Floodplain forest

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 The effect of floodplain forest fragmentation on the bird community

 The effect of floodplain forest fragmentation on the bird community

River valley in the northwest of Italy was dem- onstrated in the study of Lailo (2002). Based on the investigation of nest site selection in spotted woodpeckers Dendrocopos medius and D. major in  lowland oak forests in Switzerland, Pasinelli (2007) presented some recommendations for the protection of old dying and dead trees within for- est management of central European oak forests. Fuller (1990) conducted a long-time search of compromise forms of management of lowland for- ests in Britain while using a coppice management system with regard to maintaining the diversity of bird communities. Bureš (1988) demonstrated the effect of tending forest operations on the floodplain forest bird community in Litovelské Pomoraví. The density of nesting birds was significantly lower in a mature floodplain forest with reduced coverage of shrub and subdominant tree layers if compared to a richly structured multi-storeyed stand with dense coverage of the shrub layer. A positive effect of reserved trees on the bird community diversity was demonstrated by Lešo (2003) in young oak stands in central Slovakia. The bird community structure in Slovak lowland forests was studied e.g. by Turček (1961), Kropil (1993) and Korňan (1996). Ornithocoenoses of the Hron River flood- plain were studied by Krištín and Sárossy (2001) and those of the Danube floodplain e.g. by Ferianc (1955), Randík (1987), Kropil (1992b), Bohuš (1993) and Kalivodová and Darolová (1998). Slovak ornithologists have shown a considerable interest in the ecological function of rivers as bird mi- gration corridors (e.g. Palášthy, Voskár 1966). Da- rolová (1993) studied the winter floodplain forest bird community of the Danube and the Slovak bank of the Morava River.
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Remote Infiltration Areas as a Main Source of Ground Water for Floodplain Forest Without Floods

Remote Infiltration Areas as a Main Source of Ground Water for Floodplain Forest Without Floods

An essential change in the character of the study site (in a broader sense, the river Dyje floodplain) did not occur until the  1970s. The  current situation of the site results from modifications for the construction of the Nove Mlyny water reservoir (WR), which took place in the  years 1977 – 1979. When the  Nove Mlyny WR had been completed, the  ground surface was elevated by damming and, as a  consequence, the  need arose to raise the  channels of the  rivers Jihlava and Svratka. These interventions resulted in significant changes in the  hydrological regime in the  floodplain of the  river Dyje (Mráz, 1979). 10 years after the  finishing of new channel for the  river Dyje in 1972 was in floodplain forest near Lednice na Morave measured 90 cm decrease of ground water level during the spring maxima (Prax, 1991). Holubová and Lisicky (2001), reported decrease of 0.9 – 1.2 m of groundwater level in confluence area of the  rivers Dyje and Morava during the  years 1954 – 1994.
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Detectability as an important factor influencing the knowledge of bird diversity in a floodplain forest ecosystem

Detectability as an important factor influencing the knowledge of bird diversity in a floodplain forest ecosystem

Comparison of the presented results with stud- ies on bird communities of floodplain forests in a focal area in Central Moravia (nearby of the study site Litovelské Pomoraví) shows that the number of breeding bird species in flood- plain forests varies significantly among the stud- ies, which are affected by detectability in the framework of used methods (Machar 2012): Ginter (1964) listed 52 breeding species in Žebračka floodplain forest (from the period ap- proximately 1949–1964, no specific method of data collection was used, only breeding species in the forest outside municipalities and surround- ing meadows were included). Kavka (1967) re- ported 75 breeding species from the same locality and Chytil (1975) recorded regular breeding of 75 species (in the 1970s, no specific method of data collection was used) and breeding of 40 spe- cies in 1975 (territory-mapping method at 10 ha). Svoboda (1991) mentioned 68 breeding species (territory-mapping method in squares combined with nest searching). Koleček et al. (2010) record- ed altogether 47 species (including species with no obvious association with the habitat, point-count method, less than 100 m from the monitoring point) and 51 species (distance from the monitor- ing point not limited), respectively, in the breeding seasons of 2007–2008.
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The communities of harvestmen (Opilionida) of floodplain forest in the Ranšpurk National Nature Reserve and their fluctuations

