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Flight Controls, Flaps and Trim System Inspection, Repair and Rigging Guide

Flight Controls, Flaps and Trim System Inspection, Repair and Rigging Guide

Inspection, maintenance, repair and rigging of Beechcraft flight controls, flaps and trim systems is addressed very well in the manufacturer’s Maintenance and Shop manuals. This Guide is meant as a supplement to Beechcraft publications, to fill in the gaps for mechanics not completely familiar with the Bonanza/Debonair/Baron/Travel Air airplanes. It is the result of ABS’ Technical Advisors’ decades of experience maintaining Beech piston aircraft, and thousands of airplanes inspected through the ABS Air Safety Foundation Service Clinic program.
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Are airliner-cockpits’ computer-based instruments a cause of aircraft accidents? – an opinion

Are airliner-cockpits’ computer-based instruments a cause of aircraft accidents? – an opinion

This opinion-piece is a discussion of the article in the Los Angeles Times titled “Lion Air crash shows cockpit computers are no substitute for pilot skills”. The Article said: “When an altitude sensor failed on a Turkish Airlines Boeing 737 flight to Amsterdam in 2009, the jetliner’s computerized flight controls erroneously cut the engine thrust. The pilots didn’t understand what happened in time to prevent a crash. The accident had striking similarities to the recent Lion Air tragedy in Indonesia, which took the lives of 189 people. A failed sensor led flight computers to put the 737 MAX jetliner into a series of dives, based on the erroneous calculation. The crew didn’t diagnose the problem, which could have been remedied with the flip of a switch, and the plane fell into the Java Sea.” This author, who has been flying airliners in the Microsoft Flight Simulator since 1999 in a very good simulation of real- flight, describes how that the common airliners that he flies in the simulator can be flown totally by using the autopilot – takeoff, cruise, approach and landing. This author argues that flying these airliners in the manner he does cannot possibly cause the accidents in the manner the LA Times describes above. Additionally, this author recommends in a design, a parallel computerized auto-flight system that should take over when the primary auto-flight system fails – and, pilot-skills training should be enhanced to make certain a greater understanding in the use of these systems.
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On the development of computer code for aircraft flight dynamics analysis

On the development of computer code for aircraft flight dynamics analysis

To control the airplane‟s trajectory, it can be done by changing the external surfaces of the aircraft. Such external surfaces are elevators, stabilators, canards, elevons, tailerons, ailerons, rudders, and thrust vectoring nozzles. These external surfaces are often called as primary surfaces. Any operation applied to the primary surface will produce aircraft movement in pitch, roll, and yaw motion. Secondary flight control surfaces augment the primary surfaces by modifying the lift and drag characteristics of the wings and airplane. These secondary surfaces include wing flaps (usually on the trailing edge but sometimes used on the leading edge), wing slats, spoilers, and speed brakes. The recent terminology for primary flight controls is “flight control effectors,” as the effector may not be a conventional control surface. For example, NASA‟s F-15 ACTIVE research aircraft is said to have nine flight control effectors: left and right canards, left and right ailerons, rudder (the two rudders move together and are treated as one effector), left and right stabililators, and pitch or yaw T V
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UAV remote control distraction prevention trough synthetic augmented 
		virtual imaging and oculus rift style headsets

UAV remote control distraction prevention trough synthetic augmented virtual imaging and oculus rift style headsets

