These hazards were generally linked to poor urban planning and climate change especially in increased frequency and intensity of rainfall (Action aid,2006; Adeloyo et al,2011; Cline,2007). The impacts of floods in. Nigeria include mortality, physical injuries, widespread infection and vector-borne diseases, social disorders, homelessness, food insecurity, economic losses (mainly through destruction of farmlands, social and urban infrastructure) and economic disruption (most notably in oil exploration in the Niger delta, traffic congestion in many cities in Nigeria, disruption in telecommunication and power supply (Ogunbode and Sunmola,2014;Ologunlorisa and Adeyemo,2005;Fadairo and Ganiyu,2010). The impacts of such floods have been severe due to the number of human populations exposed following the attractions of coastal areas for economic and social reasons (Adelekan,2010). Nigeria is globally ranked with the top 20 countries whose present population and future scenarios in the 2070s (including climate change and socio-economic factors) are exposed to coastal flooding. (Nicholls et al,2008). However, various levels of government, the community and other stake holders have been active with measures to tackle flooding in Nigeria (Olorunfemi,2011). These measures have been criticized as ad-hoc, nongeneralizable and not well established (Obeta,2014). In the light of ‘best practices’ in flood risk reduction and ‘lessons learned’ from other countries’ experiences of flooding, it can be argued that such stake holders’ efforts are at best limited most probably due to lack of quality data, which among other things are needed to systematically tackle flooding, poor perception of flooding among the general public, lack of funds and improved technology as well as poor political will power. Best practices in flood risk reduction ideally is based on “living with floods and not fighting them” idea, which dominates key environmental risk research themes (for examples: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)) and integrates structural and nonstructural measures to reduce the impacts of flooding on social systems and to achieve key requirements in risk management which are prevention/ mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, recovery and lessons learned (Balbi et al,2012;Dibadasarre et al,2012;DEFRA,2013;EC,2004;Zhu et al,2011).
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Interest in Indigenous Knowledge (IK) system has been particularly highlighted in flood disasters, due to the likely increase of flood events resulting from anthropogenic climate change through heavy precipitation, increased catchment wetness, and sea level rise. Therefore, bringing IK of flood risk reduction into focus and context to deepen the understanding of how people manage their own changing circumstances can bring more pertinent information about flood risk reduction. This paper reviews the significance of IK in flood risk reduction. Specifically, the paper discusses IK flood forecasting, early warning signs, adaptation and coping strategies in flood risk reduction around the world. The Methodological approach employed for this paper is the review of existing literature on IK in flood Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), and then a summary of the outcomes of the studies reviewed was discussed. However, it was deduced from the review undertaken, the need for an intensive empirical study to be conducted to explore how efficient these strategies or techniques are, in relation to flood risk reduction, which this paper strongly recommends for further investigation. Additionally, the paper concludes by emphasizing that although the IK of flood risk reduction is embedded in varied regions around the globe, still there is a need for further study to be carried out in order to unveil why the similarities and variations in flood risk reduction practices/strategies between regions.
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level protection measures with premiums: it is a requirement of the NFIP that new or reconstructed buildings within the 100-year flood zone are elevated above the water depth ex- pected for a 100-year flood (Aerts and Botzen, 2011; Kousky, 2017; Petrow et al., 2006). And only with an elevation cer- tificate, which can be issued by state-licensed surveyors, ar- chitects, or engineers, and has to be paid for by the poli- cyholder, are policyholders eligible for premium reductions (Aerts and Botzen, 2011). Similarly the NFIP uses its com- munity rating system (CRS) to incentivize municipalities to implement flood risk reduction measures, which then results in premium reductions for the city inhabitants. But the over- all success of incentivizing municipalities seems to be low: by 2014 only 5 % of all NFIP communities participated in the CRS (Kousky, 2017). The NFIP also makes use of nega- tive price signals, indicating a potential risk increase in the future. When municipalities do not fulfill NFIP’s require- ments for flood management, even after notification, they are put on probation and can be suspended from the program in the worst-case scenario; i.e., no flood insurance would be available for their inhabitants. In the suspension phase, a sur- charge is added to each new or renewed policy, aiming to make the policyholders aware of the shortfalls of the mu- nicipality (NFIP, 2012) or to exert pressure on the munici- pal government to fulfill the NFIP criteria. A similar mech- anism to exert pressure on local governments via the citi- zens is used in France, where deductibles increase consider- ably in the case of repeated losses and when the municipality does not develop risk prevention plans. The aim there is that affected citizens should also lobby the government to im- plement large-scale structural protection measures, but this mechanism does not really appear to be successful (Poussin et al., 2013; Suykens et al., 2016).