The communities of harvestmen (Opilionida) of floodplain forest in the Ranšpurk National Nature Reserve and their fluctuations

During the years 1993–2001 the monitoring of the soil surface fauna was carried out in a floodplain fo- rest in the Ranšpurk National Nature Reserve (south Moravia). The harvestmen assemblages fluctuation is described in detail in this paper. The method of pitfall traps was used. A total of 3174 individuals of seven harvestmen species were collected. The species composition was very similar to other research results from the southern Moravian floodplain forest. Only the dominance values differ from the val- ues in the other localities. All of the registered species prefer moisture and shadow places. The high- est abundance was observed in Astrobunus laevipes (Canestrini, 1872), Nemastoma lugubre (Müller, 1776), Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch, 1936) and Rilaena triangularis (Herbst, 1799). The dynamics of harvestmen occurrence during the year had a different development than in other groups of inver- tebrates. Harvestmen mostly occurred in pitfall traps in autumn and winter months. The highest abun- dance of harvestmen in traps was observed in December and January. In July 1997, disastrous flood af- fected all groups of invertebrates. The flood had a minimal impact on the abundance of harvestmen in pitfall traps.
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Changes in the fragmentation and ecological stability of the Morava River floodplain forest in the course of the 20th century

Changes in the fragmentation and ecological stability of the Morava River floodplain forest in the course of the 20th century

Determining whether a particular landscape is fragmented or homogeneous always depends on the level at which the landscape is observed (Wiens 1994). In the case of the study area in Litovelské Po- moraví, when observed at the landscape macroscale (i.e. tens to hundreds of hectares), the entire PLA may be considered a continuous green floodplain area surrounded by deforested agricultural land of Haná. When the same area is observed at the level of hundreds and tens of hectares, it is possible to identify clearly the inner fragmentation (groups of forest stand, meadows, water stream corridors etc.). From the perspective of North American landscape ecology, fragmentation is chiefly understood as the process that leads to the division of large natural habitat to a number of smaller parts, which is ac- companied by an overall decrease in the total area (Reed et al. 1996). However, Newton (2007) points out that while studying fragmentation, it is neces- sary to distinguish two different processes: habitat loss and the inner fragmentation of the location, the total area of which remains the same. The habitat loss has a negative impact on the biodiversity (Walker 2006), whereas inner fragmentation may have both positive and negative influences on biodiversity. The presented fragmentation development of the Lito- velské Pomoraví floodplain forests represents the former case, i.e. inner fragmentation that leads to the changes in the inner heterogeneity of the floodplain forest, but does not result in an areal loss of biotope. Some studies imply that this type of forest fragmen- tation leads to an increase in its biodiversity, which nevertheless concerns the edges and the non-forest “open land” types, at the expense of the inner forest types (e.g. Machar 2008a).
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South-Moravian floodplain forest herb vegetation in the period 1978–1997

South-Moravian floodplain forest herb vegetation in the period 1978–1997

We can see (Fig. 1) how the primary plots, arranged through the moisture gradient in 1978, gradually changed. A trend to dry localities is perspicuous. Plots 1, 2 and particularly plot 3 are influenced by the conditions of a specific sand configuration called “hrúd”. All plots are on stagnosols. The groundwater level was measured just about 10 cm below the soil surface in 1978 (P RAX 1985). Plots 4–8 considerably narrowed their moisture amplitude and the original large differences in vegetation tended to disappear. Site light conditions changed too. Tree and shrub natural regeneration resulted in a strong overshad- owing of the herb layer. This floodplain forest is a com- mercial stand and even considerably superannuated (it is about 140–160 years old), so it is cut down on some plots. Only one plot (No. 8) of the transect was cut down for the time being, some others lie very closely to the new stand margins.
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Analysis of cambial activity and formation of wood in Quercus robur L  under conditions of a floodplain forest

Analysis of cambial activity and formation of wood in Quercus robur L under conditions of a floodplain forest

