This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on intelligent image processing and decision-making for flood monitoring on board satellites. The ability to detect temporal changes in images is one of the most important functions in intelligent image processing systems for hazard and disaster monitoring applications. An automatic change detection system is proposed, the purpose of which is to monitor particular areas on Earth and give warnings to the authorities if any flooding events are detected. A novel solution to flood detection based on combined use of optical multispectral imagery and GPS reflectometry data is introduced. A fuzzy inference engine is used in the decision-making process, which generates control signals to other subsystems on board the satellite.
Flood monitoring system is a way of detecting threatening events in advance. This enables the public to be warned in masses so that action can be taken to reduce the adverse effects of events. Flood monitoring system is an important technology in developing countries, where flooding results in massive loss of life and property. This system can allow detection and assessment of threating events to take place before it hits a community. It is necessary to design or build a system which will monitor the flood prone area and give alert to the people of that area, so that they can shift to a safe place. And due to alert signal people will avoid the travel to these areas. The flood monitoring system and the alert system uses technology like wireless sensor network, embedded system with GSM technology, a camera sensor with image processing technology and the satellite-based monitoring software like GIS etc. In this paper is detected with the different technologies used to monitor and alert the people in flood prone area.
This system developed a real time wireless flood monitoring system by using the concept of the ultrasonic waves. This system can automatically sense the water level and then send this value to the control room through the wireless system to display it on LCD . This project is developed by using ATMEGA32 microcontroller. The system consist of two parts, transmitter and receiver modules. The water level is automatically detected by the transmitter and then transmits it to the receiver. The distancebetween sensor and the water surface is detected by using ultrasonic sensor. Water level detection is performed without physical contact between the sensorand water surface. Ultrasonic sensors utilize the principle of sound reflection to measure the level of the water.The system employs the use of advance sensing technology in performing real time monitoring of water level. The developed system is composed of three major components: sensor network, transmitting modules and processing the data .The sensor network measures the water level data while the transmitting module is used to transmit measured data to the Receiver module where the data will be processed.
Flood Monitoring System is a system that will avoid road users’ trap inside flash flood especially at the frequent area, Kuala Lumpur. Flood Monitoring System offers open and more intuitive traditional solutions at a lower total system cost and easier migration to future technologies. Easier to apply, inexpensive maintenance, long lasting duration and efficient solution.
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Floods are some of the most common causes of weather-related global disasters, causing billions of dollars’ worth of damages and the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives [6, 16]. In Nigeria, solutions to flooding and its impact are critical issues of importance for exploring more realistic flood risk mitigation and disaster management measures [7, 8]. Development of smart, accurate, real time flood monitoring and early warning system are key elements in flood risk and disaster management and should be made a priority for action [1, 2, 3 and 4]. In many developing countries including Nigeria, majority of the citizens living in high risk flood zones do not have any flood monitoring/early flood warning systems. Cost is a major precursor to this, therefore the availability of cheap and capable technologies, will further encourage the development of real time flood monitoring/early warning systems for developing countries. Community based real time flood monitoring/early warning systems go a long way in mitigating against the devastating impact of flood on lives and livelihood of the poor and most vulnerable in the society, especially in developing countries [4, 8, 9 and 16]. In this regard, this work proposes the
Fiji has a history of tropical cyclones and frequent flash flooding. It has been seen that short periods of heavy downfall has led to severe flooding in low-lying areas.  Residents and authorities have been caught off guard and as a result properties are damaged and human lives have been lost. This is invariably due to the absence of a proper flood monitoring system that can provide correct and timely information via communication channels that are operational at the time. Radios and TVs, although available in most households, may not be effective due to the power cuts. Although there are many evacuation centers and authorities on alert upon times of flooding, many people are not able to escape or save their stocks on time. There is a need for a fast, convenient and reliable Flood Monitoring and Early Warning System to alert residents and authorities when water level reaches a critical height.