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In Africa, the most often cited flood was reported in Accra Ghana in 2007, and was linked especially to blocked drainage caused by poor waste management (Boadi & Kuitunen, 2003). However, people in Accra are ignorant unaware of the drainage issues associated with flooding. To an extent they regard waste management as an issue that should be resolved exclusively by the government (Sam, 2009). Another flooding case has been reported in Maputo, where, during the 2000 flood, 70 percent of flood deaths were in urban areas near Maputo, mainly in the cities of Xai-Xai and Chokwe (UN-HABITAT, 2007). The gov- ernments liaised with the public through and endorsed public service contracts that institutionalized the primary collection as a free-of-charge public service for all residents (Kruks Wisner, 2006). However, despite this investment, flooding has remained a major problem. Moreover, a few months ago thousands of people in Maputo lost their lives, entire fishing communities were gone, tourist site flat- tened. This implies, a lot need to be done to lessen the impact of flooding.
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Implementing various theoretical concepts to assess flood management measures within an organization is a key element of the knowledge that will guide process improvement. Risks and measures in flood crisis are identified, all measures can decrease the disaster risks which is the opportunity in development into the MWA flood crisis and management plan. However, helping organization execute MWA mission, maintain public trust, manage limited resources, and limit harm and disruption are crucial, the public wants to know the crucial information during the flood such as the impact of floods on the lives and livelihoods of people, need knowledge and direct communication. Our jobs as public utility and emergency communicators are to offer the information the public needs and counter some of the harmful behaviours during an emergency by well-planned and well-executed communication, fully integrated into the activities of every phase in crisis. Future researchers may evaluate of the benefits and costs of each measure must be integrate with a strategy and combining option. Moreover, the simulation under different scenarios in crisis is the important basic information.
Such a wealth of data available in near real-time has prompted re- search groups from many institutions worldwide to develop methods for ﬂood prediction and monitoring at large scales. This also aﬀords economies of scale: regions that might not have otherwise been able to set up local models and observation programs can bene ﬁ t from the global extent of these products. The potential beneﬁts of these new products include a large variety of new applications for improved dis- aster preparedness and response. However, an immediate consequence is the need to 1) adapt experimental scientiﬁc tools for operational emergency activities, and 2) identify the limits of applicability of each tool and its outputs. To this end, the Global Flood Partnership (GFP, https://gfp.jrc.ec.europa.eu) was established as an open international group of academics, research institutes, practitioners, public and pri- vate organizations active in the ﬁ eld of ﬂ ood risk and emergency management. The core group consists of organizations interested in bridging the gap between science and operations. The goal is to foster the dialogue between scientists and users, whereby 1) scientists adapt their systems to the needs of emergency managers, and 2) emergency managers adapt and adjust existing workﬂows to include new systems and data. Currently, the GFP includes more than 300 members from 6 continents, registered through a dedicated mailing list. More than 90 organizations were represented during the past annual meetings, which have been held since 2011, while special sessions and side events are
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This manuscript analyzes and discusses viewpoints concerning the renatura- lization of floodplains as an instrument of management in large catchments, using natural flood defense schemes. Schemes consider the differentiated supply of ecosystemic services based on river channel/floodplain interactions. Conventional structural methods used to prevent flooding (e.g., longitudinal dikes) are increasingly showing themselves to be less efficient with regard to advances in the problems of environmental management of the territory, es- pecially when combined with extreme events, where the importance of per- fecting strategies for harmonizing duly controlled floodable areas and water retention can be seen. Natural flood risk reduction measures are part of a ho- listic solution for sustainable management of flood risk, conservation of na- ture, water quality and green economy. They rely upon the inherent ability of floodplains to retain water in the basin, and this can delay and reduce peak flows.
