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Modelling pressure deficient water distribution networks in EPANET

Modelling pressure deficient water distribution networks in EPANET

Nodal outflows in a pressure deficient water distribution network depend on available nodal heads. Thus, node-head flow relationship exists at each node which are solved along with other appropriate equations for simulation. While using EPANET for such simulation, source code needs to be modified to obtain direct solution. The other way is to use EPANET iteratively wherein node head-flow relationships are satisfied externally. Herein, a simple non-iterative method is suggested in which artificial string of Check Valve, Flow Control Valve, and Emitter are added in series at each demand node to model pressure deficient water distribution network.

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Optimization of orifice position in particle-excitation valve for proportional flow control

Optimization of orifice position in particle-excitation valve for proportional flow control

Firstly, we explain the basic principle of the previously designed particle-excitation mechanism [29]. Figure  1 shows a cross section of a flow control valve and estab- lishes its basic working principle using particle excita- tion. This valve consists of an orifice plate, a piezoelectric transducer, and steel particles. The orifice plate is located at the transducer’s antinode. Figure  1a depicts the valve in non-driving state. Airflow is supplied from the airport, as shown by the large arrow in Fig.  1. Particles are car- ried on the orifices by the supplied airflow. Since the sup- plied airflow presses particles onto the orifices and they work like poppets, the valve is normally closed. Figure 1b shows the valve’s driving state. The small arrow shows the vibration direction. In this state, the control valve is excited by the transducer’s resonance frequency. There- fore, deformation is generated at the orifice plate, and the vibration force moves the particles away from the orifice plate. As a result, air flows through the opened orifices. To control the flow rate, the vibration is changed so that the number of opened orifices is altered. Thus, the air- flow can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the transducer. In this mechanism, the moving particles could close the orifices irregularly. However, when the resonance frequency is large, the closing time becomes so short and the effect is ignorable. This working principle does not need a mechanism to locate and fix the poppets

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Pneumatic Conveyer with Bottle Filling and Placing Machine

Pneumatic Conveyer with Bottle Filling and Placing Machine

The job to be transferred is placed on the conveyor roller bars and considering the process and transfer speed the speed flow control valve is adjusted to give desired surface speed. The Air connection is started by actuating the electric power supply to the electronic circuit. Air motor is started to run the worm gear reduction arrangement that drives the chain sprockets and thereby the roller chain to transfer the job from one station to another in continuous fashion. Here the auto filler arrangement is void or kept close. 5.2 Staggered Conveyance mode With Auto Filling The container to be filled is placed on the conveyor belt and considering the process and transfer speed the speed flow control valve is adjusted to give desired surface speed .The belt carry indexer buttons as per no of stops and position of the same. Conveyor is indexed to the first stop position. At the first stop the belt motion stops and the filler valve is opened for the time set in timer , after the desired fill time, the valve is closed and the inching switch is triggered. Now inching switch is operated to bypass the first station stop ie, the proximity sensor, the inching switch operated the relay to actuate the 5/2 way DC valve which open the air connection to operate the air motor and there by the conveyor system starts to move, now when the second indexer button comes in front of the proximity switch the

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Subdynamic asymptotic behavior of microfluidic valves

Subdynamic asymptotic behavior of microfluidic valves

This no-moving-part valve is shown in Fig. 1. It is a rather special passive flow control valve, possessing no control inlet. Its operation is based upon using the Reynolds number depen- dence of its output flow rate. At high Reynolds numbers this device can operate as an effective jet-pumping passive flow am- plifier, increasing the flow passing through it by entraining into the jet additional fluid from the two vents V. Although this valve is not very small (nozzle width ), it is operated in the typical microfluidic low Re region (around ) because of the high viscosity of the hot “syngas” working fluid (gas for fuel synthesis, containing a large proportion of high viscosity hydrogen) and small flow rates. At these conditions the collector channel, despite its gradual expansion in the downstream direc- tion, ceases to produce a diffuser effect and the dominant effect is the viscous resistance in the output flowpath. This causes fluid to spill over into the vents rather than entraining it. The depen- dence of the spillover flow on Re is due to the varying blockage of the vent flows by the varying size of the recirculation regions (Fig. 2—in fact the same vortices as observed e.g. in the low Re impinging jet flows [21]). As shown in Fig. 3, the size of the recirculation regions and their blocking action become less effective as Re decreases. This is reflected in Fig. 4 by the de- creasing relative output flow rate