Floods are one of the most devastating types of worldwide disasters in terms of human, economic, and social losses. If authoritative data is scarce, or un- available for some periods, other sources of information are required to improve streamflow estimation and early flood warnings. Georeferenced social media messages are increasingly being regarded as an alternative source of information for coping with flood risks. However, existing studies have mostly concentrated on the links between geo-social media activity and flooded areas. Thus, there is still a gap in research with regard to the use of social media as a proxy for rainfall-runoff estimations and flood forecasting. To address this, we propose using a transformation function that creates a proxy variable for rainfall by analysing geo-social media messages and rainfall measurements from author- itative sources, which are later incorporated within a hydrological model for streamflow estimation. We found that the combined use of official rainfall val- ues with the social media proxy variable as input for the Probability Distributed Model (PDM), improved streamflow simulations for flood monitoring. The com-
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helps in complex coastal environmental disaster moni- toring (Whitehead and Hugenholtz 2014; Wallace et al. 2012). Datasets produced by drone have high resolution (< 10 cm) (Harwin and Lucieer 2012) and supports the development of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) that facilitate change detection and measure- ment (Hugenholtz et al. 2013). Drone based monitoring of disaster events has significant advantages due to its timeliness, event based rapid availability and better qual- ity/resolution (Pérez-Alberti and Trenhaile 2015). Drones are also being used in advocacy to booster com- munity awareness in various environmental hazards, in- cluding deforestation and bush fires and as a communication tool in stakeholder engagement at vari- ous levels (Goldberg et al. 2013; Mohammed et al. 2014). Appeaning Addo (2016) used drone video record- ings to communicate erosion dynamics and flood prob- lems to policy makers in Ghana (parliamentarian and local authorities), which influenced their perception about these problems (Owens 2016). The use of drone is therefore the best way in data gathering to arm decision makers and local authorities with more accurate picture of environmental impacts (STAFF AG 2017).
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Spatial information technologies, in the form of geographic information systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), have made major advances in both theory and application for studies of flood management. These technologies have become key components of interdisciplinary research into flood resources management. Because it is not possible to avoid natural flood disasters completely, spatial information technology tools are applied in the collection and processing of data and the development of applications that monitor and create a proper awareness of likely flood disasters and their impact. The changing trends and advancement of spatial technologies have enabled their application in a large number of scientific and technological resources and skills development to reduce flood disasters. These developments include their real-time applications in suitable early warning systems, preparedness and overall flood disaster management. The system emphasizes the estimation of flood plain as an aspect of flood disaster management, which was generally neglected in previous management plans in Malaysia. Expected flood inundation maps are then produced to form the basis of advance warnings of impending floods well before they actually occur.
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Low power sensor network detect, locate and identify flood level, for this a set of sensor nodes spread over a river area, these nodes are capable for sensing and communicating with each other by means of wireless network. The sensor may be controllable, possibly aimed and commanded to sense and transmit data to their neighbours. Though each node is an independent hardware device, they need to co-ordinate their sensing, computation and communication to acquire relevant information about their status so as to accomplish some high-level task.
The Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) has been run globally at a 1.0 ◦ spatial resolution between 1948 and 2010 using 10 000 parameter sets from a Latin hypercube sample to assess the role of parameter uncertainty in flood and drought monitoring. The 10 000 member ensemble is constrained using a spatially disaggregated version of the GRDC runoff climatology at annual and monthly timescales. A multi-timescale sensitivity analysis is then used to deter- mine the role of each of the model’s parameters and the overall model performance. The results vary according to Köppen–Geiger climate. While in arid and tropical regions few parameter sets fulfill the constraints, polar and continen- tal climates maintain a large number of behavioral param- eter sets. The annual constraints focus on reducing the an- nual bias by changing the annual evaporation; the monthly constraints alter the monthly autocorrelation of flow by par- titioning the runoff into baseflow and surface runoff. The pa- rameters that control the monthly runoff autocorrelation also play an important role at the daily timescale. For this rea- son, regions that have a distinct seasonality (continental and polar) see the largest decrease in the spread of their represen- tative daily flow duration curves. These results illustrate the challenges in using current land surface models for global drought and flood monitoring. However, they also indicate a path forward which involves adopting ensemble frameworks to account for model parameter uncertainty, designing and implementing improved observation networks to better con- strain land surface models, providing improved local prior distributions via emerging high-resolution land data, and im- proving model structure to better account for the processes that dominate the hydrology over regions prone to droughts and floods.