A remote control station for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on oculus Rift-style headsets and joysticks is proposed in this paper. With this solution situation awareness and distraction can be controlled and measured during the flight. With Virtual Augmented Reality (VAR) software it is possible reproduce accurately both the cockpit and the external view thanks to the helmet tracking system. Also the head-up display (HUD) and up-to-date flight instruments can be reproduced. In this way the PF (Pilot Flyng) station can be reduced to helmet, throttle/stick joysticks with force feedback and a few additional LCDs. Another main advantage of VAR headsets is the possibility of reconfiguring the cockpit via software and to use it for several different UAVs. In Figure-5 it is possible to see a logical schema of a VAR station: the pilot inputs via helmets (line of sight direction), flight controls (stick and throttle) and switches on joysticks the data in the AVCS software (Aircraft Visualization and Control System): The Aircraft Visualization and Control System take the data from the aerial vehicles, elaborates them and outputs the external view (external visual system) and the view of instruments (instrument visualization system). These two "images" are overlapped and mixed in a highly hierarchical visualization system, where only the relevant objects are depicted. To do so the external camera images from the aerial vehicle are analyzed and cleaned of all non-relevant data. The data from the sensors are also to be included in the synthesizing process. The application of these ideas as discussed in this paper consists of the realisation of a VAR display system for a remotely piloted aerial vehicle. All the instruments are modelled via Head Up Display (HUD) while the external scenery is analyzed and only relevant elements for mission accomplishment or collision avoidance are represented. The PF have the possibility of a 360° field of view. Sound realism and true situation awareness can be then achieved. Software for distraction control and situation awareness can be easily implemented in the system. A synthetic audio interrogation system can keep track of the current state of alert of the PF.
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Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

IV. H YDRO -M ECHANICAL F LIGHT C ONTROL S YSTEM Due to ever increasing size and flight envelope of aircraft, mechanical flight control systems were found inadequate. With increasing speed of aircraft, it became more difficult to move the control surfaces due to high aerodynamic forces. This led to application of hydraulic power.[9] Hydraulics with high power and high stiffness is ideal as a medium for the operation of flight controls. [9] Hydro mechanical controls have two parts: [2] [8]

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SPIDER WEB-BUILDING IN OUTER SPACE : EVALUATION OF RECORDS FROM THE SKYLAB SPIDER EXPERIMEN T. Peter N. Witt Mabel B. Scarbor o Rubenia Daniels

SPIDER WEB-BUILDING IN OUTER SPACE : EVALUATION OF RECORDS FROM THE SKYLAB SPIDER EXPERIMEN T. Peter N. Witt Mabel B. Scarbor o Rubenia Daniels

The first webs resembled pre-flight controls in size and regularity, but the unusua l distribution of radial angles and thinness of thread together with a probably low number of turning [r]

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Effects of body size on the oxygen sensitivity of dragonfly flight

Effects of body size on the oxygen sensitivity of dragonfly flight

The power of interspecific comparative analyses depends on the phylogeny of the sampled species, number of species used, and, for questions of mass effects, on the range of species masses (Harvey and Pagel, 1991). Because many measurements were made on individuals (flight behavior and metabolic rate in 14 different gas mixes plus some additional controls), several hours were required to complete measurements for a single individual. In addition, some species were relatively rare and difficult to collect. Thus we decided to focus on obtaining the maximum number of species and clades, and our study had a relatively low number of individuals per species (Table 2). In general, we collapsed individual data to species means; unless otherwise stated, reported values are averages across individuals of that species.
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Miniaturized multi-sensor loggers provide new insight into year-round flight behaviour of small trans-Sahara avian migrants

Miniaturized multi-sensor loggers provide new insight into year-round flight behaviour of small trans-Sahara avian migrants

We could not support our initial hypothesis that eurasian hoopoes with their broader wings and the fickle flight style are less efficient migrants with respect to flight behaviour. Neither flight altitude, the number of flight hours per dis- tance covered nor the lengths of single flight bouts indi- cated varying flight efficiency between the two species. Our analyses have shown that multi-sensor loggers have the potential to provide insights into many fundamental aspects of individual behaviour in small aerial migrants. Naturally, our analyses are only the tip of the iceberg entailing a range of future analyses. For instance, accuracy in light-based geolocation is heavily affected by shading effects, thus activity patterns can accurately distinguish movement and stationary periods, and air pressure re- cordings during stop-over periods could be used to nar- row down the position of stop-over areas. Furthermore, activity patterns during stop-over or resident periods might provide information on individual habitat use and energy budgets. Combining flight altitudes and locations with environmental/weather data can identify cues for migratory decisions and can significantly help to improve individual movement models. The detailed and long term recordings of data, as presented in this study, are suitable not only for bird migration studies, but also for many other investigations in the field of behavioural research and movement ecology.
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Smart Flight Security in Airport Using IOT (Case Study: Airport of Birjand)

Smart Flight Security in Airport Using IOT (Case Study: Airport of Birjand)