The findings have revealed that the region is prone to annual floods that occur over a very short period and whose impact may go unnoticed. The floodwaters damage roads and bridges disrupting transportation and communication, de- grading the regional economy of the region, with funds that could be used to enhance flood risk reduction being diverted to repair work. We argue that regu- lar damage of property and disruption of economic activities implies the popula- tion may not have time to recover. Consequently, the impacts may have long- lasting effects on the affected population and the cumulative effects of flooding can set back economic development, keeping the populations in a permanent poverty trap. With climate forecasts predicting even worse future weather shocks, with increasing temperatures, long term damage to livelihoods and higher fatalities may place the ‘at risk’ population into a vicious cycle of destitu- tion and poverty.
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In Malaysia, Department o f Irrigation and Drainage (DID) is responsible for flood disaster mitigation. In the early o f 21st century, DID have adopted a new approach for flood mitigation, which referred to “Integrated Flood Management”. This approach is lacking o f development o f flood risk assessment and flood risk reduction. There are also lack of study related to risk assessment have been carried out in Malaysia. Thus, an initiative to develop a framework and show preliminary results related to losses of physical elements at risks at Kota Tinggi city. The main objective o f this paper is to determine the physical elements at flooding area with different magnitude flood event. Kota Tinggi situated in Johor state of Malaysia. This city was stroke twice extreme flood events at 2006/2007. This flood event was considered the most severe flood event in Malaysia history.
Without this nothing will happen. The stakeholders will need to agree how to manage the work and communicate, and also the measures by which flood risk will be assessed and prioritised. These could include the frequency and or consequences of flooding that will trigger action, and the targets that will be used to compare different options for flood risk reduction.
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We conducted a repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to test for increases in reported flood risks for different periods of time (1963 vs. 2013 vs. 2063) and by flood type (typical vs. extreme). Figure 2 shows that, for the three time periods, the mean reported flood risks were, respectively, .59 (SD=.45), .63 (SD=.45, and .69 (SD=.43) for typical flood risks, and .44 (SD=.45), .46 (SD=.46), and .52 (SD=.46) for extreme floods. We found that there was a significant main effect of time across both flood types, F(2, 356)=5.56, p<.01, with a linear contrast indicating that, across both flood types, participants on average perceived flood risks to have increased over time, F(1, 178)=8.44, p<.01. Additionally, a significant main effect for flood type, F(1, 176)=40.86, p<.001, showed that typical floods were perceived as more likely than extreme floods. There was no significant interaction between flood type and time, suggesting a similar increasing pattern over time for typical and extreme floods (p>.05). Subsequent analyses focus on perceived changes in flood risk as compared to the past, and expectations for flood risks into the future. As noted, we computed difference scores to reflect past perceptions (flood risk 2013-flood risk 1963), and future expectations (flood risk 2063-2013).
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Firstly, the purpose of European Floods Directive (European Commission, 2007) was to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks, aiming at the reduction of adverse consequences for human health, environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods. With this objective, the Directive requires Member States to carry out flood risk management plans. Accordingly, public bodies carry out specific plans to detect the main risks of flooding of the catchments they man- age, as well as to locate the areas with the highest risk of flooding. The objective of flood risk management plans is to improve the territory planning and the flood zones man- agement. In this sense, many studies have tried to model different situations depending on hydrological and weather data. Some examples are those carried out by Kourgialas and Karatzas (2011) and Levy (2005), as well as in the review of (Sanyal and Lu, 2004). Others try to predict future conditions, giving the opportunity to know how will be the natural response if we modify something. For example, Purvis et al. (2008) offer a methodology to estimate the probability of future coastal flooding given uncertainty over possible sea level rise.
