Recent technological innovation in cold-water aqua- culture using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has demonstrated that vast pristine Himalayan cold-water resources could be utilized for fish production . Despite high potentiality for inland fisheries and aquacul- ture development, fish as a quality source of macro- and micronutritional food has yet to establish among a large section of population in Nepal. The role and importance of fisheries in Himalayan landlocked country, where fish symbolizes for fertility and prosperity, were rarely elabo- rated for food and nutritional security. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to transact and elucidate the per capita fish consumption for emphasizing the role and potential of fishery and aquaculture for food and nutri- tional security.
E-labelling is a growing trend and one that is all the more likely to be used for fishery products in Europe since recent control decisions impose traceability from vessel (or farm) to plate. This voluntary technique for providing information to consumers is also closely tied to developments in the area of information technology. It is based on the principle that every fish, mollusc or crustacean has an interesting story to tell on its origin, biol- ogy, catch, conservation, journey, etc., but that this story is too long to tell on a label. It can, however, be told on internet, where there are no limits on space or details. A producer can therefore invite the consumer who has bought the fish to type in a code or scan the bar code with a smartphone to learn where it was caught, how, by whom, when, in what circumstances, and so on. E-labelling is an original and interesting way to make traceabil- ity data available to consumers. Such transparency is also in line with new consumer trends, which are not limited to fishery and aquaculture products, namely knowing what one is buying and what happened before the product reached the shop.
The common organisation of the markets (COM) dates from the 1970s. Although it has evolved consider- ably since then and was revitalised by the new regulation in force since 2000, it is important to identify and respond to the new challenges confronting the market in fishery and aquaculture products today. Declining supplies of certain species, stability or in some cases a decline in auction prices and higher operating costs as a result of the energy crisis are some of these new challenges. The surge in fuel prices is a structural phenomenon, but it is important not to exacerbate the situation with low selling prices. In many cases, the seafood market is extremely fragmented (many producers sell their products indi- vidually) and demand is increasingly concentrated, making it impossible to provide responses that can guarantee the economic viability of certain fisheries firms. Fishermen can gain better control over prices by organising themselves into producers’ organisations (PO). These bodies plan fishing seasons and the production rates of fish farms to provide more regular deliveries better suited to meet the expectations of retailers and distributors who now market over 80 % of fish in some Member States. The POs’ role should therefore be to help improve the producers’ economic situation.
Farming means some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding and protection from predators and involves individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. Capture-based aquaculture means the practice of collecting “seed” material, from early life stages to adults, from the wild and subsequent on-growing to marketable size using aquaculture techniques.
homestead fishponds, farmers lack appropriate technology, institutional finance and proper extension support. Farmers using traditional method for fish aggregation and feed supplements which have low productivity. Moreover, necessary inputs required for culture practices viz., lime, RCD, MOC are not available at farms located at remote places and have to be brought from 250-300km. Substrate based aquaculture as an income generation activities, productivity of a fish pond can be enhanced without increasing nutrient inputs through heterotrophic food production. In aquatic environments, bacterial biofilm includes a complex community of other organisms such as algae, protozoa and fungi embedded in the extracellular matrix secreted by bacteria. The role of bacteria as food for both zooplankton and planktophagus fish needs no further emphasis (Kuznestov 1977; Moav et al. 1990). Worldwide several substrate-based fish prodcution practices exist, of which Acadja, Athkotu, Samarah, Phum, Aj gnuii assonii, Xeng fishery are popular. These substrate-based fisheries reported higher productivity then conventional supplemental feed-based aquaculture. Herbivorous fish, in general, have natural tendency to graze on periphyton fed environment (Surjya K. Saikia, Debangshu N. Das 2014). In an aquatic system, micro-floral community living attached to the surface of submerged objects which includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, organic detritus, and range of other invertebrates and their larvae is collectively defined as periphyton (1) It may dwell either on a degradable or non- degradable substrates present in an aquatic system (2) Word ‘lentic’ refers to standing water which includes lakes, ponds, marshes, and ditches. Availability of light, nutrient, substrate and less physical disturbances makes lentic ecosystem as an ideal habitat for periphyton. Usefulness of periphyton in fresh water includes primary productivity, nutrient cycling and food web interaction. (3) In recent years periphyton is of great interest in monitoring water quality and sustainable aquaculture practices. (H.Ganesh, K.C.Pushpalatha. B. Gangadhar 2017).
Sharks are important members of marine ecosystems, often top-level predators, and are common in Queensland coastal waters. The concept of “fishing down the food web” (Pauly et al. 1998; Pauly and Palomares 2005), the low reproductive rate of sharks compared to most bony fish (see, e.g., Au et al. 2008) and the demand for shark products in Asia have all caused concerns about the sustainability of shark populations worldwide. Five species of sharks, including the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and great hammerhead S. mokarran, were added to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 2013 (Carrington 2013; CITES 1979, 2014) and this has affected the Australian Government’s obligations for accreditation of the Queensland shark fishery as a Wildlife Trade Operation under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999. The validity of the concept of fishing down the food web, whereby a fishery begins by fishing down top-level predators and then proceeds to successively fish down species at lower levels in the food web, is disputed (Hilborn 2007) but is still widely believed in both scientific circles and the wider community.