The last type of flooding stress, which is the focus of this study, is stagnant flooding (SF), where water of 25 to 50 cm depth stagnates in the field for several weeks to few months (Mackill et al. 2010; Singh et al. 2011). In this stress environment, varieties with facultative elongation are needed; however, deepwater rice performs poorly under stagnant floodingconditions mainly due to lodging and the consequent reductions in yield and grain quality (Kato et al. 2014; Vergara et al. 2014). At the same time, most irrigated rice varieties also perform poorly under these conditions, as water depth greater than 25 cm greatly inhibits the growth of rice. The detrimental effect of SF can be seen as reduced number of tillers, poor fertil- ity, smaller panicles and excessive lodging; together lead- ing to poor grain yield and quality (Kato et al. 2014; Singh et al. 2014). The situation worsens when floods result in complete submergence followed by stagnant flooding until harvest time (Singh et al. 2011). Therefore, it is essential to develop varieties having tolerance of complete submer- gence during vegetative stage and stagnant flooding in the same genetic background. Farmers mostly use traditional low-yielding landraces in areas that are prone to both stresses within the same season. These landraces have par- tial tolerance of complete submergence and can resist stagnant flooding stress by stem and leaf elongation, but they have low yield of around 0.5–1.5 t ha −1 and low qual-
Accounting for risk and uncertainty in operating reservoir systems under floodingconditions is a challenging task and requires a well-structured and effective risk informed decision-making framework (National Reserach Council 2015). Such a framework should ensure that operating decisions are made with awareness and assessment of the risks associated with and are aligned with risk policies of the organization and with the values of the stakeholders involved. Such a framework must also support the notion that organizations entrusted with operating reservoir systems should empower and equip their staff with a set of policies and the required tools to help them to formally prepare operating plans that account for uncertainty and risk in making these risky decisions.
The data collected in the study was obtained from the observation variables as follows. After 28 days of growing tomato plants, the plants are then given a day of floodingconditions. The provision of flooding and observation is continued during the growth of the vegetative phase of the plant until the growth of the generative phase or the flowering phase of tomato plants, continued from the flowering phase to the fertilization phase and then continued until the final harvest phase of tomato plants. Observations on tomato roots were carried out every 14 days and then removed in each phase after being given flooding with root observation criteria: root length, number of roots (vertical roots and horizontal roots on the grid board), root length binding to soil diameter, number of adventitious roots, weight wet root, root dry weight.
In our experiment this ratio was much higher, because phosphorus released from high-moor peat was 8.5 and 140 times higher in surface layer than in the 20-40 and 40-60 cm layers, respectively. In low-moor peat these differences were also high (113 and 126, respectively). The re-wetting of peatlands can have deteriorating side effects on the water quality of adjacent surface water bodies. Our experiment showed that phosphorus release from peat soils under floodingconditions is the highest in surface layer. Increase of the water level to the surface layer of the peat soil is thus especially dangerous. That is a very important aspect of peat protection strategy.
Regarding the regression analysis of rice quality, two conditions of flooding and drought stress were identified for the studied traits (Table 4). Under floodingconditions, an allele associated with rice protein content was identified which had a positive and significant relationship with gelatinization of rice. For rice gelatinization temperature, 4 alleles associated with QTLs of this trait were located, of which RM327-C, RM467-C and RM216-A alleles had a positive and significant relationship and the RM467-E allele had a negative and significant correlation to gelatinization temperature. Under drought stress conditions, for the grain protein, two alleles associated with this trait were detected; RM216-C allele had a positive and significant correlation with the protein content of rice grain, while the RM5461-D allele had a negative and significant relationship with the trait. Three alleles were identified for the rice gelatinization temperature. The negative and positive relationship between allele RM5461-D, the RM5461-C and RM216-C was found with this trait respectively. Verma et al  studied the relationship analysis of rice cooking quality characteristics using SSR markers. The polymorphic information content was 316 (RM21945) to 0.73 (RM252) with an average of 0.505. In this study, two related markers for amylose content (RM190 and RM11), two related markers for gel consistency (RM21945 and RM169), and four gel consistency markers (RM169, RM11, RM12 and RM21) were identified as informative markers for these traits.
