foamed concrete sandwich walls (FCS)

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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Based on the previous research, can be seen that the research of PLFP is still limited and there are still many weakness that arise such as the research done by Lian (1999). This study discussed about the ultimate limit behaviour of reinforced concrete sandwich panels under axial and eccentric loads. However, the numbers of the tested panels was also so small which is only 4 specimens were cast and tested to carry out the result of the research, , no generalised inferences could be drawn. Compared to the author research, the number of tested panels are 8 specimens which is we can compare the result by find the average of the result thus, to obtain the precise and accurate results. The ultimate load capacity for pure axial loaded panels was computed using expressions for design of solid reinforced walls. It was reported that some of the expressions applicable to solid walls could not be directly applied to the sandwich panel.
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FRACTURE ENERGY OF FOAMED CONCRETE BY MEANS OF THE THREE-POINT BENDING TESTS ON NOTCHED BEAM SPECIMENS

FRACTURE ENERGY OF FOAMED CONCRETE BY MEANS OF THE THREE-POINT BENDING TESTS ON NOTCHED BEAM SPECIMENS

It is cogently undeniable that foamed concrete has become the most popular lightweight material in construction and infrastructural industries. This is due to the advantages offered by foamed concrete such as low density, sufficient durability, excellent fire resistance and good thermal conductivity. With its promising density and strength, foamed concrete is a viable solution for reducing loading, an especially important issue that needs to be tackled in the soft soil area. Typical densities of foamed concrete are ranged around 1000kg/m 3 to 1600kg/m 3 (Rammurty et al., 2009) while the compressive strength can achieve up to 12MPa. In addition, high-performance foamed concrete has been introduced by many researchers such as Liu and Jiang (2012), Bing et al. (2012) and Hilal et al. (2015) to surpass conventional concrete. However, the greatest invention was produced by Just and Middenorf (2009) that propose a high-performance foamed concrete with strength up to 105.7MPa using aluminium powder, superplasticizer and microsilica. This type of foamed concrete can be utilised as cast-in-place beams and columns, load bearing walls, sandwich panels, prestressed structures and refractories.
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Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

In Malaysia, industrialized building system (IBS) had started many decades ago but until now it is still experimenting with various prefabricated method. The governments of Malaysia also encourage the use of IBS and insist that the office building projects shall have at least 70% IBS component. To encounter demands from the growing population and migration of people to urban areas in this country, alternative construction method is required to provide fast and affordable quality housing and environmental efficient. One of the alternatives that already been studied is Precast Lightweight Sandwich Panel. Before we can introduce new innovative construction method, the construction details are an important factor in building design. There has not been any study on Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) connection.Connection is important to transfer loads and also for stability. With regard to the structural behaviour, the ability of the connection to transfer forces is the most essential property. Every aspect of the panel behavior must be analysied. This study will only focus on analyzing the performance of two small scale PLFP walls with U-bent bars connection under bending in term of load-displacement relationship, modes of failure and its ultimate load capacity when connected.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

For the thermal insulation of walls, there is a difference between outside and inside wall and core insulation. For the outside wall insulation the EPS foam is put directly on the stone bearing structure. A fabric reinforced plastering or a ventilated facade protects it from the weather exposure. Using sandwich panels of EPS plasterboards, modern heat insulation standards can be achieved on the walls of older building. For core insulation, the insulation layer is in- between the bearing wall and the external weather resistant wall. Another system of insulation is the use of EPS moulded foam parts (insulated concrete forms) for a combination of outer and inner wall insulation. A wall is built with these moulded foam parts and filled with concrete.
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OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

(6) Obelender et al. [12] carried out an experimental programme on solid RC walls with slenderness ratios � varying from 8 to 28. 54 wall panels with two layers of symmetric reinforcement and separately placed within the wall thickness were tested under uniformly distributed axial and eccentric loads. The eccentricity was applied at of the wall thickness. From the result, it was observed that under axial and eccentric loading, panels with � values less than 20 failed in crushing while those with larger values of � failed due to buckling. The result also showed that for load of eccentricities , the reduction in wall strength was between 18 to 50 percentages as the slenderness ratio increased from 8 to 28. From this experimental programme, Oberlender (1973) proposed an expression for the ultimate axial load.
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

