that will develop skills necessary for success in English proficiency tests. Second, instructors can create opportunities in the L2 classroom for authentic cross-cultural interactions by inviting foreign exchange students or guest speakers to the class (Aubrey, 2017; Wang and Nowlan, 2011), thus satisfying the quality of strong intent students as having more international experience, even if it occurs within Japan. These cross-cultural encounters are ideal for challenging students’ biases and pre-conceived notions about otherness, and the instructor can provide follow-up opportunities to reframe perceptions through self-reflection. Third, L2 instructors can implement lessons that will give students greater purpose and meaning to study abroad, while diminishing perceived barriers. Through administration of a needs analysis at the beginning of the semester, the instructor can develop international material that relates to common student interests and ambitions. Developing problem solving skills and detour behavior through topics of interest can help students think more critically about overcoming barriers to study abroad participation. Finally, if students can begin to understand the possible positive impact of study abroad on future careers, both from the perspective of the educator and the employer, then greater interest and acceptance of international posture elements could manifest, for instance, greater interest in international vocation and issues.
The effect of cybercrime ranges between psychological and physical. In some cases, it has been known to cause the death of victims. Cybercrimes are also known to have an attendant effect on other social vices like drugs production and abuse, human trafficking, and terrorism which globally generated an illicit profit of $1.5 trillion in 2018 (Ismail, 2018) and is projected to have a global economic effect of $6 trillion by the year 2021.
Adding to the challenge of developing a workforce with the necessary STEM skills to face Australia’s future challenges is a noticeable underrepresentation of women in the STEM disciplines; ‘To secure Australia’s health and economy into the future, the talents of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) … are vital’ (Women in STEMM Australia, 2016). There is a notable loss of females in STEM between the end of university (55% of STEM graduates) and the established workforce (42% employed in STEM-based careers). There is an even greater loss of female graduates in the transition to the workforce in the Prime 1 STEM disciplines, where only 33% of graduates and 12% of the workforce are female (DFEEST, 2012). Furthermore, the proportion of women employed in STEM fields in Australia is low in comparison with other OECD countries (Marginson, Tytler, Freeman & Roberts, 2013). Studies (e.g., Phillips, 2014) show that diversity enhances creativity and innovation; it encourages the search for novel information and perspectives, leading to better decision making and problem solving. Consequently, programs that aim to increase female participation in STEM will provide benefits, not only to individuals and the STEM disciplines, but also to society in general.
It is agreed that the firstyear of study in higher education is a time of great change in the lives of students and as such they are at risk of performing below their capability or withdrawing from the institution. Studies have identified the social and academic integration of students as a priority during this period leading to the implementation of a range of strategies to address this issue. To monitor the engagement of students, higher education institutions have devised measures (usually in the form of surveys) to identify students that could be in need of support to enable them to continue their studies. To this point in time the monitoring of social integration has had very limited attention. This paper describes a tool used to monitor both academic and social integration as well as broader factors throughout the education students’ firstyear of study. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the monitoring tool is discussed using the results of semi- structured interviews conducted with the students. 1