Abstract. Although various designs have been introduced to improve the performance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack system, fault conditions, such as drying or flooding, may still occur due to the complexity of the process. The development of a system which can detect these fault conditions is a key to operate PEMFC stack system effectively. In this study, a monitoring system for a 200W commercial PEMFC stack system has been developed by constructing models for determining the flooding and drying conditions inside the cell. Since the membrane resistance and pressure drop across the stack are important parameters for determining either drying or floodingconditions taking place inside the fuel cell, the online model-based monitoring system is developed by adopting existing algorithms. A number of instruments are installed to measure relevant data. The data acquisition system and mathematical models have been programmed under LabVIEW TM environment. To indicate the abnormal conditions inside the fuel cell stack,
In terms of privacy, we have already shown that none of the previous methods can provide location privacy under the assumption of a global eavesdropper. Both methods provide sink-location privacy against a global eavesdropper. The sink simulation and backbone flooding methods can provide location privacy for the sinks. The backbone flooding method is clearly more suitable for the cases where a high level of location privacy is needed. In the backbone flooding, we need to always keep the backbone connected and rebuilds the backbone from time to time to balance the communication costs between nodes.
The pressure of the lower part of Es1 reservoirs in Pucheng oilfield (20.02 MPa) was higher than the MMP of 18.42 MPa, which caused miscible flooding. The long term and high frequency of water flooding in water flooding abandoned res- ervoirs have generated the high permeability zone. However, water alternating CO 2 flooding
Free water in the pores of oil reservoirs is an important sign of oil flooding.Water as a special component is undoubtedly a very important research object in the research of fluorescence image technology for judging flooding.Water does not have luminescence properties, but because aromatic compounds and their derivatives have weak hydrophilicity, water containing traces of aromatic compounds should show a special fluorescent color, thus confirming the presence and distribution of water in the washed oil layer.The water in the pores appears blue-green and green fluorescence.From this, it is possible to clearly observe the various optical properties of the pores and the distributional boundaries with other components.During the displacement test of the lithography model to study the mechanism of formation of microscopic water flooding and remaining oil, we can observe the special product formed by water flooding in larger pores—dynamic oil droplets. There are also a large number of studies on the formation of oil beads and the research of trapping mechanism at home and abroad,In the study of fluorescence images of flooded oil reservoirs, we often observe that these “fine”oil droplets in the water channels usually exhibit light characteristics of light oil components,the fluorescence is mostly bright white, yellow or green yellow.This phenomenon provides evidence for our judgment of the water-containing pores.In the fluorescent image of a strongly flooded reservoir, the pores are mostly occupied by water,the tiny oil droplets “suspended” in the pore free water. under the reflected light, these small oil droplets also showed the misty light property of the oily asphalt, while they were black in the single polarized light.
In the mixing with surfactant, salinity effect was demonstrated in term of salinity gradient: (1) ahead of the active region, the system is over-optimum (Type II+), surfactant is retarded by partitioning into the oil phase, (2) the system passes through the active region of ultra-low IFT (Type III) where residual oil displacement takes place, (3) behind the active region, the system is under-optimum (Type II-) with lower-phase microemulsion and the surfactant propagates with the water phase velocity (Glover et al., 1979; Pope et al., 1979; Hirasaki et al., 1983). Thus the salinity gradient tends to focus the surfactant near the displacement front where salinity is optimal and the phase behavior is Winsor Type III. Since, polymer dominates in water phase, the salinity gradient helps to maintain polymer flowing in the same phase with the surfactant for the Type II- conditions behind the active region. The polymer is in the excess-brine phase in the Winsor II & III phase environments (Gupta, 1981). Over-optimum salinity environment, Type II+, can have viscous, high internal-phase, water-in-oil emulsions that may be bypassed by the subsequent lower salinity fluids. In practice, the surfactant slug is injected in near-optimal to under-optimum salinity environment that is middle to low salinity (Hirasaki et al., 1983). Moreover, Shunhua et al. (2010) summarized that if the injected salinity is somewhere in the ASP system of the alkaline injection, then the profile of injection must pass through the optimal condition where the IFT is a minimum. If the injected salinity is below the optimal point, then the profile of low IFT is narrow and the IFT may increase before all of the mobilized oil is displaced. In the opposite site, if the injected salinity is near or above the optimal point, the surfactant and soap partition preferentially into the oil phase and are retarded, also resulting less effect of IFT reduction.