In out proposed process, passengers arriving to airport) must first go to the flight card issuing unit and get their unique premade RFID tags and deliver their loads. In this stage every separately delivered load of passenger gets a unique RFID tag and manual authentication of identity documents carries out. Then the passenger is freed up from his/her loads and can easily spent some time in airport up to announcing his/her flight number. After that the passenger goes to waiting room and automatically (using RFID readers) his/her security parameters including flight number, flight date, and flight ticket were checked. After a while the airplane gets ready and passengers called for their flight gate for departure. In this step also authentication carries out automatically and passengers getting on their flight’s airplane. Also their loads using RFID readers automatically checked and loaded in the correct airplane. Finally the captain could see the final report of his/her flight’s passengers and their loads in airplane cabin. After reaching to destination, the passengers take their loads and at exit final automated authentication carries out and RFID tags delivered to destination airport staff and the process ends.
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CATALOG SUPPLEMENT 2021 Version 1.0

CATALOG SUPPLEMENT 2021 Version 1.0

Tuition for Flight Program is based on the entire program length (excluding any overage hours taken to complete a lesson), the flight program includes the minimum number of flight hours and ground school classes required for each rating and certificate by The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). If the required number of course flight training hours are reached during a term and a passing final grade has not been earned the student will be issued a failing grade. A student may request additional flight training hours during the sixty days following the original scheduled end of the term to complete course objectives and request a grade change. These additional hours are available at the student’s expense based on hourly fees below, or the student may choose to receive the failing final grade and retake the term in full at full cost. Books and equipment are approximate, and tax is not included. The College reserves the right to adjust the hourly flight rates with a fuel surcharge should one become necessary.
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GF3001Mar10. BENEFITS GUIDEBOOK Making the most of your membership

GF3001Mar10. BENEFITS GUIDEBOOK Making the most of your membership

Before 1 July 2010, your Qantas Frequent Flyer points will not expire, provided you earn or redeem points through your account at least once every three years. This includes earning or redeeming points with our program partners. The three-year period commences from the date of your last activity (in the case of earning points on eligible flights, that is the date the flight was taken). See clause 25 of the Terms and Conditions on page 126 for further details. Effective 1 July 2010, your points will not expire as long as you earn or redeem points (excluding family transfers) at least once every 18 months, rather than three years. See clauses 9.2 and 25 of the Terms and Conditions on pages 102 and 126-127 for further details.
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Fault-tolerant flight control for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle with partial horizontal and vertical stabiliser losses

Fault-tolerant flight control for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle with partial horizontal and vertical stabiliser losses

In order to get a complete representation of the performance of the controllers on the healthy and damaged state of the aircraft, it was necessary to be able to transition from a healthy state to a damaged one. It was possible for the aircraft controller to be able to control both the healthy and damaged configurations independently, which does not guarantee that it could handle a transition from the healthy to damaged configuration. In order to do this, portions of the horizontal and vertical stabilisers needed to be jettisoned off during flight. Beeton [7] made use of a servo locking mechanism to connect the main wing portion to the aircraft and allow mid-flight release. This solution requires a significant amount of space to house the mechanism allowing it to work in the aircraft wing. The profile of the aircraft stabilisers does not provide sufficient housing space or structural strength for this technique to be viable. A burn wire release mechanism used to deploy the solar panels in CubeSat projects was used to release the portions of horizontal and vertical stabilisers [21]. New horizontal and vertical stabilisers were manufactured and modified to provide the support and strength necessary to accommodate the release mechanism. The new horizontal stabiliser can be seen in the images in 7.1 showing the modifications that were necessary for a successful release.
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Low computational SLAM for an autonomous indoor aerial inspection vehicle

Low computational SLAM for an autonomous indoor aerial inspection vehicle

SLAM algorithm only solves translational drift and does not correct for any rota- tional component, relying solely on accurate, drift free heading data from the IMU. Accurate heading from the IMU, however, is not guaranteed and can be prone to significant deviation (drifting) depending on the sensor used and its placement on the UAV. If significant drift occurs, the integrity of the map will become comprom- ised, causing localisations based on the previous map to be erroneous. As discussed and demonstrated in both the sub-system testing (Section 6.1.2 on page 118) and final flight tests (Chapter 7 on page 144), this did not pose a problem during testing. However, if further development is planned, it may prove beneficial to implement a periodic routine for checking the rotational alignment instead of blindly agreeing with the IMU sensor data.
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Passengers Satisfaction Toward Oman Air Services