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2 0 0 6 ;DeRoure,2005), embedded system with middleware (Hughes,2006;Chen,1990), A real-time internet based having a data acquisition system (Chang,2002), forecasting and modelling flood warnings (Creutin,2003;Sapphaisal,2007;Zhang,2002). For accuracy improvement other than this space and satellite data technologies have been used (Manusthiparom, 2005; Veijonen, 2006; Louhisuo, 2004). An adhoc wireless sensor network which is widely used (Chang, 2006; Hughes, 2006; DeRoure, 2005). Chang (Chang, 2006) has used the tiny wireless sensor station, called MICA for flood monitoring (Crossbow Technology, 2007).It consumes 54mW during its active state and with small batteries long periods of operation is allowed and it has a CPU with a low-speed. Previous research works (Hughes, 2006; DeRoure, 2005) have employed network which is grid based in their studies and reserach. Another important example of using the grid-based wireless sensor network technology has been presented in(Rodden, 2005). The schemes which were proposed by Hughes etal. (Hughes, 2006) could be performed by remote sensors; therefore, the local processing power could be employed to provide flood- related computations.
Among the natural disasters, floods rank the first in terms of the total number of people affected and monetary losses (Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 2013). Intensive precipitation events have increased during the final decades of the 20th century (Groisman et al., 2005; Alexander et al., 2006; Trenberth, 2011) and are expected to further intensify in the future (Groisman, 2012). In re- sponse, many countries have developed flood alert systems, such as the European Flood Alert System (Bartholmes et al., 2009) and the US National Weather Service Automated Flood Warning System (Scawthorn, 1999). While most of the systems rely on a dense network of gauging stations, over 95 % of all deaths and a significant portion of the eco- nomic losses caused by floods occur in developing countries where ground flood monitoring and management programs
Riparian vegetation is under natural conditions a dynamic component of the riverine environment, which together with floodplains and river marginal wetlands provides a range of important ecosystem services such as biodiversity, flood retention, nutrient sink, pollution control, groundwa- ter recharge, timber production, and recreation (e.g. Tockner et al., 2008). The species composition and spatial distribu- tion of riparian vegetation is largely determined by flood- plain morphology and river flow regime (e.g. Bendix and Hupp, 2000; Merritt et al., 2010; Gurnell et al., 2012) as well as by plant tolerance and response to flood disturbance and water stress (e.g. Auble et al., 1994; Blanch et al., 1999; Glenz et al., 2006; Pasquale et al., 2012). The reciprocal interactions between hydromorphological processes and ri- parian vegetation lead on the long term to the formation of complex mosaics of landforms and their respective biologi- cal communities and habitat patches (e.g. Pringle et al., 1988; Gregory et al., 1991; Decamps, 1996; Latterell et al., 2006; Gurnell and Petts, 2006; Corenblit et. al., 2007; Gurnell and Petts, 2011).