Scottish Water is currently engaged in a capital expenditure programme to deliver a number of improvements to the wastewater infrastructure, including addressing areas of hydraulic incapacity of the drainage network. One aspect of this programme is the removal of properties from the ‘Properties at Risk of Flooding Register’. This register is owned and managed by Scottish Water and has been prepared from available information on flooding locations, due to hydraulic incapacity of the sewerage network, from the former North, East and West of Scotland Water Authorities. This register is continually being updated as more information on properties susceptible to flooding is received and collated.
Education programs that rely on mass media, printed materials, information mailings and public meetings are often employed in cities that have been affected by wide-spread basement flooding events. Municipal government materials are often focussed on sewer backup issues, rather than infiltration and overland flood risk reduction, though some municipalities (e.g., Richmond, B.C. and Calgary, Alberta) discuss measures to reduce the risk of severe overland flooding (e.g., riverine, coastal flooding) (City of Calgary, 2010; City of Richmond, 2010). Public meetings are a common method of basement flood communication and are often held by municipal governments and consulting firms involved in infrastructure work (Sandink, 2007). For example, The City of Edmonton, Alberta conducted public meetings focussed on backwater valves and sump pumps, which drew attendance from hundreds of residents (Sandink, 2007). Cities across Canada have developed basement flooding websites and public education materials, which focus on several aspects of urban flooding. For example, the cities of Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montréal, Moncton and St. John have developed websites and public information materials for basement flooding and flood reduction (City of Calgary, 2010; City of Edmonton, 2011; City of Moncton, n.d.; City of Montréal, n.d.; City of Vancouver, 2009; City of Regina, 2010; City of Saskatoon, 2011; City of Saint John, 2010; City of Toronto, n.d.; City of Winnipeg, 2011a). Some cities, including Calgary, Regina and Edmonton, have developed comprehensive flood guides. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation has also developed and posted general basement flood reduction information on their website (CMHC, 2010).
This study shows the steps taken to provide a practical implementation of the flooding time synchronization protocol. The original FTSP paper by Maroti et al.  is used as a basis for this implementation. The available code is studied and it was discovered that there were many discrepancies between the current implementation  and the characteristics of the FTSP that were detailed in the original paper. Chapter 2 provides some background on the need of syn- chronization protocols and the currently used protocols in WSN’s. Section 2.2.2 delivers an overview of the most widely used wireless synchronization protocols including the flooding time synchronization protocol. Finally, an argument regarding the integrity of the current im- plementation  is presented and backed by a number of recent studies. Chapter 3 explains the current implementation  and the areas where it is lacking. Chapter 3 also includes a fully functional FTSP solution equipped with a detailed explanation of the modifications done. Chapter 4 compares the results of this implementation to what was reported by Maroti et al.  and Chapter 5 concludes the study.
The goal of this work was to investigate the reactions of plant adaptation and oxidative damage of the amaran- thine containing, heat-tolerant Amaranthus cruentus L. cv. “Krepysh” to hypothermia, soil hypoxia and the combined activities of these stress factors. According to our previous studies (Gins et al., 1997; Gambarova and Gins, 2008), this cultivar tolerates drought more readily than soil flooding; and the amaranthine pigment has an antioxidant activity directed to the suppression of superoxide-anion radicals.
