Fish in Ancient Egypt

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 44: STATUES OF ELEPHANT, COW AND FISH

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 44: STATUES OF ELEPHANT, COW AND FISH

- The eleventh example is a glass bottle in the shape of a Tilapia fish from the 18 th Dynasty (1390-1336 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.25. [45] This is the top technology in glass production not only in the New Kingdom but also up to now !!. The production of the fish bottle is marvelous since there too many patterns with different colors (I counted four colors). This makes the high standard product design of this unit very difficult to bring it to reality. While I was working in part XVI of this series about glass industry [46] I wrote to three international professors one from Glass Science, and one from Glass Technology and the third a former Ministry of Industry. Simply I sent to them a photo for a glass product from ancient Egypt of a similar quality to that one shown in Fig.25. I asked them: Is it possible to produce this product now ? and how much a prototype will cost ? .. Unfortunately, the first two professors replied that it is not their specialization. The third (minster of industry said: it is secret !!). The door is still open for the Egyptologists to answer such questions: How could the ancient Egyptians produce such a fantastic piece more than 2350 years with their technological facilities ?.
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 41: STATUES OF GAZELLE, BABOON AND HEDGEHOG

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 41: STATUES OF GAZELLE, BABOON AND HEDGEHOG

Late Period and a hippopotamus statue from Middle Kingdom. [2] Stanley, 2008 in his study about snakes stated that the ancient Egyptians had many representations of snakes in their religious manifestations. [3] Strandberg (2009) in her Ph. D. Thesis investigated the image and meaning of the gazelle in ancient Egypt art. She presented a gazelle statue from the 18 th Dynasty standing on a wooden base representing a desert ground. [4] Hunt, 2012 presented a description of the tilebia fish from the New Kingdom in display in the British Museum. It is a cosmetic bottle in the shape of a fish from the Amarna Period during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. He clarified that this piece is one of the most striking pieces within the British Museum collection of iconic glass objects created by high technology. [5] Wing, 2015 in his Master Thesis in Archaeology presented a number of figurines from the Predynastic era of ancient Egypt including a gazelle knife handle from Naqada II. [6]
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 63: PALETTES INDUSTRY

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 63: PALETTES INDUSTRY

Tassie, 2008 in her Ph.D. Thesis presented also the Narmer palette from the 1 st Dynasty. [5] Alice, 2008 in his study of palettes outlined that flat stone palettes were used in Predynastic Egypt for the grinding of pigments and made of mudstone. He outlined also that ceremonical palettes of the Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Periods were decorated with carved relief over the whole surface, while after the Early Dynastic Period,the production of the palettes diminished significantly. He presented palates from Badarian, Naqada I, Naqada II and Naqada III. [6] Strandbery, 2009 in her Ph. D. Study presented the two-dogs palatte and the Stockholm palette. [7] Teeter, 2011 in her book about the origins of the Egyptian civilization presented some scenes from Narmer's palette from the 1 st Dynasty, a palette from Naqada II. palette with bovine and bird head from Naqada II, quartz ovoid palette. She presented a detailed study with new interpretation for the Narmer palette. She presented also a 253 mm height cosmetic palette, a 105 mm length siltstone fish-shaped palette, siltstone rhomboid palette from Naqada I-II, 346 mm length siltstone double-bird palette from Naqada II, 130 mm length siltstone pelta-shaped palette from Naqada II, 127 mm length siltstone elephant palette from Naqada II, 122 mm length siltstone rectangular palette from Naqada III, 170 mm length siltstone falcon palette from Naqada III, 225 mm length greywacke composite animal palette from Naqada Iand a siltstone 280 mm height battlefield palette from Naqada III. [8]
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 67: OSTRACA INDUSTRY

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 67: OSTRACA INDUSTRY

The Early Dynastic Period of the ancient Egyptian history covers both the 1 st and 2 nd Dynasties over a time span from 3150 to 2686 BC. [15] We have one example from this period dated to the 1 st Dynasty (3100 BC) from the tomb of Hemaka, an official during the reign of King Den (seal Bearer of the King) shown in Fig.2. [16] It is a painted limestone ostracon having a semi-rectangular shape of the figuring type depicting a bull and a baboon. The dimensions and present location of the ostracon were not assigned. This more than 5100 years old ostracon depicts the outstanding technology of the ancient Egyptians used in the pigments industry that could produce pigments sustained the environmental effects for more than 5100 years !!.
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 51: METAL CASTING