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During the 2003 irrigation season, when we conducted our study, flow was diverted through July from Lassen Creek and through June from Willow Creek. Diverted water is applied as flood irrigation continuously to pas- tures grazed by beef cattle, and during June and the first week of July to hay meadows. A substantial volume of this irrigation water returns to the creek it originally came from both as surface runoff in ditches and shallow swales, and as subsurface flow. There are four pastures in the Lassen and Willow creek systems ranging from 34 to 95 acres, with irrigation application rates (cubic feet per second [cfs] per acre) varying between and within pastures from 0.01 to 0.13 cfs per acre. Total applied water
Nowadays, Internet of Things (IoT) has a crucial role in all parts of our regular lives. It focuses on several different fields such as entertaining, homes, automobiles, healthcare, industrial applications, sports and many different things. The ubiquity of IoT facilities some ordinary activities, improves the way people interact with the surroundings, and enlarges our social communications with other people and objects.It is very challenging to create systems for the IoT for the following causes: (i) distributed computing complexity , (ii) the absence of common guidelines or outlines that handle low level communication and make it easy for high level implementation, (iii) several programming languages, and (iv) many protocols of communications. Developers are involved to handle the infrastructure and manage both hardware and software layers for all preserving functional and nonfunctional software requirements. .The main idea of IoT refers to network technology that allows information transfer between sensor devices. Recently, advances in technology supports many features such as adaptability, real-time monitoring, and traceability. The applications of IoT can be observed in number of areas such as kitchen, agriculture, health, and so on. Generally these are prefixed by the word “smart”, Ex. Smart Kitchen. 
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Natural disasters happens everywhere in the world, and they can be completely disturbing for human life and the environments that they are living. The given model is very much utilized for monitoring of the water level variations in rivers and the observed values regularly that are put in storage in the server which is useful to send flood alerts to consistent authority for faster action. With the given conditions, the project proposes the use of wireless sensor
practitioners and then more informal feedback and sharing of experiences. Each focus group centred on the index and mapping created for that municipality. Care was taken to explain the operation of the PCA to the participants as it was considered important that their feedback be based on an understanding of how the index was constructed. A range of municipal staff participated in the focus groups. All practitioners had an interest or professional responsibility for hazard mitigation or climate change adaptation, and ranged from early career planners, engineers and emergency managers, up through increasing levels of management, to a mayor of one municipality who participated in the full length of the focus group. Practitioner feedback was solicited in two main ways: through a formal survey instrument and through more informal conversation and sharing of experiences, which was guided by a semi-structured question guide. The thoughts and opinions of local practitioners on a variety of issues related to social vulnerability were asked, including: the applicability of a social vulnerability index to their city; how the information conveyed in such an index is or is not presently used in their decision making; the variables selected to indicate social vulnerability to flood hazards; whether the total score map and components maps reflect the local contextual reality in their city (i.e. whether the maps “make sense” to them), and; if there are important variables that we may be missing.
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The main objective of this research was to determine the influence of land-surface hydrological factors on flash flooding, and in addition to assist the NWS at Raleigh with their flash flood operations. To accomplish this objective, several case studies within the Raleigh CWA in which flash flooding occurred were identified. Initially, eight cases were chosen between August 2002 and August 2003; however, due to inconsistencies in radar data from the Raleigh WSR-88D (KRAX), the source of rainfall estimates, two cases during the spring of 2003 had to be removed from consideration. The six remaining cases are as follows: 26 August 2002, 11 October 2002, 9-10 April 2003, 16 June 2003, 29 July 2003, and 9 August 2003. The events, and especially the warning strategies and flash flooding reports, will be discussed below. If upper-air and surface data for the events were saved in the event folders (see below), then the synoptic and mesoscale features will be described as well. In addition, a surface map is included for each event; for the 2003 events, the maps were obtained from a local archive of NCEP surface analyses. However, NCEP analyses were not available for the 2002 events, and thus hand analyses are included for those events. Each of these events had a considerable impact either on life or property, as will also be discussed below.
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evaluated by comparison with the mean concentrations in previous years under normal flow conditions, rather than those from previous flooding, perhaps because of the difficulties of comparing floods owing to their different hydrological development. This raises the question of the most suitable measuring and assessment strategy. In the area of the middle Elbe in particular, hysteresis effects play a major part in the transport of suspended matter (Spott and Guhr, 1996); following a flood, a state of equilibrium in sediment deposits will not be reached until two or three months later (Truckenbrodt and Einax, 1995). Therefore, when sampling sediment, care must be taken in assessing the representativity of the time of sampling.
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