The cambial zone variability (width, number of cells) is depicted in Fig. 1. With respect to warm April (tem- peratures > 8°C) and considerable supplies of physiologi- cally available water, the activity of cambium was started already before the first sampling, i.e. 27 April. The start of cambial activity is related to the observation of the first differentiating cells. At the end of April, on average 6.66 radially enlarging cells were already observed. On 27 April 1998, mean number of cells in the cambial zone amounted to 4.36 (width 21.33 µm) gradually increasing both in terms of the number of cells and the cambial zone width. The number of cells reaches its maximum 5.57 at the end of August, maximum width 26.36 µm of the cam- bial zone was observed at the end of July. Then, a slight decrease follows down to values found in the spring period at the beginning of the cambial activity. At the end of October (27 October), 4.65 cells 21.49 µm in width occur in the cambial zone. The termination of cambial activity refers to a date when no wood increment was noticed. In our case, cambium finished its activity in the period from the end of September to October. With respect to monthly sampling, it is not possible to determine the time exactly (on 28 September, 0.4 maturing cells were found in CD and SD trees). The prolongation of cambial activity can be related to the rich supply of soil water under condi- tions of the floodplain forest. In the period of dormancy, mean number of cells in the cambial zone amounted to 4.2–4.6 (width 20.48 µm). The values given above are, however, subject to certain inaccuracies with respect to the often rupture of a preparation just in the region of a cambial zone.
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ABSTRACT : Energy exchange above the floodplain forest and spruce monoculture ecosystems was measured in Moravia in 1988

ABSTRACT : Energy exchange above the floodplain forest and spruce monoculture ecosystems was measured in Moravia in 1988

The following variables were measured: global solar radiation (using a SCHENK pyranometer, type 8101, Vienna, Austria, for incident and reflected radiation), net all-wave radiation balance (using a SCHENK thermocou- ple net radiometer, type 8111), albedo, air temperature and humidity (with electrically ventilated psychrometers THIES [Göttingen, Germany] with glass Pt 100 electrical resistance thermometers). All the sensors were located at the height of 40.5 meters above the ground surface (ap- proximately 9 m above floodplain forest and 12 m above spruce monoculture canopies) on a steel tower. Air tem- perature and humidity were also measured on the same tower at 31.5 m above the ground (9 m below the upper sensor level) in the floodplain forest and 28.5 m above the ground (12 m below the upper sensor level) in the spruce monoculture. Additional air temperature was measured at 2 m above the ground within the forest (non-aspirated ceramic Ptk 100 electrical resistance thermometer, ZPA Nová Paka, Czech Republic) in a conventional meteo-in- strument weather shelter. Soil temperature was measured at 5 and 15 cm depths (ceramic Ptk 100 electrical resist- ance thermometer). Soil heat flux was measured at the 10 cm depth (heat flux plate 100 × 75 mm DRUTĚVA Brno, Czech Republic, horizontally located in the ground). All data were recorded by a datalogger (EMS Brno, Czech Republic) at one-hour intervals during the whole growing season. 97 days over the vegetation season were usable in the floodplain ecosystem, in the case of spruce forest it was 14 days only from the beginning season. To keep to task comparability of measurements we choose a simulta- neous period of the first half of June in both the years.
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Verification of the food supply to game under conditions of the floodplain forest ecosystem

Verification of the food supply to game under conditions of the floodplain forest ecosystem

The bedrock is formed by alluvial deposits of the Morava and Dyje Rivers, loess overlaying occurs sporadically. From the aspect of orographic condi- tions, the Dolnomoravský úval ranks among the intra-Carpathians basins. It is a depression with flat topography on Neogene and Quaternary rocks. The bedrock is formed by Holocene alluvia; aeolian sands create the soil-forming rock sporadically. On Holocene alluvia in the floodplain, extremely rich to very rich soils are developed, freshly moist to moist, sporadically wet. Alluvial soils are the main soil type. On Quaternary aeolian sands, there are soils with lower nutrient reserves and very unfavourable moisture conditions. The altitude of the Morava and Dyje Rivers confluence is 151 m, the river flow is channelled but also numerous cut-off meanders have remained. The Kyjovka stream runs roughly through the centre of the Forest District. The whole bottom land is interwoven by a system of drainage and flood canals, which makes it possible to control water in the floodplain forest.
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Different technologies of floodplain forest regeneration from the aspect of soil changes