Passengers Satisfaction Toward Oman Air Services

The population is defined as a group of entities usually people, but sometimes organizations or objects that have some common characteristics that meet the specific requirements of the research project. While a sample means taking a small portion from a larger whole. This is used to make a judgement or generalization about the whole. Therefore, a sample was like a subgroup or subset of the population that selected to represent the population and characteristic of sample are then used to make inferences about a population. In most quantitative research projects, sampling usually was one of the best options. This is due to mainly two reasons that were population size was too large and geographically widespread. So, it is very expensive if want to choose whole population to study. In this research, the population of the study was the people who have took Oman Air flight before in a particular area. The researcher had chosen a sample which is a small portion of the Oman Air passenger to carry out the research.
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Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology

Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology

The second factor used for controlling the forces generated is the wing area. With increasing speed, the demands on wing area to generate the same lift are reduced and bats have been shown to reduce the wing area during the downstroke with increasing flight speed (von Busse et al., 2012; Hubel et al., 2010; Hubel, 2012). Several studies have shown a reduction of the wing area during the upstroke, which bats have in common with birds (Wolf et al., 2010; von Busse et al., 2012; Tobalske et al., 2007; Norberg, 1976a). However, the reason for this behaviour is not clear; it was originally suggested as a means to generate a net thrust from a flapping wing with constant circulation (e.g. Pennycuick, 1989), but could also be a way of reducing the inertial cost of the wingbeat (Riskin et al., 2012). Modelling suggests that the wing folding may reduce the inertial cost by as much as 35% in bats, compared with holding wings fully outstretched (Riskin et al., 2012), although this ignores the potential for using aerodynamic forces to move the wing during the upstroke. However, reducing the wing area may also reduce the profile drag of the wing. Optimal wake models (Hall and Hall, 1996; Salehipour and Willis, 2013) often predict a rather unloaded upstroke in which case a reduction of the area of the wing would have little influence on the lift generated, but will reduce the profile drag. The reduction in wing area during the upstroke is correlated with the commonly measured span ratio (the ratio between the horizontally projected span during the upstroke and downstroke). The span ratio is almost constant across speed in bats, with a potential weak negative trend at higher flight speeds (Lindhe Norberg and Winter, 2006; Wolf et al., 2010; Hubel et al., 2010; Hubel et al., 2012). However, although the trend in span ratio is the same across bat species, how this is achieved differs between the pteropodid and microchiropteran species studied. The microchiropteran species keep the handwing taut during the upstroke, whereas wing area and span ratio are mainly controlled by the armwing (Norberg, 1976a; Aldridge, 1986; Wolf et al., 2010; von Busse et al., 2012; Hubel et al., 2012). Pteropodid species, on the other hand, perform a complex retraction of the wing, which involves bending of the digits (Norberg, 1972b; Hubel et al., 2009). Despite this difference in wing kinematics during the upstroke, all bat species studied thus far produce an inversed vortex, indicative of thrust and the production of negative lift, at the end of the upstroke (Hedenström et al., 2007; Hedenström et al., 2009; Hubel et al., 2009; Hubel et al., 2012).
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Seasonal activity of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in the Börzsöny Mountains, North Hungary

Seasonal activity of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in the Börzsöny Mountains, North Hungary

Caddisflies were listed into the following flight period types: short, medium or long flight activity, and autumn or summer species.. The weekly flight activity patterns of s[r]

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Wake analysis of aerodynamic components for the glide envelope of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

Wake analysis of aerodynamic components for the glide envelope of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

