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Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

on conventional methods of mechanical and hydro-mechanical system. The present generation aircraft are using fly-by-wire (FBW) and in future likely to migrate to fly-by-light (FBL) method for aircraft control system. Mechanical & Hydro- mechanical flight control systems have been replaced by Fly- By-Wire due to increasing speed of modern aircraft. Due to inherent characteristics of FBL like light weight, compact size, large bandwidth, immunity to EMI & HIRF FBL, it is expected to be ideal futuristic flight control system. Fly-by- Light control systems offer inherent resistance to the new generation more hostile military environments. The inherent features are the motivator to achieve the technological advances to make Fly-by-Light systems a successful replacement aircraft control system technology for future. The application of optical fiber in aviation promises to be very exciting study, covering highly complex aircraft stability and controls.
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Light conditions affect sexual performance in a lekking tephritid fruit fly

Light conditions affect sexual performance in a lekking tephritid fruit fly

Environmental effects on the sensory system play an important role in the maintenance of genetic variation (Ryan, 1990; Ryan, 2007; Endler, 1993a). Signal traits and receptor organs are selected depending on environmental conditions, not only maximizing signal attractiveness but also minimizing negative effects of factors such as predation (Gamble et al., 2003; Fuller, 2002; Bailey and Zuk, 2008). Light is a highly variable factor, because two important characteristics – spectrum and intensity (Endler, 1993b) – exhibit both spatial (among microenvironments) and temporal (diurnal and seasonal) variation. Thus, variation in visual communication through differences in light environment can favour directional selection. For example, in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, the relative abundance of male colour morphs varies with lighting environment (Fuller, 2002). One explanation is that the development of the signal reception organ is affected by light conditions during rearing. For instance, the expression of the visual protein opsin in the bluefin killifish varies with rearing light spectrum (Fuller et al., 2005). In Drosophila melanogaster, the development of the optic lobes and mushroom body depends on the light environment; optic lobe size in flies reared in dark conditions is smaller than that of flies reared under full light (Barth et al., 1997b). Additionally, when D. melanogaster are reared in light environments, photoreceptor voltage responses to light contrast changes are amplified, favouring signalling performance (Wolfram and Juusola, 2004).
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Wellness monitoring system using fly back converter

Wellness monitoring system using fly back converter

In this system we are implementing a Wireless Patient Monitoring System that can be used by any person at anytime and anywhere. It measures the heartbeat and pulse rate of the patient, if the patient’s condition goes to an abnormal conditions thus data will be send to the doctor’s server. And it is recorded as a dual option; one is the Graphical and another one as Database. At a time the doctor can see two or three patient’s data. Solar Panel is used for the recharging in the sunlight. Mobile charger is used for battery charging at night time and if there is not sunlight it will be helpful. Then the solar panel absorbs the light energy from the sunlight and generates electricity. The Buck Boost Converter gives steady signal which comes out from solar panel. MPPT tracks the maximum power from the solar panel. Super capacitor it stores the harvested energy which is came from solar panel. Voltage regulator regulates the voltage level and if we. Need steady and reliable voltage we can prefer this device. It acts as buffer.
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Energy Efficient Solar Powered Street Lights using    Sun Tracking Solar Panel with Traffic Density Monitoring and Wireless Control System

Energy Efficient Solar Powered Street Lights using Sun Tracking Solar Panel with Traffic Density Monitoring and Wireless Control System