Different technologies of floodplain forest regeneration from the aspect of soil changes

Without giving a detailed outline of the historical development of methods of floodplain forest regen- eration, we can note that the clear-felling method of forest regeneration was a dominant method in the past. The application of this method has survived up to this day in spite of many attempts to use natural regeneration (Fig. 3). Mezera (1958) advocates this option when he mentions that “there is general awareness of the limited possibilities of using natural regeneration of trees in floodplain forests”. However, he points out that “by working intensively, it is pos- sible to use natural regeneration over small areas”, namely, gap felling or narrow clear felling. Farm forestry has largely been accepted for economic reasons although it has had both supporters and op- ponents since the beginning. At present, however, it is gradually being abandoned due to a lack of interest in this type of production by local people. Regen- eration with clear felling, which was prohibited by Fig. 2. Natural and clear-cutting regeneration of pedunculate
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Acid phosphomonoesterase activity in floodplain forest soils

Acid phosphomonoesterase activity in floodplain forest soils

In this paper, the acid PME activity assay for for- est soils rich in humic substances was studied. The humic substances, which are easily alkali-soluble, form humic-phosphohydrolase complexes keeping a considerable part of the enzyme activity of topsoil. Because the floodplain forest soils are generally very rich in these compounds, these soils have been chosen for the testing. In relation to other works done in this field, alkalisation of the incubated soil samples by the addition of hydroxylic inhibitors to stop the enzyme reaction and efficiently extract phenol adsorbed by the soil is recommended. However, the addition of hydroxides leads to a massive release of the liquid organic compounds. The use of alkaline solutions produces a dark-brown soil extract due to a considerable solubilisation of humus. Consequently, the concentrations in the reaction mixture of chlorides and hydroxides used will be changed. For the forest soils that are extremely high in humic substances, the brown colouring of the soil suspension makes the final spectrophotometric assay difficult. TABATABAI and BREMNER (1969), CERVELLI et al. (1973) and HO (1979) recommended the addition of calcium chlo-
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The dynamics of carabid beetles (Carabidae) of floodplain forest in Southern Moravia

The dynamics of carabid beetles (Carabidae) of floodplain forest in Southern Moravia

During the years 1993–2001 the monitoring of the soil surface invertebrates was carried out in the flood- plain forest in the Ranšpurk National Nature Reserve (Southern Moravia). The dynamics of carabid beetles is described in detail in this paper. A total of 8 529 individuals belonging to 67 carabid species was collected. The most abundant species were Pterostichus niger (Schaller, 1783), Nebria brevicollis (fabricius, 1792), Carabus ullrichi Germar, 1824, Carabus violaceus Linnaeus, 1758, Abax carinatus (Duftschmid, 1812), Patrobus atrorufus (Stroem, 1768), Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798), Cara- bus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758, Poecilus cupreus (Linnaeus, 1758), Bembidion mannerheimi C. R. Sa- hlberg, 1827 and Epaphius secalis (Paykull, 1790). During the years 1993–1996 the species composi- tion indicated especially the drainage of the locality. In July 1997, a disastrous flood affected all groups of invertebrates, including the carabids. The abundance of hygrophilous species increased extremely during the years after the flood. The summer flood showed that the submersion of the soil surface had higher impact on carabid taxocenoses than flooding by system of canals.
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Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

Dominant representation of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow mentioned by Bureš, Maton (1984/1985) – 5.6 percent and by Chytil (1984) – 6.4 percent in 1978 and 5.0 percent in 1979 is noteworthy. Svoboda (1991) considers the Eurasian Tree Sparrow to be one of the commonest species in the Žebračka National Nature Reserve. However, in this study, the dominance of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow reached only 0.13 percent at the Vrapač and 0.11 percent at the Litovelské Luhy. Toman (1984) mentions the dominance value of 1.2 percent for the species „P. montanus“ (Eurasian Tree Sparrow or Willow Tit, authors comment) in 1983. Neither Koleček et al. (2011) reported the species from the localities Žebračka and Království from the breeding seasons of 2007–2008. The above fi ndings indicate disappearance of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow from fl oodplain forests of central Moravia. The question remains whether the presence of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow in fl oodplain forests was indigenous or whether the species was rather associated with secondary fl oodplain forest habitats altered by man.
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Early stadiums of floodplain forest succession in a wide river beds upon an example of Bečva