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 51: METAL CASTING

The eleventh example is a copper alloy coffin model of dimensions 174 x 132 x 43 mm casted during the Late Period (664-332 BC) in display in the British Museum at London and shown in Fig.26 [43] . The designer represented Horus standing on the top of the coffin and wearing the Double Crown of ancient Egypt. Horus was made as a solid part while the coffin itself was a hollow part. Therefore both techniques of solid and hollow casting were used in manufacturing this product as the museum claimed. [43]

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Expanding the history of the just war : the ethics of war in ancient Egypt

Expanding the history of the just war : the ethics of war in ancient Egypt

What this treaty shows is that ancient Egyptians conceived of war and peace as existing within a framework of divine and mundane international relations and law. Hostile relations between states were viewed as less felicitous than peaceful relations, but war was an ethically and legally acceptable instrument of retribution and political control. Moreover, it was evidently a normal feature of New Kingdom international relations that future military ventures were subject to the obligations of treaties such as that above. Allies of Egypt could achieve a degree of legal symmetry, although the wording of the Egyptian version clearly portrays the Hittite king as inferior to the pharaoh. 86 This treaty also shows that the Egyptian ethics of war, while distinctive, was not entirely sui generis. There were evidently a sufficient number of shared assumptions regarding the ethics and legalism of war that made this international treaty possible in the first place.
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Concept of Leadership in the Ancient History and Its Effects on the Middle East

Concept of Leadership in the Ancient History and Its Effects on the Middle East

The leader considered to be the first among the equal ones was required to create effects on others. Middle Eastern communities obeyed the ones who they considered more powerful or superior than themselves. To create this obedience culture, we mentioned above the methods the great states in Ancient History applied. But mostly, the leaders living in a consanguineous society needed to develop different methods to create an obedience culture on the people he lived together every day. The leaders linked the decision process that we can define as an authority to order on small communities to traditions mostly became connective. However, the leaders in new cases that the society never met made their own decisions. No matter how small the communities were, there was an advisory council mostly constituted by old people near the leader. This council helped in new decisions to be made by the leaders. In Middle Eastern communities that the leaders made firm and relentless decisions, made the ones govern fear and develop a sense of obedience mixed with fear. If the firm and relentless attitude operated fairly or the public considered the decisions of the leader fair, obedience transformed into a respect for the authority of the person in time [39].
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oa Fundamina : A Journal of Legal History - The basic tenets of intestate (customary) succession law in ancient Egypt

oa Fundamina : A Journal of Legal History - The basic tenets of intestate (customary) succession law in ancient Egypt

Although we have good evidence for the hierarchy of the “eldest son” from the Codex Hermopolis, which is very late in Egyptian history, it was merely a compilation of earlier established law. Given the ancient Egyptians’ tendency for custom, tradition and precedent it is most likely that very little changed over the years. Importantly we have much earlier confi rmation of the role of the “eldest son”. From the Old Kingdom (Fourth Dynasty) we have, for example, the Inscription of Heti, where the eldest son is specifi cally important since he must supervise the mortuary priests performing the rites for the deceased Heti. 52 The assets as well as the other
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New Chemically Modified Screen-Printed Electrode for Co(II) Determination in Different Water Samples

New Chemically Modified Screen-Printed Electrode for Co(II) Determination in Different Water Samples

Modified screen-printed electrode (SPE) with magnesium alumino-silicate ionophore was fabricated for the determination of Co(II). The modified electrode reveals linear response over wide concentration range of 3.1×10 -7 - 1×10 -1 mol L -1 of Co(II) at 25 o C with a divalent cationic slope of 30.33 ± 0.75 mV decade -1 and exhibit detection limit of 3.1×10 -7 mol L -1 . Moreover, the selectivity coefficient was measured by matched potential and fixed interference methods. The modified SPE sensor shows high selectivity and sensitivity for determination of Co(II) and also shows stable and reproducible response over a period of four months. This method can be used for determination of Co(II) in water, soil and fish tissue samples and the results obtained agreed with those obtained with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The proposed potentiometric method was validated according to the IUPAC recommendation.
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Hyskos period in Palestine: (Palestine under the Hyskos)

Hyskos period in Palestine: (Palestine under the Hyskos)

me that the Palestinian faience ointment Vases were made up of the same material as those of ancient Egypt, in the light of the evidence discussed below., but [r]

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Occurrence of listeria monocytogenes in some marine fresh and frozen fish marketed in Damietta, Egypt

Occurrence of listeria monocytogenes in some marine fresh and frozen fish marketed in Damietta, Egypt