Gliding flight in birds is a relatively inexpensive mode of flying, at least in terms of instantaneous power required from the flight muscles (Baudinette and Schmidt-Nielsen, 1974). A bird only has to spend energy on keeping the wings spread. The cost of transport is covered by converting potential energy (altitude) into aerodynamic work. During soaring, potential energy is replenished by extracting energy from the environment, for example, from the rising air in thermals (thermal soaring) or the wind shear gradient over the oceans (dynamic soaring). In the absence of external energy sources, a bird will need to use muscle power to gain altitude. Either way, gliding birds have a good reason to minimize aerodynamic drag. However, one can also think of circumstances in which it is beneficial to rapidly dissipate energy, for example, during descent before landing. To accomplish this, birds can modify their flight configuration. The glide performance of birds has been studied in numerous previous works using tiltable wind tunnels (Henningsson and Hedenström, 2011; Pennycuick, 1968; Rosén and Hedenström, 2001; Tucker, 1987; Tucker and Heine, 1990; Tucker and Parrott, 1970) or using field observations (Eder et al., 2015; Pennycuick, 1971). However, it has always been difficult to measure the different
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Kinematics analysis of selected rhytmic gymnastic leaps

Kinematics analysis of selected rhytmic gymnastic leaps

Very few studies exist on biomechanics of rhythmic gymnastic. Four leaps of an experienced high level (national competition) rhythmic gymnast athlete (16yo, 175 cm height, 50 kg weight) were analyzed in order to provide firsts descriptive data of these movements, to compare different behaviour in similar jumps and to study its variability. The subject performed 10 trials for each of the four movements, for a total of 40 trials, barefoot on a laboratory with a rubber floor. A total of 40 trials were analyzed for grand jetè, kosak jump, kosak jump with half turn, turn scissor jump. The four movements were split into four phases: last stride length (LS), distance between toe off and heel contact of last stride, knee loading angle previous to jump (KL), defined as maximum loading angle at the knee, push time (PD), defined as the time of push off, and flight time (FT). The lower variability, was observed in flight times of all four leaps (2.24-2,92 %), suggesting a strategy to maintain constant this variable among the 10 trials, despite the kind of jump being performed. Last stride lengths, knee loading angles previous to jump, push times and flight times were computed by means of a Vicon 460 motion analysis system. The lowest variability was shown by flight times, and the highest by last stride lengths. All jumps showed similar flight time, despite the different movements being performed during the flight phase. All variables shows to be normally distributed except last stride length of the grand jete (r=0,753; p=0,009) and flight time of cosak jump with half turn (r=0,749; p=0,008). Correlations between all leaps kinematics variables show the influence of push times (r= -0,685; p=0,000) and of the last stride length (r=0,533; p=0,001) on flight times. Flight times were kept constant in all jumps, despite the high (3,90-10,59%) variability in push time and in last stride length.
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Honeybees perform optimal scale free searching flights when attempting to locate a food source

Honeybees perform optimal scale free searching flights when attempting to locate a food source

the target is known or is presumed known (A.M.R., manuscript submitted). This was done using a ‘random walk analysis’ of the turning points in the honeybee flight patterns, an examination of the fractal scaling properties of the flight patterns and a determination of the distribution of flight-segment lengths (Figs·5–7). The results of these independent analyses yield a consistent picture; namely that ␮ =2 Lévy-flights underlie our recorded honeybee flight patterns. Some other reported instances of Lévy-flight animal movement patterns, most notably that of the wandering albatross (Viswanathan et al., 1999), are perhaps less secure because they are founded solely on the results of a single analysis. We also showed that the strategy remains optimal when the execution of Lévy-flights is imprecise due to the accumulation of navigational errors and unpredictable displacements by gusts of wind, i.e. when the execution of an optimal isotropic scale-free searching pattern is being compromised by flight errors (see section on Imprecise Lévy- flight searching strategies). In a Lévy-looping search, a searcher travels out from the origin of its search along a randomly orientated straight line whose length is drawn at random from a distribution with an inverse-square power-law tail. If the target is detected, the search ends – otherwise the searcher returns to the origin and then randomly chooses a new direction and distance before travelling out again. As a search progresses without success, the probability of finding the target at the origin decreases. Eventually it will become more profitable to desist from repeated returns to the original location and instead adopt a freely roaming Lévy-flight searching pattern. Such a strategy is not only optimal for the location of the original single target
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Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity

Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity

The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta , the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female- specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta . Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour.
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