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Pneumatic Conveyer with Bottle Filling and Placing Machine

Pneumatic Conveyer with Bottle Filling and Placing Machine

The job to be transferred is placed on the conveyor roller bars and considering the process and transfer speed the speed flow control valve is adjusted to give desired surface speed. The Air connection is started by actuating the electric power supply to the electronic circuit. Air motor is started to run the worm gear reduction arrangement that drives the chain sprockets and thereby the roller chain to transfer the job from one station to another in continuous fashion. Here the auto filler arrangement is void or kept close. 5.2 Staggered Conveyance mode With Auto Filling The container to be filled is placed on the conveyor belt and considering the process and transfer speed the speed flow control valve is adjusted to give desired surface speed .The belt carry indexer buttons as per no of stops and position of the same. Conveyor is indexed to the first stop position. At the first stop the belt motion stops and the filler valve is opened for the time set in timer , after the desired fill time, the valve is closed and the inching switch is triggered. Now inching switch is operated to bypass the first station stop ie, the proximity sensor, the inching switch operated the relay to actuate the 5/2 way DC valve which open the air connection to operate the air motor and there by the conveyor system starts to move, now when the second indexer button comes in front of the proximity switch the

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Analysis of Performance Effect Factors of Three- Stage Electro-Hydraulic Servo Valve

Analysis of Performance Effect Factors of Three- Stage Electro-Hydraulic Servo Valve

Three-stage electro-hydraulic servo valve is a complex and integrated mechanism comprising electricity, hydraulic and electronics components. Its application is in higher performance equipments, such as vibration test bench, multi-degree of freedom motion simulator, load simulator etc. Higher performance demands are placed on three-stage electro-hydraulic servo valve, therefore, it is necessary to study the performance of the valve. This paper studies the construction and principle of three-stage electro-hydraulic servo valve and builds its non-linear model using AMEsim modeling software. The simulation results based on parameters of existing valve are almost

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Water Level Monitoring and Control Using Fuzzy Logic System

Water Level Monitoring and Control Using Fuzzy Logic System

Fuzzy logic is a form of knowledge representation appropriate for ideas that cannot be defined exactly, but which depend upon their contexts. It is a means of computing with expressions rather than numbers. It enables computerized devices to reason more like humans, and imitates the capability to reason and use estimated data to find answers [3]. It also permits control engineers to competently build up control strategies in application areas noticeable by low order dynamics with weak nonlinearities. It offers a wholly special approach to solve control problem. This method focuses on what the system should do rather than trying to understand how it works. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) based on fuzzy logic provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on expert knowledge into an automatic control strategy. It is a means of controlling with sentences rather than equations. It can be applied for the control of liquid flow and level in any processes [4]. They are known for their ability to provide very good control of a system that is both nonlinear and time varying. Fuzzy logic models interpret the human actions and are also called intelligent systems.

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Owner’s Guide and Installation Manual

Owner’s Guide and Installation Manual

5. After setting the 14 and 15 item numbers for the desired temperature, press and hold the up [ ] and down [ ] buttons together for five seconds to confirm the new settings. The remote control- ler will emit a tone when the settings are confirmed. If this is not done, the unit will not put the setting changes into effect. After confirming the setting, remove the remote controller to initiate the default temperature setting.