Ingestion of foods contaminated with L. monocytogenescan causelisterios is which consider a severe infectious disease characterized by meningoencephalitis, include septicaemia (Armstrong and Fung, 1993). The disease also causes intrauterine infections in pregnant women, which may result in spontaneous abortion or stillbirth abortion and a high fatality rate 30% (Franciosa et al., 2005). Listerios is predominantly affects certain risk groups, including pregnant women, newborns, elderly people and immune compromised patients (Kathariou, 2002 and Mclauchlin et al., 2004). However, non- invasive form of listerios is can affect healthy persons by causing febrile gastroenteritis (Franciosa et al., 2005). Egypt has coastlines on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It is estimated that landings in the Mediterranean Sea represented about 62% of the total marine catch in 2009. Marine fisheries produce a wide variety of species. The most important are: Sardine (15.0 % of landings in 2009), shrimp (8.9 %), anchovy (5.8%), Saurus (4.7%), mullets (3.1%), bogue (2.7%), and round scade (6.2%) (FAO, 2009). Fish is considered as a major source of Listeria contamination. Fresh and marine water fish could be sources of human infection via eating raw or undercooked fish. Saurus and Sardine fish are a cheap fish sold as fresh in retail markets as well as imported as frozen fish. These fish could be
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 70: UTENSILS INSCRIPTION

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 70: UTENSILS INSCRIPTION

The genius ancient Egyptians used all the available media in their hands to record their knowledge in a sustainable way that could withstand the environmental effects for thousands of years. One of this media is jar production where they presented wonderful inscriptions suitable for all ages since they followed high level of arts and production technology as will be illustrated through the following examples over a wide era of time:

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Gill remodeling in fish – a new fashion or an ancient secret?

Gill remodeling in fish – a new fashion or an ancient secret?

When I took my first look at the gills of a crucian carp under a microscope, I got quite worried. I could not find any lamellae. After examining a larger sample of crucian carp from our aquarium facility, I was soon under the impression that I had spent much of my scientific career unknowingly studying severely malformed or diseased fish. All the crucian carp in our storage tanks appeared to show the same features: sausage like filaments without any protruding lamellae (Fig.·1A,B). This happened just a few weeks before I was to move from Uppsala (Sweden) to Oslo (Norway). Consequently, when I arrived in Oslo, one of the first things I did was to examine some crucian carp that my new Norwegian colleagues were keeping. These Norwegian fishes had gills that looked exactly the same as those from Uppsala, and I found some comfort in discovering that more scientists than me had unknowingly been studying malformed fish. However, there was also the possibility that this is what crucian carp gills actually look like. To cut a long story short, the odd looking gills of the crucian carp became a MSc project for Jørund Sollid, and in 2005 he defended his PhD on the same subject.
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Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

Augustus. Egyptian elements were already available parts of this repertoire, and became manifest as such also during the Augustan era. An interesting question, then, is whether for Augustan Rome there may have been manifestations of Egypt that were different from these already known elements from the Hellenistic repertoire – in other words: were there new manifestations of Egypt in Augustan Rome, and as such did these also become new components of the wider material culture repertoire available to Rome, from that time onwards? Likewise, the deliberate functionality highlighted by Hölscher becomes again of interest in terms of Augustan politics – certainly a number of manifestations of Egypt will have been chosen (from the repertoire or newly added to it) to deliberately function as part of Augustus’ political propaganda? However, such a political functionality is not something that can be easily isolated as a trictly theoretical view, such as Hölscher’s, might suggest. The influence, diversity and subsequent ‘evolution’ of these material culture elements would have been infinitely more fluent, much more layered, and altogether more in motion. This is why, although the core principle of Hölscher’s theory –the Roman material culture repertoire– remains of vital importance for the study of manifestations of Egypt in Augustan Rome, a wider exploration and understanding of such ‘objects in motion’ is necessary. How did such layers of meaning become manifest in material culture? How does this reflect on the ‘evolution’ of the material culture repertoire such as developed in and from Augustan Rome? In the following paragraph these questions will be explored to more detail.
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 74: BUTTONS, BEADS, HEART AMULETS AND FINGER-RING BEZELS INSCRIPTION

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 74: BUTTONS, BEADS, HEART AMULETS AND FINGER-RING BEZELS INSCRIPTION

The ancient Egyptians didn't leave even a small media to record their information and register their history using the hieroglyphic script. They used miniature surfaces such as buttons and huge surfaces such as pyramid, temple, tomb and obelisk surfaces for this purpose. Regarding buttons, there is no large material available to survey, however I found two examples of using buttons as writing media

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The enigma of the dog mummy from Ancient Egypt and the origin of ‘Rhipicephalus sanguineus’

The enigma of the dog mummy from Ancient Egypt and the origin of ‘Rhipicephalus sanguineus’