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Flood forecasting systems combine hydrological models for the land-phase with hydraulic models to simulate flood propagation throughout the drainage network. These tools are driven by environmental forcing factors such as meteorological variables like precipitation, temperature and evaporation, updated by data from additional information sources such as radar-borne measurements and ground- based gauging networks. The interlinked chain of hydrological and river routing models is used, subsequently, to predict not only water levels and discharge at critical locations along the river system but also distributed fields of water depth and flow velocity, given only adequate digital terrain models (DTMs). This type of model chain is the core of flood forecasting systems and approaches described in this Special Issue. Some contributions deal explicitly with the effects of coupling the land phase models with the output of numerical weather products, investigating the effects of horizontal resolution of the weather models on the hydrological response of the basins. The hydrological models used in the studies are either purely data-driven or conceptual tools such as the neural network model by Shresta et al. (2005), the HEC model applied to the Savinja and Koritnica basins in the Republic of Slovenia (Kobold and Suelj, 2005) or process-oriented, spatially-distributed models such as the TOPKAPI model (Bartholmes and Todini, 2005; Liu and Todini, 2005) applied to the upstream part of the Po basin and the Upper Xixian catchment in the Huaihe basin. The distributed process-based rasterised model LISFLOOD (De Roo et al., 2000) is employed in
The last two points are achieved primarily through “over-flooding” of certain areas, i.e. an increase in flood hazard and/or flood intensities, compared to the existing situation. Two types of “over-flooding” policies should be distinguished: the restoration of natural flood plains, for example the removal of embankments protecting farmland, and projects of deliberate farmland flooding, e.g. planting hedges or building embankments across the floodplain to retain water laterally. The distinction between these policies is crucial. Deliberate flooding implies that a new hazard is created, whereas floodplain restoration implies that existing infrastructure is adjusted to return to the baseline situation. The baseline is theoretically the level of risk that would prevail in the absence of infrastructure. Of course, it is technically and legally controversial to define such a level, especially in basins where many structural interventions have been made in the past to redirect flood flows. The area concerned by these actions can be big at the local scale: for example, in the case of the Oise-Aisne basin, 7 733 ha are planned to be over-flooded.
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Sustainable urban planning and management in the United States seeks to meet the requirements of flood and stormwater management regulations requiring improve- ments in water quality and consideration of surface water flows (Gunderson et al., 2011; Layzer, 2012). Municipalities are incorporating Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) and Sus- tainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) into urban development as a cost-effective measure to reduce stormwater runoff and improve water quality (Kloss, 2008), while generating multi- ple other benefits within the urban environment (EPA, 2013; Tzoulas et al., 2007; Benedict and McMahon, 2006). BGI is in many respects similar to ‘Green Infrastructure’ (GI) (Benedict and McMahon, 2006; Tzoulas et al., 2007), but with a stronger focus upon adapting urban water cycles to function more similarly to natural water cycles (see Voskamp and Van de Ven, 2015; EPA, 2008a). BGI can take many forms, including green spaces with a specific water function (e.g. green roofs, rain gardens and bioswales), rain-barrels and permeable pavements.
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For flood forecasting it is of major importance that the forecast value is accurate. In many cases an erroneous fore- cast is worse than no forecast at all. People who had trusted a forecast that went wrong – for example, that forced them to evacuate an area – will not likely trust a future forecast. Consequently, development of dynamic models for real time forecasting with as narrow an error band as possible is a ma- jor challenge for hydrological research. At this time, the output of most models is deterministic. An assessment of the error for such models is usually done (if at all) through sensitivity analyses or scenario development, in which the range of possible values of the parameters of a model or of the model inputs are estimated and the results analyzed. Tra- ditional is the assessment of upper and lower bounds, but a modern trend is to determine ensembles from many combi- nations of probabilistically distributed parameters to obtain estimates in terms of probability distributions of outputs of the model, which then can be further analyzed to yield the en- semble average and error bounds expressed in terms of stan- dard deviations of the ensemble, i.e. Krzysztofowicz (2001). Ensemble weather forecasts have a long tradition in meteo- rology, however, the accuracy of meteorological forecasts of rainfall is still the weakest link in improving flood forecast models (Todini, 2004).