Early stadiums of floodplain forest succession in a wide river beds upon an example of Bečva

ABSTRACT: In the years 1999–2001 early stadiums of succession development of a floodplain forest were monitored in the wide bed of the Bečva River formed during the floods in 1997. Changing site conditions were investigated and the vegetation of pebble beds was repeatedly mapped in detail. In dependence on the site conditions main types of biotopes were described. The vegetation data were evaluated in accordance with the life form and ecological claims of the identified species. The results indicated an incre- asing differentiation of the originally relatively homogeneous environment owing to fluvial processes and progress of vegetation. Generally hemicryptophytes and hemiheliophytes were thriving above all, the dominance of Phalaris arundinacea was still growing. As for the woody species, especially willows asserted themselves from the beginning, solitarily and weaker in vitality representatives of other genera were present at drier sites. The identified specimen of Myricaria germanica was probably planted artificially. As concerns neophytes, only Reynoutria japonica was spreading significantly but in a very uneven way. Generally, this development of similar communities only little documented in this region corresponds to STG Saliceta fragilis inf.
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Soil preparation by ploughing in the floodplain forest and its influence on vegetation and primary soil characteristics

Soil preparation by ploughing in the floodplain forest and its influence on vegetation and primary soil characteristics

The fundamental presumption that 1L9 forest types (Fraxino pannonicae-Ulmetum) will exhibit the identical soil subtype was not demonstrated. Our forest stands (BM2, OV1, PV1) have different soil subtypes. Site with no soil preparation (BM2) – gley- ic eubasic Fluvisol, soil horizons: 0–1.5 cm – horizon L, 1.5–3 cm horizon F, 3–8 cm horizon Ah, 8–25 cm horizon Ahm, 25–52 cm horizon Mg 1 , 52–85 cm horizon Mg 2 . Site with whole-area ploughing (OV1) – gleyic eubasic Fluvisol, soil horizons: 0–3 cm hori- zon L+F, 3–17 cm horizon Ahp, 17 to 38 cm horizon Ap, 38–68 cm horizon Mg 1 , 68–98 cm horizon Mg 2 , 98–128 cm horizon Mg 3 . Site with alternate field and forest crops (PV1) – gleyic eubasic Fluvisol, soil horizons: 0–2 cm horizon L+F, 2–11 cm horizon Ahp, 11–29 cm horizon Apg, 29–43 cm horizon Mg 1 , 43–72 cm horizon Mg 2 , 72–110 cm horizon Mg 3 . Primary differences consist in the fact that the local site characteristics determine the develop- ment of gleyic soil subtypes up to the gleyic subtype of Fluvisol (induced by the vicinity of a secondary watercourse). Another important variance is in the stand with no site preparation (BM2), which exhibits deep salinization (Cl – and SO
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Assessment of Management Strategy for Hardwood Floodplain Forest Ecosystem in Protected Area

Assessment of Management Strategy for Hardwood Floodplain Forest Ecosystem in Protected Area