As for any investigational research, parasitologists need to look for any clue (e.g., morphological, molecular, bio- logical, ecological evidence) to address their questions or hypotheses. Of great interest is to understand when and how parasites developed in animal and human populations. Under these circumstances, archeoparasitology not only in- vestigates the causes of the death of the hosts infected by parasites [17], but also how they moved from one area to another, along with animals and humans during historical migrations [18]. Oddly enough, studies in the field of arche- oparasitology have been mainly focussed on protozoa and helminths in coprolites, intestinal contents or latrine de- posits [19-23]. In contrast, despite the tough chitinous exo- skeleton of arthropods, a relatively low number of archaeoparasitological surveys are available for ectopara- sites [24-29], probably because of their location on the host coat, therefore more exposed to the outdoor en- vironment. In addition, archeoparasitological studies on pets are limited to the retrieval of lice from cats [30] and dogs [28,31]. To the best of our knowledge, the only pos- sible iconographic illustration of ticks from Ancient Egypt is constituted by a tomb painting from ancient Thebes (Dra Abu el-Naga, Western Thebes, ca. 1473-1458 B.C.), which displays a hyaena-like animal with excrescences within the ear that were supposed to be ticks [32].
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Hydrological Science and Its Connection to Religion in Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs

Hydrological Science and Its Connection to Religion in Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs

The history of water management in the Fertile Crescent is closely related to the religion. This is most clear in ancient Egypt in pharaonic time. The class of priests serving under the pharaoh had also many other administrative duties, they had good skill in science, collected hydrological and astronomical data and used it to levy taxes and predict the floods that irrigated the arable land. The special hydrological features of the river Nile make it rather predictable in behavior compared to other major rivers of the re- gion. In this social position the priests had great influence and could use it to stop the pharaoh Ikhnaton in his attempt to establish a monotheistic religion by ousting Amon-Ra and replacing him with Aton. Social life was very colorful at pharaohs’ court and the various arts and festivals flourished. The most remark- able of these was the Opet festival where pharaoh himself was the leading figure together with the statues of the gods. The festival was to last 10 days and during that time the river Nile was to change color from grayish to reddish and thereby mark the beginning of the life-giving flood and bear witness to the good relations between the king and the divine powers. This kind of event, an annual prayer by the king to the gods for good harvest was well known in many societies, but it shows the remarkable skills of the Amon- Ra priest that they were ready to predict the onset of the Nile flood within ten days and get away with it.
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Shallow Seismic Refraction, Two Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging, and Ground Penetrating Radar for Imaging the Ancient Monuments at the Western Shore of Old Luxor City, Egypt

Shallow Seismic Refraction, Two Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging, and Ground Penetrating Radar for Imaging the Ancient Monuments at the Western Shore of Old Luxor City, Egypt

The old Luxor City is one of the famous archeological cities over the world. It is located on both sides of River Nile at about 60 Km from Qena city. The western side of this city contains famous temples, Kings and Queens Valleys and prospected uncovered ancient monuments and antiques. Egypt, considered as “Father of History and Mother of Civilization”, is the home to one-third of the world’s ancient monuments. The study area is the sug- gested location for establishing the area behind Memnon’s statuses in the west shore of the Luxor City; it covers an area of about 1200 m 2 . It is portrayed between latitudes 25 ˚43'13.35" to 25˚43'20.94"N and Longitudes 32˚36' 21.72" to 32 ˚36'37.42" E ( Figure 1). The city, as one of the famous archeological ones over the world, is sup- posed to be a subject of archeological survey missions.
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Geography, transparency and institutions

Geography, transparency and institutions

The relatively low transparency of farming in Northern Mesopotamia, even at the local level, can also explain the drastically di¤erent land tenure regime in that region. In contrast to the tenancy pattern in Egypt and Southern Mesopotamia, owner-operated farming was prevalent in Northern Mesopotamia from early on. Cuneiform documents from the mid- second millennium BCE from Nuzi (near modern Mosul) reveal that while the local kings and the elite owned large estates, the temples did not possess economic power, and much land was owned by nuclear families who worked their patrimonial property. The Nuzi evidence also reveals that land ownership in Northern Mesopotamia was in a constant state of ‡ux. Small landholders regularly lost title of their land to rich families through debt and sale under duress (Zaccagnini 1999; Jas 2000). But the persistence of owner-occupied farming reveals that the process of land consolidation must have been matched by an opposing process by which large, presumably less e¢ cient, estates were gradually dissolved. This prevalence of
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Egyptian self-definition in the New Kingdom and Coptic period.

Egyptian self-definition in the New Kingdom and Coptic period.

The Coptic liturgy as still said in Coptic churches in Egypt preserved for modem observers a part of ancient religious ritual supposedly linked to the Egyptians of the Coptic and pha[r]

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