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Abstract. In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes in- duced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threat- ening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, dis- placement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood dis- asters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental character- istics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeni- able effect of climate change is projected to strongly mod- ify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensi- fying the frequency and severity of flood events at the lo- cal, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors be- comes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk As- sessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical–environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7- KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention – KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain
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Flooding is the most costly hazard worldwide. It has catastrophic impacts on people, economy and environment. Over the last three decades, it was reported that the number of flood events have increased crucially around the world (Kourgialas et al., 2011). Although flood events in certain low lying coast areas occur annually, the flood magnitudes are unpredictable. It is a big problem if the flood magnitude is bigger than expected, as it demolished houses due to rush of water flow. Hence, it causes loss of homes for population in the affected areas. In some cases, flood event of bigger than expected magnitude also engulfs large cultivation areas and wreck public services which makes the life of survivors
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Disasters are events that threaten and disrupt human life, and cause great losses to both the maternal and non-material. Disaster management is aimed at efforts to reduce disaster risk and create communities that are resilient. The purpose of this study is to examine sociologically the form of resilience (resilience) of the community to floods, assess holistically through evaluation and find harmony with sustainable development. The theory used is Adger's vulnerability and Rogers's Innovation Diffusion. The research method is qualitatively. Data collection techniques are through observation and interviews, and documented. The research location is in Sangkrah Village, Semanggi Village and Sewu Village. The results of this study indicate that sustainable disaster risk reduction efforts are carried out with a mechanism to increase community capacity to form a resilient community system of disasters. Based on the CIPP evaluation framework, the CFR program fulfills most of the required aspects which include the context, input, process and product, so that the program can run well in the community. The formation of SIBAT (Community Based Disaster Alert) was studied using Rogers' theory (Innovation Diffusion) about communication channels, where SIBAT was in a heterophily and homophily position, meaning SIBAT represented the condition of the community as well as agents for the CFR. Vertiminaponic formation as an effort to create economic resilience. Making biopores as clean water reserves, installation of infiltration wells to reduce water logging during floods is a form of environmental resilience. The establishment of SIBAT (Community Based Disaster Preparedness) as the main agent for implementing the CFR program which has a role to coordinate the implementation of programs which are integrated with EWS technology (Early Warning System) and institutions in the community as social security. The pattern of community resilience reflects the ability of a system to reduce vulnerability and increase capacity, according to the Sendai Framework indicator. The whole program embodies sustainable development, namely where the conditions of balance and resilience of the ecosystem are met and (natural capital stock) do not diminish over time (non-declining)
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Another approach to the assessment of the effectiveness of embankments is to employ a comprehensive benefit : cost analysis that includes dis-benefits. Kull et al. (2008) assembled as much data as possible for the Rohini River catchment in Uttar Pradesh, while recognizing the limitations of what they had been able to do. Their analysis shows that when viewed from a social welfare or ‘people- centred’ perspective, in which all costs and benefits are included, past investments in embankments have a benefit : cost ratio of 1 and are therefore not economically beneficial. Climate change is likely to reduce the benefits even more so that the benefit:cost ratio will be <1. However, they also conclude that the embankments represent a sunk cost and there will be economic benefit (benefit : cost of about 2) from their proper maintenance under both current and future climate. A similar but qualitative study by Dixit et al. (2008) in the Lower Bagmati River catchment in Bihar shows that the costs of current structural approaches have exceeded their benefits. They suggest that non- structural measures, such as better early warning systems, raising the plinths below houses, and providing boats have fewer costs than benefits, but they may not be sufficient as climate changes. Kull et al. (2008) suggest that a basket of non-structural measures has a benefit: cost ratio of 2 to 2.5 and is resilient under a changed climate. The measures include: raising of house plinths, fodder stores, hand pumps and toilets; rainwater harvesting; early warning systems; village food shelters including grain and seed banks; maintenance of key drainage bottlenecks; development of self-help groups; provision of community boats; promotion of flood-adapted agriculture; and strengthening of the health care
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