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Water quality management system using IOT

Water quality management system using IOT

Effective and efficient management of water resources is becoming unprecedentedly more important nowadays due to the increasing demand from a growing population, increasing standards of liv ing and changing supply due to climate change. Due to the high usage of fertilizers in farming fields and other chemicals in industries contributed immensely to the overall reduction of water quality globally. Water is an essential need for human survival and therefore there must be mechanism that should be done to test the quality of water that made available for drinking in town and city articulated supplies. In earlier days, chlorination process was done to purify the quality of water. But that process is not effective due to the contamination of unwanted pollutants. This study aims to detect, purify and control the contamination in water. It will monitor the pollution level in water continuously and it will generate the database automatically. This help s us to view the information at any time from the control board. The pH, turbidity and temperature level can be viewed through real time android application, which works under IoT.

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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Temperature and Level Interactive Control in a Tank

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Temperature and Level Interactive Control in a Tank

and cold inputs that are used to control temperature and level respectively. To investigate the interaction more precisely, the flow of hot and cold streams have been set the same amount. Outlet valve can be set manually. To set outlet valve, level and temperature loops were switched to manual with output of 100% then the valve was set, so that the level become steady in the level of 100. In this condition control loops are controllable in the range of 0-100. Industrial Electrical instruments in the process are used as shown in table 1.

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Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

make the values more robust for run-to-run compar- isons. Of course, the extended history is only useful when the background is stable (which was achieved by improvements in hardware and control software devel- opment). Although a long stable history is found before the sample peak, this is not necessarily the case for the reference peaks. As a first improvement, the SPI rou- tines allow defining the size of the history for each peak number in a chromatogram individually. A second im- provement allows a more variable choice of the history position relative to the peak, i.e. it does not need to ex- tend up to the peak start. In some cases the background right before the peak shows increased fluctuations. For SPI evaluations, typically 8–40 data points (1 to 5 s) lie between peak and its background history, and they are kept constant for the entire measurement series. 2. The detected background level is then adjusted by a con-

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Gas Phase Train in Upstream Oil & Gas Fields: PART-I Model Development

Gas Phase Train in Upstream Oil & Gas Fields: PART-I Model Development

Referring to the GSU in figure 1, sour gas enters the bot- tom of the absorber column where the acid gas components are removed in a counter-current contact with the sulfinol flowing downwards from the top. The GSU system has two variables that have to be controlled: these are the throughput gas flow measured by FIC-1 and the acid concentration in the gas outlet measured by the process analyser QIC-1. The manipulated variables are the ab- sorber gas outlet flow through FCV-1 and the absorber sulfinol input flow through FCV-2. The specification of the acid concentration in the outlet gas is fixed by operational goals and must be kept no more than 0.5% of its setpoint at steady state. FIC-2 provides lean sulfinol flow measure- ments to the GSU control system, whereas the differential pressure sensor DPIC-1 across the sulfinol filter provides measurements of the sulfinol flow disturbances.

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Modeling and Performance Analysis of Manufacturing Systems Using Max-Plus Algebra

Modeling and Performance Analysis of Manufacturing Systems Using Max-Plus Algebra

Re-entrant flow lines are a special class of manufacturing flow lines where parts flowing through the system are processed on some machines more than once (Kumar 1993; Diaz-Rivera, Armbruster et al. 2000). This type of flow lines is used widely in the semiconductor wafer fabrication where the final product consists of several layers each of which requires similar production operations and duplication of resources would not be warranted. Thus, instead of wasting capital on several identical machines, the products flow through the manufacturing line, or parts of it, several times (Kumar and Kumar 2001). Re-entrant flow lines can also be found in the automotive industry, as in fuel injector production lines (Wang and Li 2010), in manufacturing systems with automatic storage retrieval systems (ASRSs) (Suk and Cassandras 1989), in textile industry, and in mirror manufacturing plants (Choi and Kim 2006). Examples of simple re-entrant systems are shown in figure 5.1.

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English Cursive Handwritten Character Recognition using OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

English Cursive Handwritten Character Recognition using OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

Blynk is a Platform connected with iOS and Android apps to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the likes over the Internet. It is a digital dashboard where it helps to build a graphic interface for the project by simply dragging and dropping widgets. When Arduino or Raspberry Pi is linked to the Internet over Wi-Fi, Ethernet or this new ESP8266 chip, Blynk will get online and ready for the Internet Of Things. This has high speed acquisition of data and high interpretation of data. This application is helpful for the water quality monitoring and measurement.

