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Temporal Rate Limiting: cloud elasticity at a flat fee

Temporal Rate Limiting: cloud elasticity at a flat fee

Can elasticity be offered at a flat fee? Imagine a customer that wants to take advantage of the elasticity offered by the cloud but would rather pay a flat predefined fee over a certain period of time (day, week, month) instead of a variable one. Various reasons can give rise to such a requirement. Cost pre­ dictability is of paramount importance for several companies, especially during their early life when the budget for leasing hosting resources is tight [ 12], [ 17]. At the other extreme, big customers are not driven by the requirement to guarantee a minimum QoS but would rather like to maximize user satisfaction granted a fixed budget that they can spend over a certain period of time [ 12]. Notice that the latter objective is not equivalent to a maintenance of QoS objective (a la auto-scaling), especially if one considers non-Iinearities in the satisfaction (user QoS) function and demand unpredictability. Last but not least, the cloud providers themselves can benefit by a scheme in which customers pay flat fees, c Olmn itting in
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Antitrust Implications of Home Seller Outcomes when using Flat-Fee Real Estate Agents *

Antitrust Implications of Home Seller Outcomes when using Flat-Fee Real Estate Agents *

dependent variable and the full set of controls (excluding the flat-fee indicator) on the right-hand side of the equation. We include both homes that sell and those that do not in this estimation. Using this regression, we compute a predicted original list price for each property. (The coefficients in the prediction equations were allowed to vary by market.) In Sacramento and Santa Cruz County, flat-fee properties list for less than observably equivalent full-commission properties by 1 percent and 6 percent respectively. In Cook County, flat-fee agent homes list for roughly 1 percentage point more than would be expected. Thus, only in Cook County is it possible this story could explain the observed differences between flat-fee and full-commission time on the market. Further exploring Cook County, when we regress time on the market on our usual right hand side variables, but also adding the deviation of the actual original listing price from the predicted one, each 1 percentage higher original listing price predicts a (statistically significant) extra 0.7 days on the market. Since the listing price difference between flat-fee and full-commission listings in Cook County was about one percent, this channel can explain a 0.7- day time-on-market difference. This is only a small fraction of the observed 30+ day gap. Further, the flat-fee coefficient remains essentially unchanged when the original list price residual is added to the regression. To put into some perspective how large of an impact is implied by the flat-fee variable in Cook County, to increase time on the market by as much as using a flat-fee agent, one would have to increase the original list price by roughly 50 percent. 17
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Real-Estate Agent Commission Structure and Sales Performance

Real-Estate Agent Commission Structure and Sales Performance

Under the flat-fee structure, sellers are responsible for the viewings themselves. The personal interaction of hosting the viewings could convey information that decreases the asymmetric information problem. The face-to-face interaction between buyer and seller, and the factual knowledge about the house and the neighborhood may induce the buyer to pay more for the house than when faced with a broker. Lewis (2011) finds that the market for cars on eBay functions, largely because sellers give concrete and verifiable information about the particular car they are selling. In the housing market, viewings hosted by the seller could have the same effect: the seller can provide details on maintenance and neighborhood characteristics that a typical real-estate agent would find much harder to provide. Note that this explanation is consistent with a non-competitive real-estate market.
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Professional Responsibility Issues: Focus Question 1(4) Ethical Rules for Public Defenders Caseloads

Professional Responsibility Issues: Focus Question 1(4) Ethical Rules for Public Defenders Caseloads

Our testimony focuses on two of the most prevalent and pernicious problems within the arena of public defense today: Increased use of low-bid, flat-fee contracts as a means of providin[r]

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Discussion Paper #3. Solid Waste Management Fee Structures and Billing Approaches

Discussion Paper #3. Solid Waste Management Fee Structures and Billing Approaches

In January 1994, St Albert established a Solid Waste Utility in which the waste disposal expenditures (private landfill tipping and recycling depot) were transferred from the tax base to the utility bill as a flat fee. All aspects of garbage and waste diversion billing and administrative responsibilities were assumed by the City’s Water Utility. The Water Utility administers the City’s water, sewer and garbage/waste diversion services. When a resident applies for water and sewer services, staff explain the variable rate garbage services and get the resident to sign on at the same time.
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1201 Walnut, Suite 310 Kansas City, MO Ph: (816) Fx: (206)