Nowadays, street lighting is an essential part of a city’s infrastructure. It is used to illuminate the street during dark hours of the day. At the beginning of civilization, the street lighting was very simple as the number of streets and traffic density on the street were less. Hence, the power consumption and installation cost for street lighting purpose was low. But, with the increase of urbanization, the number of streets increased rapidly with high traffic density. This led to increase in number of street lights and investment associated with them. Furthermore, Power consumption is increased for street illumination purposes which engendered big energy cost for the municipal [1]-[3]. As we know that energy crisis has become the most perturbing matter for modern civilization throughout the world. Rapid urbanization is leading the world towards high consumption of energy. On the other hand, Due to the reduction of available fossil energy resources, conventional energy sources are diminishing at an alarming rate. So it is high time for us to seek new sources of energy for mitigating the power crisis all over the world [4]. In this circumstances, renewable energy sources are the best solution for electricity generation since they are naturally available, inexhaustible and non-polluting energy. One of the primary sources of renewable energy is solar energy. Solar energy is popular all over the world due to its attractive contribution on almost zero fuel cost and free from environmental pollution with ensuring forever energy supply. Solar PV based street lighting system is very common nowadays but it lacks of automation. Automation, cost effectiveness and less power consumption are now major considerations for technological advancement. Energy efficient technologies can reduce power consumption and improve utilization efficiency of energy [5]. Thus implementation of solar energy with modern technologies for lightening streets can save more energy and reduce expenses. In this paper our objective is to maximize the solar-energy storage and minimize the energy wastage of street light by combining modern technologies altogether.
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Smart Autonomous Street Light Light Control System

Smart Autonomous Street Light Light Control System

Hardware implementation at dimmable electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamps and a microprocessor based system for control and energy measurement for this ballast is studied. These ballasts are connected in topology of a logic network, one at them being defined as the master of the sub circuit and others as slaves. The master unit distinguishes from the slaves by the additional communications system. It is enabled the wireless connection to a PC-based central supervisory system. It can control entire main lighting system and obtain more accurate data about energy billing. It is resulted in financial and energetic economy.
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Use of Cement in Road Construction: A Review

Use of Cement in Road Construction: A Review

A waste material is not good for society & environments then produce minimum waste produce society. A maximum use of waste materials may be applied to businesses, communities, industrial sectors, schools, homes & road constructions. Also utilization of waste materials like solid waste, hazardous waste would protect environment & lead to a much more productive, efficient, & sustainable future. Objective of road constructions & others structure is to contain waste material in a manner that is protective to human health & environment. On basis of above discussion we also observed that Blast furnace slag could be used in soil stabilization due to its hardening property when exposed to moisture, Blast furnace slag provides a great potential for profitable use of this waste material & produces alternate binder to cement, Coal fly ash Light weight, could be used as binder in base course in stabilization to pozzolanic property, Fly ash is an effective agent for chemical and/or mechanical stabilization of soils & Recycling & reuse of waste materials are found to be an appropriate solution to problems of dumping hundreds of thousand tons of waste on natural soil, which would result in consumptions natural materials required for all construction activities.
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Derivation of All Linear Transformations that Meet the Results of Michelson-Morley’s Experiment and Discussion of the Relativity Basics

Derivation of All Linear Transformations that Meet the Results of Michelson-Morley’s Experiment and Discussion of the Relativity Basics

It turns out that the velocity of light in one direction (momentary) has never been accurately measured. In all accurate measurements of the velocity of light, only the average velocity of light traveling the path along the closed trajectory was measured. In order to measure the velocity of light, light had to return to the measuring device. In the simplest case, light was sent to a mirror and back as was done in experiments by Armand Fizeau in 1849 and by Jean Foucault in 1850. The same happens in Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments in which sources of light after being reflected by mirrors return to the source point. From these experiments, it is clear that the average velocity of light traveling the path to and back is constant, and not that the velocity of light in one direction (momentary) is constant.
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Genetics on the Fly: A Primer on the Drosophila Model System