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Experimental research of flow servo-valve

Experimental research of flow servo-valve

For pressure measurement at 1-2 and 1-4 flow ways of the proportional valve, two digital pressure sensors of PXW series (Peltron) with one voltage-out slot were used. Calibration curve p=f(Up) (pressure p in output voltage function Up) of PXW pressure sensor is shown in Fig. 4.

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Real Time Implementation of Two State Level Control in Conical Tank using LabVIEW

Real Time Implementation of Two State Level Control in Conical Tank using LabVIEW

First the control valve for the conical tank setup is selected. Here from the control valve kit, the linear percentage valve is selected. The flow of water from the overhead tank of the control valve kit is maintained at the rate of 50LPH. That is given to the conical tank as the inflow. The regulator at the outflow of the conical tank is at partially closed condition. A Differential Pressure Transmitter is connected with the conical tank. The connection part in the hardware side is completed. The terminals from the DPT, a Regulated power supply, a multimeter and a Decade Resistance Box (DRB) is placed on a Breadboard as per the circuit diagram .

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Modelling of an Electrohydraulic Proportional Valve with a Synchronous Motor

Modelling of an Electrohydraulic Proportional Valve with a Synchronous Motor

Over the previous decade, only a few papers focused on the applications of different types of motors in hydraulic proportional valves have been published. Murrenhoff [5] described the cross-cutting trends in the design and the development of electrohydraulic valves. He presented an interesting solution, using the direct drive in a proportional valve. In another solution, the use of a stepping motor to transfer the ball screw, which was moving the mechanism with four independent flow sliders, was proposed. The design and investigations of valve in which a piezo actuator was used were described in [6]. Such a valve is characterized by very good dynamic parameters in comparison with valves controlled by proportional electromagnets.

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IJARSE, Vol. No.3, Issue No.8, August 2014 ISSN-2319-8354(E)

IJARSE, Vol. No.3, Issue No.8, August 2014 ISSN-2319-8354(E)

26 | P a g e magnetizable liquid media due to the “integration” in the structure of the carrier of sub-domain permanent magnetic dipolar particles. The size of magnetic particles in a Ferro fluid is in the nanometer range (3-15 nm), consequently, the magnetic moment of micron particles in MRFs is field induced and their Brownian motion is negligible, while in the case of Ferro fluids the magnetic nano particles have permanent dipole moment and perform intense thermal motion. Particle aggregation processes are reversible and rather intense in MR fluids and are induced by the applied magnetic field, which is their key feature in developing field controlled flow behavior. Agglomerate formation in Ferro fluids is limited due to thermal motion of nano particles and their strict or electrostatic stabilization in the carrier liquid; therefore the field induced changes in flow behavior usually are not significant. Ferro fluids have friction-reducing capabilities. If applied to the surface of a strong enough magnet, it can cause the magnet to glide across smooth surfaces with minimal resistance.

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Automation of Servo Hydraulic Press by Using PLC with Pilz Safety Relay

Automation of Servo Hydraulic Press by Using PLC with Pilz Safety Relay

The PLC power supply is designed and rated only to operate the internal structure and dot the field components. The processor is programmed in a similar way as the hardwired control panels, known as ladder logic diagrams. The programming device is the device where, by the programmer or operator can enter or edit program instructions or data based on their requirements. The programmer can be handheld unit that is a personal computer, or an industrial computer-programming terminal. Hydraulic press control using a programmable logic controller (PLC) as a control device, which could be applied for industrial automation.

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Control of Boiler Operation using PLC – SCADA

Control of Boiler Operation using PLC – SCADA

The most important aspect of any power plant is the boiler control. Several techniques can be implemented to control the boiler in power plant. The method that has to be used relies on varied objectives like superior quality, increased efficiency, high profit and other such points depending upon the purpose of the company that implies it. With the prime objective of catering to these necessities and the needs of the industrial sector, significance has been given here to automation.

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