1201 Walnut, Suite 310 Kansas City, MO Ph: (816) Fx: (206)

• More bill format options at the client level: subtotal add to flat fee slips, new tax style, single total for time and expense sections. • Scripting[r]

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Managerial Efficiency Modeling of Water use in the Republic of Lebanon

Managerial Efficiency Modeling of Water use in the Republic of Lebanon

Water tariffs are based on a flat fee and the current pricing structure creates a “double jeopardy” where the current tariff system does not provide incentives [r]

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Entering Class Registration And Advanced Billing System Procedures Fall 2014 Office of Admissions and Student Records

Entering Class Registration And Advanced Billing System Procedures Fall 2014 Office of Admissions and Student Records

T he Student Health Center provides quality, affordable, and convenient health care to LSU students in a large outpatient facility. Full-time students are automatically assessed a fee which entitles them to unlimited visits to primary care physicians. Part-time students may utilize the center in one of two ways. They may elect to pay the same fee as full-time students ($132) and be entitled to the same services as full-time students. You may add the Student Health Center fee using myLSU. Part-time students may also elect to pay a $25 per visit fee. This fee is paid at the time of each visit. Ancillary charges such as
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Utilization Rates of Neuroradiology across Neuroscience Specialties in the Private Office Setting: Who Owns or Leases the Scanners on Which Studies Are Performed?

Utilization Rates of Neuroradiology across Neuroscience Specialties in the Private Office Setting: Who Owns or Leases the Scanners on Which Studies Are Performed?

We utilized the CMS PSPSMFs for 1998 –2008. These files are aggre- gations of the billing-claim records for Medicare Part B for all fee-for- service beneficiaries and are the most recent data available. The PSPSMFs contain data for approximately 85% of the total Medicare population and were used in their entirety in our study. The PSPSMFs are public-use files that do not contain person-specific identifiers and, thus, the secondary analyses of these data are exempt from the insti- tutional review board approval process. The PSPSMFs provide counts of services categorized by procedure code (CPT-4 or Level 3 Health- care Common Procedure Coding System), procedure modifier, spe- cialty of the provider, and place of service.
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Dynamic topological description of brainstorm during epileptic seizure

Dynamic topological description of brainstorm during epileptic seizure

Liau (2001) under Fuzzy Research Group (FRG) in UTM has also developed a novel mathematical model to solve neuromagnetic inverse problem. This model is termed as Fuzzy Topographic Topological Mapping (FTTM) and is a topological structured-based model. The main advantage of FTTM model is it requires only instantaneous data. Thus, the computing time is lower compared to statistical-based models. Generally, FTTM enables recorded signals (on flat surface) be portrayed 3- dimensionally. Since the introduction of FTTM, majority of the research by FRG has been on visualizing and extracting “hidden” information from EEG signals. All these studies were conducted to gain deeper understanding on how brain works from mathematical viewpoint.
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ARTICLE 3 ELECTRICAL CODE DIVISION 1 GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS SEC TITLE.

ARTICLE 3 ELECTRICAL CODE DIVISION 1 GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS SEC TITLE.

(c) Existing Buildings. The owner may apply for inspection of the electric wiring in an existing building. The inspector shall notify the owner of any alterations necessary. A Certificate of Inspection will be issued to the building owner when all applicable Electric Code requirements are met. Fees for that inspection shall be paid as provided in Subsection (b) of this section for Special Equipment Inspection. Where a reinspection is required in order to authorize the serving agency to reconnect an existing service, an owner may apply for inspection in accordance with the above. A fee equal to 50% of those specified m Subsection (b) of this section shall be paid.
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Geomorphology of the deglaciated Eglinton Valley, Fiordland : new insights into the origin of hummocky terrain : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geography at Massey University, Manawatu,

Geomorphology of the deglaciated Eglinton Valley, Fiordland : new insights into the origin of hummocky terrain : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geography at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