The results of the growth simulations of forest ecosystem using SILVA growth simulator carried out for two sampling plots in Vrapac study site showed almost consistently that the trend of gradual evolution of the existing richly diversifi ed stands of fl oodplain forest gradually leads probably to its homogenization in the future. Within the mode of non-intervention management, the mightiest individuals of oak (Quercus robur) gradually disappear from the highest layer of the forest ecosystem, and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) begins to dominate in the main vegetation level while lime (Tilia cordata) starts to grow into it. This will result in a closed stand that will limit the potential natural regeneration of oak. The character of the vegetation will gradually approach the current production forests established through artifi cial regeneration; the only diff erence will be the presence of the lime stand component which is usually reduced in the cultivation of commercial forests. Increased proportion of maple (Acer platanoides) in the vegetation composition or the occurrence of elm (Ulmus carpinifolia) in an assessable representation does not seem to be very likely. This described prediction for the stand condition relates to the time horizon of 50–100 years of non- intervention management. Within the long-term perspective, the non-intervention management of fl oodplain forest probably leads to an increase in the proportion of dead wood in the ecosystem which is fi nally refl ected in the biodiversity of organisms linked to various forms of rotting wood and decaying old trees. Nevertheless, the results of growth simulations in the Vrapac study site show that the non-intervention management regime in the habitat of hardwood fl oodplain forest leads to homogenization of species composition of the ecosystem woody component. It is signifi cant that the non-intervention regime gradually changes the character of hardwood fl oodplain forest ecosystem to the form known from the commercial forests of today – the main stand level contains increasingly less common oak, a tree species to which a signifi cant part of biodiversity of this type of forest ecosystem.
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Floodplain forests of Litovelské Pomoraví and their management

Floodplain forests of Litovelské Pomoraví and their management

The valley terrace of the Morava River is covered by Holocene alluvial soil, Fluvisols. The accumulation of vegetable soil is regularly interrupted by floods and by the subsequent sedimentation of flood soils of various characters, depending on their origin. There is a constant pedogenetic process of the sedimenta- tion of fluvial soil in the regularly flooded parts of the floodplain forest in Litovelské Pomoraví. The soil is superior and rich in nutrients, causing the steady production of biomass in the floodplain forest (Kulhavý, Sáňka 1998). The predominant soil type of the alluvium is cambial Fluvisol; at the places with secondary loess it is a pseuodogley brown earth. A detailed investigation of the soils in the area was car- ried out by Hruška (1952), who determined 26 terri- torial soil types in a seemingly uniform area, proving significant variance of the alluvial plain in a relatively small area. A more recent pedological description of the area was carried out by Šarapatka (1991).
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Crowns of “forgotten” standards in hardwood floodplain forests

Crowns of “forgotten” standards in hardwood floodplain forests

Floodplain forests have traditionally been managed using the coppice-with-standards silvicultural system for cen- turies. After abandoning this silvicultural system approximately in the 1950s the crown of standards (mature-aged trees) developed gradually under the growing influence of their tree competitors. This study examines the crowns of remnant oak and ash standards in a hardwood floodplain forest along the Morava River in the Czech Republic. 100 oak (Quercus robur Linnaeus) standards and 100 ash (Fraxinus excelsior Linnaeus) standards were randomly selected and the basic mensuration data as well as some ecological data, such as number of large dead branches, cavities, and height of the lowest large dead and green branches, were measured. The four nearest neighbour competitors were identified for each standard, and their height, distance and azimuth were measured. The DBH of the analysed oak standards ranged between 71 and 148 cm, and the projected oak crown area ranged between 125 and 533 m 2 . The ash DBH
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Ecological functions of vegetation as potentials of ecosystem services (floodplain alder forest in the Tríbeč microregion)

Ecological functions of vegetation as potentials of ecosystem services (floodplain alder forest in the Tríbeč microregion)

Study area. The field research was conducted in the tríbeč Mts., tríbečsko microregion, Zlaté Moravce district, western slovakia. The sample plot was situated in the floodplain forest in the Hl- boká valley, close to a small water reservoir Husár- ka, along the Hlboká brook, in the border of the skýcov cadastre. soil types of the valley belong to alluvial soils pseudogley with deep-lying G-hori- zon, less often semigley shallow or medium-deep alluvial soils to not gleyed soils (Weis 1967).

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How To Protect A Floodplain From Flooding

How To Protect A Floodplain From Flooding

The alternatives that did not meet all three criteria, and therefore were screened from further consideration included: Do Nothing, Floodplain Policy revision, Floodwalls/Dykes, Upstream Storage, Flood Proofing of Structures, and Watershed Conservation Measures. Notwithstanding that Watershed Conservation Measures alone cannot address the flooding associated with the Regulatory Storm, such measures form a significant component of other TRCA/City initiatives aimed at improving the overall health of the local steams, rivers and the waterfront. As such, they were assumed to be in place in conjunction with the other alternatives.
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