111. Whilst the specific outcomes of the emerging second generation SMP were not available to inform this investigation, the risk of coastal flooding affecting communities situated along the North Sea coastline 16 within the East Riding of Yorkshire is generally low, with very few properties affected. Notwithstanding this however, the East Riding coastline is heavily susceptible to coastal erosion, and the future sustainability of the area requires the careful balancing of development against the protection of environmentally sensitive areas and natural coastal processes. The current adopted policy for coastal management within the East Riding is the protection of the major coastal communities including Hornsea, Withersea and Bridlington, and key infrastructure, such as Easington gas terminal. The remainder of the coastline is being largely left undefended, allowing naturally occurring coastal processes to take their course.
Unusual storms along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast may cause flooding, erosion and therefore destruction of plant communities of psammophytes which dominate sand dunes. In such cases Galilea mucronata (L.) Parl. occupies territories from dune pioneers and becomes a major dune stabilizer. This study aims to establish the viability of this species and possible negative consequences during simulated flooding experiments and thereby to investigate its capacity as dune stabilizer. Conducted experiments established that G. mucronata was very tolerant to immersion impact and salt stress. Whole plants stay viable longer than the flood with a maximum duration along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, and rhizomes were able to regenerate after 30 days in seawater. Statistical analysis of experimental data demonstrates that immersion in sea water increases rhizomes viability, biomass and allocation to root biomass, whereas other factors, such as duration of immersion and temperatures of sea water have no significant effect. G. mucronata was less tolerant to water immersion than other psammophytes, but demonstrated a high potential to be a key species for dune stabilization and could contribute to the protection of coastal sands during storms.
6) Ratelimiter: Our Ratelimiter module developed in C++, incorporates the Linux Traffic Control (TC) module. Informa- tion on the attack flows identified by the Flooding Detector and Flow Identifier is subscribed and parsed by our Ratelimiter. The TC rules are then formulated and executed to carry out ratelimiting. The Ratelimiter is deployed in the protected target network, where aggregated flooding traffic is detected. As flooding attack packets are usually seemingly legitimate packets, it is not feasible to ratelimit such flows at the source where traffic is minimal (traffic not converged yet). All the modules in TOPAS run in parallel and are able to detect and respond to different attacks simultaneously.
2) GEAR (Geographic and Energy-Aware Routing) - GEAR is an energy-efficient routing protocol proposed for routing queries to the target regions in the sensor field. The aim behind this routing is to reduce the number of Interest in Directed Diffusion and add geographic information into interest packet by only considering a certain region instead of sending interest to the whole network by means of flooding. GEAR uses energy aware and geographically informed neighbor selection heuristics to route a packet towards the target region . In this way, GEAR helps in balancing energy conservation and increase the network lifetime.
Abstract: In very early days of the oil industry, the general practice in land-based shallow reservoirs was to produce oil by primary depletion. In this method, the compression al energy of the reservoir was used to force oil to the producer wells, with a consequent drop in the reservoir pressure. However, it was recognized that reservoirs would ultimately drop below bubble point pressure, such that dissolved gas would be released from the oil. As a result of the appearance of this extra phase, production impairment would occur. In order to maintain reservoir pressure and also to sweep out oil in a more efficient displacement process, water flooding became the standard practice in many reservoir formations and still finds a wide application. When water is injected under pressure, it would seek the path of least resistance to point of lowest pressure, which is generally producing well. If the mobility ratio is one or less, the displacement of oil by water is found to be efficient. In effect, the displacement occurs in a piston like fashion. On the other hand if mobility ratio is greater than one, the more mobile water fingers through the oil leaving it in place in the reservoir.
One of the most important long-term growth problems affecting a tree is siltation. Soil fill deposited over the root system could range from zero to six feet (or more) of various textured soil. Soft fill will require a quick root response to the new soil conditions. The trees under these conditions will be generating a new root system in new locations. Some species are not effective in reacting to these kinds of changes and will decline and die. Another problem after flooding is soil erosion. Some trees will be left without soil covering roots and may not have enough soil around and under its roots to keep it structurally stable. Additions of small amounts of soil fill can help if the roots have not already been allowed to dry out. Toppling of these trees with a wind storm is a distinct possibility.