Genetics on the Fly: A Primer on the Drosophila Model System

The GAL4-UAS system has been modified in various ways to improve utility (reviewed in Duffy 2002). One example of a challenge addressed is lack of control over final resting place of a transposable element as a transformation vector within the genome. An insertional event may disrupt an endogenous gene’s function, or the local transcriptional/chromatin envi- ronment may reduce expression of either the GAL4 transcrip- tion factor or the genes associated with the UAS elements. Unpredictable expression levels can add uncertainty regard- ing whether a rescue experiment, or other manipulations, are working as designed. To remedy this unpredictability, a new transformation system was developed using the serine recombinase protein from the PhiC31 bacteriophage, which recombines sequences using the attB and attP site-specific DNA sequences (Groth et al. 2004). A series of attP landing sites have been created at distinct points through out the genome providing molecularly defined positions for the high-efficiency creation of transgenic flies using transforma- tion vectors with an incorporated attB sequence (Venken et al. 2006). These sites have also been characterized for the levels of expression of an inserted transgene, thus allow- ing for more finely tuned expression of a transgene as well as the comparison of different transgenes at the same chromo- somal location (Ni et al. 2008).
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Survey on Key Technologies of Eye Gaze Tracking

Survey on Key Technologies of Eye Gaze Tracking

(2) The disadvantages of one camera and one light source gaze estimating system: first, the user has to perform certain experiments in calibrating the relationship between the gaze points and the user-dependent parameters before using the gaze tracking system; second, the user has to keep his head unnaturally still, with no significant head movement allowed. The advantages of one camera and four light sources gaze estimating system: first, free from head motion. Second, simple user calibration process, only need to calibrate the scale factor α of virtual projection. The disadvantages of one camera and four light sources gaze estimating system: First, low accuracy. This method doesn’t consider the impact of corneal reflection and the kappa angle between visual axis and optical axis. Second, the number of light source is large and the range of light distribution is large. It needs a high-performance image processing method.
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Efficient Street Light System

Efficient Street Light System

Street lights are the key factor of any city to make it smart city. But we have seen such situation where our street lights are ON in presence of daylight. So we want to develop such a system which will operate street lights of the city at any time. The motivation of this project is to design a smart lighting system which targets the energy saving and autonomous operation which is economical and affordable for the streets.

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Advances in Engineering the Fly Genome with the CRISPR-Cas System

Advances in Engineering the Fly Genome with the CRISPR-Cas System

The ability to readily modify the fly genome is significantly changing the course of research in Drosophila. Cas9-mediated genome engineering and active-genetic strategies are likely to have a transformative impact on genetics as we currently conceive of the field. Researchers working with fruit flies rely heavily on transgenic approaches for diverse applications, ranging from analyzing gene regulation to determining pro- tein function and localization. While transgenic approaches will remain a core strength of Drosophila genetics, the CRISPR- Cas system now provides the ability to directly edit endoge- nous genomic sequences and precisely incorporate exogenous DNA, which will undoubtedly lead to a new generation of experimental approaches. The CRISPR-Cas system also holds the potential to expand the range of forward genetic screens through approaches in which Cas9 is used to introduce muta- tions in combination with gRNA libraries, or in which inactive Cas9 or a gRNA platform is exploited to recruit mutagenic enzymes, such as cytidine deaminase or mini-singlet oxygen generator, to specific genomic regions (Noma and Jin 2015; Komor et al. 2016). In our experience, one remaining technical hurdle lies in designing an effective gRNA. Since identifying gRNAs that cleave efficiently and precisely in vivo remains a trial-and-error process, we propose that the fly community establish a database of validated gRNA sequences. This would be an invaluable resource for the repeated manipulation of individual genes, and it is also possible that the compiled se- quences would reveal new parameters for designing gRNAs that are effective in Drosophila. Along these lines, it is impor- tant to note that laboratories in Boston, Heidelberg, and Kyoto are coordinating independent efforts to generate gRNA librar- ies to disrupt gene function in vivo (M. Boutros, B. Ewen- Campen, S. Kondo, N. Perrimon, F. Port, and J. Zirin, personal communication). While CRISPR-based tool development to date has predominantly focused on gene function and visual- ization, a recent study took advantage of Cas9-induced muta- tions to generate DNA barcodes that can be used to trace cell lineages in a developing zebrafish embryo (McKenna et al. 2016). This study highlights the potential for gene-editing technologies to improve and expand existing techniques used to analyze cell and developmental processes. Active genetics has the potential to transform genetic manipula- tion in many species and will certainly impact the implemen- tation of genedrive systems to combat vector borne disease in a broad variety of pest species. Based on the mechanism of germline-mediated HDR repair of DNA breaks it seems likely that active genetics will be highly efficient in virtually all sexually reproducing species so long as Cas9 expression is
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Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Copper Slag in Cellular Light Weight Concrete

Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Copper Slag in Cellular Light Weight Concrete

The pozzolanic materials generally used for manufacture of PPC are calcined clay or fly ash. PPC produces less heat of hydration and offers greater Resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than Ordinary Portland Cement. The reaction of cement when mixed with water is called hydration. Both C3s and C2s make up nearly 75% of cement.

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Genetic Control of Wiring Specificity in the Fly Olfactory System

Genetic Control of Wiring Specificity in the Fly Olfactory System

We next discuss how combinatorial actions of multiple molecules determine the identities and wiring patterns of different neuronal classes. To simplify our discussion, we take only the presence or the absence of a molecule into account and propose three possible models (models II–IV, Figure 5 and Table 1). In all three models, each class of neurons expresses a combination of molecules. But these models have different minimum Hamming distance (Hamming 1950). Here, Hamming distance is defined as the molecular differ- ence between any two classes of neurons. In model II, at least one molecule is different between any two classes; in model III, at least two molecules are different; and in model IV, at least three molecules are different. Although these models are simplified from the real target selection process, this simpli- fication allows us to focus on a few important system-level properties, discuss how these properties may contribute to wiring specificity, and evaluate which models are more con- sistent with experimental observations.
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Traumatic and Healing Memory in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony and Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon

Traumatic and Healing Memory in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony and Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon

Macon and Ruth participate in this conspiracy by giving Milkman disjointed pieces of the family history with the intent to make him choose sides. Milkman, at twenty-two, takes a stand against his father’s physical abuse of his mother, knocking Macon down after Macon punches Ruth in the face. After this episode, Macon confronts Milkman with a story of him witnessing Ruth lying naked in bed with her dead father, sucking his fingers. “‘In the bed. That’s where she was when I opened the door. Laying next to him. Naked as a yard dog, kissing him. Him dead and white and puffy and skinny, and she had his fingers in her mouth’” (73). Macon claims he is telling Milkman this because Milkman needs to know the whole truth: “‘You have to be a whole man. And if you want to be a whole man, you have to deal with the whole truth’” (70). But he isn’t telling the whole truth; he gives Milkman a fragmented piece of a story that casts Ruth in an unfavorable light. Later in the novel, when Milkman confronts Ruth with this story, she offers her own counter-story: that Macon killed her father by hiding his medicine, that he tried to kill her and worse, he tried several times to force her to have an abortion when she was pregnant with Milkman. She claims that she clung to her father, even in death, because he was the only person who really cared whether she lived or died, that she has lived a lonely life “pressed small” by the greatness of the men in her life, first her father and then Macon (124).
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Behavior of Fly Ash at Different Mix Ratios with Plastic Recycled Polymers

Behavior of Fly Ash at Different Mix Ratios with Plastic Recycled Polymers

First, the fly ash was oven dried at approximately 40 0 C for 24 hours. To prepare the fly ash-plastic recycled polymer mixture, the required amount of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers were measured and mixed together in dry or wet state. The recycled polymers were mixed at different percentages of the dry weight of the fly ash. As the plastic recycled polymers have tendency to lump together, it requires considerable care to get an even distribution of the polymers in the mixture. Then, required amount of water was mixed with the dry mix. Proper care was taken to prepare homogeneous mixture. Plastic recycled polymers could be mixed with fly ash in the moist state as in dry state the fly ash particles tend to fly.
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Smart Traffic Light System

