Topographically, Pakistan comprises three major areas; Northern Highland Area, Indus Basin and Baluchistan Plateau. Its elevation varies from Mean sea Level (0 meter) at south to 8619 meters in the North at K-2 Peak. Northern Highland Area, generally sloping southwards includes Himalayan, Karakorum and Hindu-Kush ranges covering approximately an area of 155,831 square kilometers. Indus Basin stretches from foothills of Northern Highland Area to Arabian Sea in south covering approximately an area of 346,259 square kilometers. Baluchistan Plateau in the West and South comprises mountain ranges of Koh-i-Suleman, Kirther, blow-outs of coralline and lacustrine deposits along coastal belt and covers approximately an area of 347,190 square kilometers. Climate of the country varies from tropical to temperate with rain fall variation of as little as 10 inches a year in South to 150 inches a year in the North. Any rainfall surges in the North frequently unleash floods along the Indus Basin. Continuous deforestation and fires in Northern Highland Area, growing housing projects alongside water channels in the backdrop of global warming and climate change has enhanced frequency and severity of floods in Pakistan.
The impact of the floods will continue to be felt for years, even decades, to come. Initial estimates from the Government of Pakistan and the International Financial Institutions suggest that tens of billions of dollars in damage has been dealt to the economy and infrastructure. The cost in human terms is incal- culable. Continued efforts need to be made immedi- ately to ensure there is sufficient support for re- sponding to the immediate crisis as well as the early recovery components that need to be addressed simultaneously. Recovery – and fulfilling every child’s right – will take a long time. We need to only look back at the Tsunami and Haiti to recognise that large-scale emergencies involve saving lives in the immediate response but also rebuilding the fabric of societies - some of which was already frayed - in a resilient manner.
Bearing guns has become intertwined with cultural identity among many Pashtun and Baloch tribes, in depictions in popular culture as well as in news media articles (even as academic scholarship on cultural aspects of gun ownership – in the form of journal articles and also any grey literature, is unavailable, to the best of my knowledge at the time of writing this paper). According to Abbasi (2013), “In the tribal belt of the Pak- Afghan border guns are part of the daily attire and no ‘self-respecting’ Pashtun would be seen without a visible weapon. For those who are less fortunate and cannot own a weapon, there are shops that offer weapons for hire on an hourly basis, charging a nominal fee.” The celebrated British television host, Michael Palin (2004), records in his travelogue spanning parts of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border the following comment made by his guide and informant on the prevailing ‘gun culture’ in Pakistan’s North- West, “For them [the people who live on the North-West (Afghanistan-Pakistan) Frontier]… a gun is a social necessity. Pathans [Pashtuns] carry guns the way Londoners carry umbrellas.” He adds that the “existence of and respect for the gun has reduced crime and kept order.” While several accounts characterise the Pashtun (and indeed Baloch) groups as traditionally warring tribes (dating back to the Raj and earlier), their association with guns is a relatively more recent phenomenon. According to Abbasi (2013), the arrival of refugees from Pakistan as a result of the Afghan-Russian war in the 1980s was the watershed in terms of introducing a weapon culture in Pakistan. The unfettered movement of populations along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border also made any strict controls on weapons trade meaningless and as conflict spilled into Pakistan, the demand for and production of guns increased.
The Recovery Needs Assessment describes the strategic basis for a response to the 2014 floods in Pakistan. The document identifies and estimates the cost steps to bridge the gap between emergency relief and rehabilitation by concentrating on interim, transitional and immediate actions to assist the affected population restore their lives and livelihoods. The projected timeframe for these activities is up to 24 months. This document briefly describes the event itself, as well as its impacts on priority sectors in the worst affected areas. It establishes the normative parameters under which recovery activities would be planned and implemented. It outlines existing and forthcoming institutional coordination and strategic and practical oversight mechanisms, and action plans for the priority sectors. The framework projects the costs of two approaches, “replacement” and “build-back- better”. The slightly more focused action plans for the priority areas of housing, agriculture, non-farm livelihoods and community physical infrastructure are included as annexes, as well as an annex on Disaster Risk Reduction. Costs reported in the document were established through a robust process undertaken by the government. The figures reflect needs and projected expenditures as of the third week of October 2014. These will be reviewed, refined and verified for the available data, and accounting for changes in physical and financial gaps resulting from the recovery efforts of the affected population.