Glacial deposits were conrmed at Knobs Flat and Eglinton Flat while RA de- posits were conclusively found at Knobs Flat, Deer Flat, and adjacent to Lake Malvora. Eglinton Valley has been completely blocked on (a minimum of) three separate occasions, forming a large lake each time, with only Lake Gunn and a few minor swamps and lakes (e.g. Lake Malvora) remaining today. Relative age dat- ing evidence suggests the rst lake was formed by the large Deer Flat RA, the next formed due to the extensive Wesney Creek alluvial fan, and the youngest, Lake Gunn, as a result of the Lake Gunn Landslide ~7.6 kyrs BP. TCND was uncompleted due to lab contamination at the nal step, however, the methods attempted here appeared to yield promising results.
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RBC Dain CS Service Fee Suggested Fee Range

RBC Dain CS Service Fee Suggested Fee Range

_____________________________________________________________________________ Above $10,000,000 Negotiable Negotiable Negotiable _____________________________________________________________________________ Min. Account $250,000 Pay-Out is Based on Fee Based Commission Schedule ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DCS Advisor: A wrap fee program

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To Fee or Not to Fee: A Review of A Practitioner's Guide to Development Impact Fees

To Fee or Not to Fee: A Review of A Practitioner's Guide to Development Impact Fees

The designation of these areas could be crucial to surviving the second prong of the dual rational nexus test: that fees exacted from development requiring new or impro[r]

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A flat plane that is not the limit of periodic flat planes

A flat plane that is not the limit of periodic flat planes

Remark 3.3 Using an argument similar to the above proof, one can show that these sixteen planes are the only flat planes in ˜ Z containing ˜ s. One considers the pair of “axes” intersecting at ˜ s in a plane containing ˜ s. If this plane is different from each of the 16 mentioned above, then some translate of ˜ s must appear along one of these “axes”. The infinite strip in the plane whose corners are these two s squares yields a contradiction similar to the one obtained above.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF FLAT EPITHELIAL LESIONS OF THE URINARY BLADDER IN EARLY DETECTION OF BLADDER CANCER: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY

SIGNIFICANCE OF FLAT EPITHELIAL LESIONS OF THE URINARY BLADDER IN EARLY DETECTION OF BLADDER CANCER: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY

Background: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary system, after prostate cancer. The flat lesions are classified into flat lesions without cytological atypia (Flat hyperplasia) and flat lesions with cytological atypia; reactive atypia, atypia of unknown significance, urothelial dysplasia and urothelial carcinoma in situ). The immunohistochemical markers such as cytokeratin 20,CD 44 and Ki 67 may be useful in differentiating CIS from reactive changes in difficult biopsy cases.
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The challenges of managing no-fee schools: a case study of two no-fee schools.

The challenges of managing no-fee schools: a case study of two no-fee schools.

bank account. bank overdrafts, trust accounts. documentation. recording transactions, and every aspect related to the school's finances: training in linancial management is fundamental in preparing and equipping school managers with financial skills and where provincial departments are unable to provide the training to every member because of cost implications, schools should take the initiative of forming partnerships with tertiary institutions or other service providers that offer training in financial management. These guidelines can offer some solutions to the challenges experienced by the no-fee school principals when managing no-fee schools. Therefore this is a challenge that the principals and the finance committees experience in managing no-fee schools. However. many principals and SBG members are placed under tremendous pressure to manage their schools' finances because they are unable to work out practical solutions to financial problems. on account of their lack of linancial knowledge. skills and expertise (Mestry. 2006).
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Justifying Your Attendance at the 2011 Vision Users Conference

Justifying Your Attendance at the 2011 Vision Users Conference

Monday lunch included in reg fee Monday dinner on your own Tuesday breakfast included in reg fee Tuesday lunch included in reg fee Tuesday dinner included in reg fee Wednesday breakfast included in reg fee Wednesday lunch included in reg fee Conference over – travel home

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Differential Flatness Applications to Industrial Machine Control

Differential Flatness Applications to Industrial Machine Control

5. Differential flatness means that the state and input may be completely recovered from the flat output without integrating the system differential equations. After the introduction in Section 1, the paper discusses the basic theory of differential flatness in Section II. In Section III the procedure of computations of flat output is detailed. Section IV discusses the examples for computing flat outputs for some systems and the simulations done on the resulting controllers of some industrial systems on MATLAB. Conclusions are given in Section V while in Section VI the references are given.
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Flat semimodules

Flat semimodules

Then, V is Mk-flat if and only if the functor V ⊗R − preserves the exactness of all left k-regular right regular short exact sequences β.. By using Proposition 2.4, the sequence IV ⊗α.[r]

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