Smart Traffic Light System

Cihan Karakuzu et.al. has coined the idea to develop fuzzy logic based traffic junction light simulator system for design and smart traffic junction light controller purposes and to observe its performance. Traffic junction simulator hardware is developed to overcome difficulties of working in a real environment and to easily test the performance of the controller. By using the traffic light simulator developed in this study, results of constant duration (conventional) traffic light controller and fuzzy logic based traffic light controller are compared, where the vehicle inputs are supplied by the simulator. Statistical experimental results obtained from the implemented simulator show that the fuzzy logic traffic light controller dramatically reduced the waiting time at red lights since the controller adapts itself according to traffic density. It is obvious that the intelligent light controller is going to provide important advantages in terms of economics and environment. [Published on: 25 June 2009, Published at Elsevier]
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SCADA Application in Density Based Traffic Li...

SCADA Application in Density Based Traffic Li...

A traffic light has three colors which are red, yellow and green. Every color carries a certain sign. The red light means the road user has to stop driving and not crossing or pursuing the ride while the yellow light show that the road user has to ready to stop their ride. However if the user is too close to the line that is not safe for a stop they have to continue the ride. The green light shows the road user can continue their journey only with the absence of any hindrance.

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FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BURNT CLAY BRICKS UTILIZING WASTE SUGARCANE BAGASSE

FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BURNT CLAY BRICKS UTILIZING WASTE SUGARCANE BAGASSE

The physical and mechanical properties of brick samples with bagasse are investigated. The test results show that the bagasse combination with fly ash and clay provides results which can be potentially used in the production of lighter brick material. This composition produces brick which weigh 13 % lesser than of that of the conventional clay. All test result found satisfactorily and within the permissible limit of Indian Standard.

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Attraction of Ethiopian phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) to light and sugar yeast mixtures (CO2)

Attraction of Ethiopian phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) to light and sugar yeast mixtures (CO2)

maneuvering between concentration gradients and visual cues until reaching their target [30,34]. Unfortunately, nei- ther dry ice nor pressurized gas cylinders are easily found in remote areas of developing countries where many leish- maniasis foci are found. Sugar solutions fermented by Bakers’ yeast (sugar/yeast mixtures [SYM]) were demon- strated to be attractive to Anopheline mosquitoes in Tanzania [35]. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of both SYM and chemiluminescent light-sticks as attractants for phlebotomine sand flies in Ethiopia and in Israel using horizontal sticky traps [36]. Here, we com- bined these attractants with inverted up-draft suction traps similar to CDC traps but fabricated in our laboratory and designed to operate on 2 AA type rechargeable batter- ies (3 V). Such traps weigh less than 350 g each making it possible to carry and deploy a large number in areas where vehicle access is restricted. These 3 V traps are not equipped with incandescent lights because 2 AA batteries do not provide sufficient power to run both motor and light for 12 hours. Therefore, to experiment with light traps we utilized chemiluminescent light-sticks to attract the sand flies to the 3 V traps [36].
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Light habitats and the role of polarized iridescence in the sensory ecology of neotropical nymphalid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Light habitats and the role of polarized iridescence in the sensory ecology of neotropical nymphalid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Precise light conditions of where these species fly and mate have not been reported for the species in this study, but it is reasonable to assume that they are flying when the sun is not occluded by clouds. Most butterflies only fly when the sun is unobscured for thermoregulatory reasons (Douglas, 1978). Thus, those butterflies that typically fly in the understory are likely to experience ambient light spectra converging on woodland shade, forest shade or small gap light environments, which provide as little as 2.5% of the light intensity of an open light environment (Endler, 1992; Endler, 1997; Shashar et al., 1998). Under these light conditions, it would be advantageous for species specific patterns to be polarized, as this type of signal can be conspicuously independent of ambient light intensity and spectral composition (Shashar et al., 1998; Cronin et al., 2003a; Cronin et al., 2003b).
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