The Queensland floods are expected to take a heavy toll on the mining sector, with sector revenue forecast to be $2.5 billion weaker as a result. The floods have severely affected the coal mining industry, with most major miners in the affected area declaring full or partial force majeure on coal contracts, as the weather forced them to halt production and disrupted vital rail and port infrastructure. This has forced ports to run down coal stockpiles, creating an export shortfall of over 1 million tonnes per week. More than 15 million tonnes of coal that would otherwise have shipped have been lost since the floods began in December. IBISWorld expects lost coal shipments to total $2 billion by the end of 2010-11. With Queensland supplying about 60% of the world’s coking coal exports, the floods are expected to propel coking coal spot prices to US$350 to US$400 per tonne, levels not seen since before the financial crisis.
The devastating flash floods and landslides in Central and Eastern region in July 1993 affected 1.5 million people, killed approximately 1,500, led to 16 bridge collapses, damaged hydropower facilities and blocked Kathmandu from the rest of the country by landslides (DHA 1993). Dhading, Makawanpur, Sindhuli, Ramechhap, Okhaldungha, and Kathmandu Valley were among the most affected districts. This series of events was triggered by record-setting rainfall in central Nepal.
The Collection of data and information for a subject like Disaster Management, which is uncertain and unpredictable to a great extent. Even the research design has to be a mix of description and experimental. The primary data has been collected from site related and interviewing people. Along with this, the secondary data help a lot like various reports pre and post-disaster-related, new paper articles, concerned authority’s information, research papers, journals etc. the various types of analyzing tools like software. For the analytical study of Kerala floods, both types of data required. Majorly data has been analyzed with the help of published reports, newspaper articles, Research papers, journals etc. The primary data has been collected from site related and interviews. The results have been found that natural spaces are required to protect so that the future generation would be able to feel. Along with this, planning and policy need to revive and work in favour to preserve the biodiversity. At the state level, the concerned authority needs to take action for the same.
Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By docu- menting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hash- tags ‘#Sandy’ or ‘#flooding’), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.
Physical environment and the nature of flood risks – France and The Netherlands
will differ in their physical environment and in the nature of flood risks. This obviously leads to dissimilarities in approaches. The Netherlands is known for its high vulnerability to flood risks: about 25% lies below sea level and more than 60% would be flooded without technical measures (dams, sea and riverdykes and embankments). A long history of large river and sea floods has created a national narrative of “the battle against water”. Reproduced in state documents, public communication and even in commercials, flood events are viewed as life threatening (although more people died in the last decades because of air pollution, traffic incidents, other accidents et cetera). However, flood policy is still regarded as a national safety issue and is therefore – at least theoretically – positioned as a separate interest, at the regional level in a way kept away from daily politics. This is reflected in Dutch water – and flood risk governance: it has a specific, functional institutional layer consisting of regional water boards and the national agency Rijkswaterstaat. The problem of adaptation to climate change is incorporated by these strong and prevailing water managers too.
Mumbai is a city located on the coast of Arabian Sea, is said to be the financial capital of india and also the capital city of Indian state of Maharashtra. Being a low lying and saucer area always gets flooded amost each and every year. The heaviest of them was seen on 26 th of July, 2016. Floods in Mumbai are said to be caused by heavy rains accompanied with high tides but, these are not only the reasons that contributes to the floods every year various other reasons accompanied by these are responsible for the heavy flooding in Mumbai.
The general nature of the estimation problem is illustrated in Figure 1 where the recorded flows, and the resultant flood probability model and its confidence limits are shown. The computed confidence limits are conditioned on the assumed underlying probability model and it needs to be recognised that these confidence limits only represent the uncertainties most easily characterised. Also shown in this figure are the floods derived from 10,000 years of rainfall data with an assumed stationary climate. These flood peaks were developed through simulation considering the many random natural and anthropogenic influences on flood generation. For development of Figure 1, the flood peaks are plotted against the AEP of the causative rainfall.
The Hungarian Red Cross is quite experienced in responding to floods. Disaster preparedness duty services were created in headquarters as well as central rescue teams. The national society has 5 regional warehouses in Szolnok, Miskolc, Szombathely, Kaposvar and Budapest. The Red Cross distributed mattresses, beds from these warehouses during evacuation phase, later on they proceeded with distribution of food parcels, blankets, bedlinens, hygiene items, and clothing. In order to be quick and more effective the Hungarian Red Cross purchased some of the goods on the spot, spending 1 million HUF (6,000 CHF).
Significant progress was made in early recovery activities in the WatSan Sector:
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions - A total of 154,600 households were covered by the WatSan Group during the initial months of the early recovery phase: 25,000 in Balochistan, 10,000 in KP, 49,200 in Sindh and 70,400 in Punjab. In the same period beneficiaries of water interventions totalled more than five million; hygiene promotion over eight million; and sanitation nearly three and a half million. In the following three months (Aug-Oct) in KP, 6,374 female hygiene kits were distributed. A total of 2,179 hand pumps were installed and 7,920 repaired; 12,685 flush/pour latrines were installed and 2,667 drinking water supply schemes rehabilitated. In Punjab, 89 water supply schemes were rehabilitated; 3,074 hand pumps installed; 675 water storage tanks with a capacity of over 17.3 million gallons disinfected and 12,364 latrines installed. 624 villages were declared open defecation free (ODF) and 561 operators of water supply schemes trained in chlorination techniques. Due to the fresh 2011 floods in Sindh, ER activities virtually stopped and the focus there shifted to relief activities. Global Hand-washing Day was marked in October 2011.
(http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl/). Box 3.4
Adopting a climate factor when reinforcing existing dikes (KLIWAS)
Up to 30 climate model runs (including those of the EU-FP6-Project ENSEMBLES), as well as different bias correction methods and hydrological models, were evaluated against the background of the interdisciplinary research programme KLIWAS ( http://www.kliwas.de ), which integrated ecological, economical, water quality and water quantity aspects of climate change for rivers and coastal waters which are used as waterways. The purpose was to account for different sources of uncertainty and provide a reliable basis for the assessment of various adaptation options. Historical data bases were extended for model validation and monitoring of climate change effects. A model chain was established, which couples climate models to hydrological/oceanographic, hydrodynamical / sedimentological, water quality, and ecosystem models. At each step, uncertainty was analysed in detail to assess the level of understanding of the aquatic systems and their sensitivity to low flow, floods, and other aspects of “historical” and future climate change. As a result, the design level of protection structures (e.g. against a flood of 1 % annual probability) is multiplied with a climate change factor between 1.15 and 1.25, or a generally higher freeboard is chosen (e.g. in Saxony).
The human response to disasters seems to be generating or at least permitting an increase in property losses, especially in countries where economic growth is rapid and modern technology is spreading fast. Some hazards are created by persistent inhabitance of dangerous areas or by alteration of land or water, while others are exacerbated by efforts to reduce the risk. In the glossary of the “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX)”, floods are expressed as “the overflowing of the normal confines of a stream or other body of water or the accumulation of water over areas that are not normally submerged. Floods include river (fluvial) floods, flash floods, urban floods, pluvial floods, sewer floods, coastal floods, and glacial lake outburst floods.” Floods are the most frequent disaster (40 percent of all cases) to occur in the Third World, especially if the storm surges associated with tropical cyclones are considered. About 15 percent of the population of the world is at risk from the high winds, intense rainfall and elevated water levels associated with cyclone landfall, and most are located in developing countries. Impacts are often profound: death tolls in excess of 200,000 have been recorded when cyclones have made landfall at the Asian river deltas; and during year 1985-6 coastal and river flooding affected 1.6 million people in six countries (US National Research Council, 1987). The damage to crops, infrastructure and housing, and the negative impacts on health and sanitation caused by floods and cyclones are particularly severe in the populous floodplains and coasts of many Third World states. For example, one in 20 people in India is vulnerable to flooding (Alexander, 1993: 138).
Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Hafiz Abad, Narowal, Sialkot and Nankana Sahib. In Punjab, basmati rice covers 75 percent of rice area and coarse rice covers 25 percent of the area. Swat grows cold water tolerant Japanica rice which is photosensitive. All other rice including basmati and coarse rice grown in Pakistan is of Indica origin and is day-neutral. All areas in Sindh and Baluchistan are covered under coarse grain bold sized non-aromatic rice popularly called IRRI. Chinese based hybrid rice with high productivity is finding an inlet into IRRI rice growing areas on account of high margins in output.