Precast concrete sandwich panel or PCSP technology has advanced gradually over the past four decades in North America. The first prefabricated panels were of non-composite type and consisted of a thick structural wythe, a layer of insulation and a non-structural wythe (Seeber et al., 1997). PCSP have all of the desirable characteristics of a normal precast concrete panel such as durability, economy, fire resistance, large vertical spaces between supports, and potential usage as shear walls, bearing walls, and retaining walls. On top of that, PCSP can be relocated to accommodate building expansion. The hard surface on both the inside and outside of the panel provides resistance to damage and a finished product requiring no further treatment.
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Study on Foamed Concrete with Polyurethane as Foaming Agent

Study on Foamed Concrete with Polyurethane as Foaming Agent

The adverse development in the field of concrete has led to the innovation of lightweight concrete materials. The development of lightweight concrete is made with a good achievement of performance in their characteristics. The reason for the need of lightweight concrete is to facilitate the rate of construction and to reduce the cost of construction attaining an economical construction practice. At the same time it is essential to reduce the consumption of raw materials for the production of concrete because it involves use of cement which during production emits large volume of CO2. In
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Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

The maximum horizontal displacement recorded from the FEM simulation on all FCS-F panels are found to increase with the increase of slenderness ratio. This is as expected for walls sub- jected to compressive axial load where they behave just like col- umn as described previously in Section 4.1. Horizontal displacements of FCS-F1 to FCS-F11 walls at mid height are as shown in Fig. 11(a). As evident in the figure, trends for horizontal displacement increments at the mid-height of wall were similar for all FCS-F walls, where the horizontal displacement increased gradually with the increase of the load during the elastic stage. When the wall entered the plastic stage, the trend of curves becomes non-linear from first cracking until it reached the ulti- mate load. For FCS-F wall with lower slenderness ratio, cracking, yielding and crushing occurred when the panel reached the ulti- mate loading. This phenomenon was reduced when the H/t of walls increased. Buckling and out of plane bending occurred but walls tend to sustain the load longer before it failed. It was observed from the figure that the maximum horizontal deflection of each wall increased with the increased H/t. The maximum horizontal deflection of 18.49 mm was recorded in FCS-F11, which is the most slender wall. General trend of horizontal displacement for FCS-F wall is presented in Fig. 11(b). It shows that the mid height section of wall experienced highest horizontal displacement due to bending. Previous study on effect of H/t towards deflection in a column with different system of reinforcement has also recorded similar finding. Saravanan et al. [47] studied the performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) wrapped high strength concrete (HSC) columns with various slenderness ratios under uni-axial compression. It was found that the axial deflection was recorded higher for more slender columns compared to less slender ones. The relationship of H/t with horizontal deflection of FCS-F walls was further illustrated in Fig. 12.
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Influence on the Performances of Foamed Concrete by Silica Aerogels

Influence on the Performances of Foamed Concrete by Silica Aerogels

two different ways, to investigate its effects on thermal conductivity, compression strength and volume water absorption of foamed concrete. XRD, FT-IR and SEM have also been used to analyze the relationship between both the amount and the mixing way of aerogel and macro properties of foamed concrete. The results show that directly mixing aerogel into foamed concrete has limited effects on improving its performace, mixing 0.5% of aerogal has little effect on improving thermal conductivity, while mixing 2.5% of aerogel can greatly decrease compression strength though thermal conductivity has been improved. If aerogal has been premixed with glycol and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HPMC) ether and then mixed into foamed concrete, the compression strength will decrease less while thermal conductivity could decrease by 35%, volume water absorption by 31%.
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CO2 uptake model of biomass silica foamed concrete

CO2 uptake model of biomass silica foamed concrete

Though China has the largest population in the world, and its industrial and construction sector is blooming, the urban population is only 40.4% out of 1.3 billions. 3.9 metric tons per capita is considered low compared to the rest of the developed nations. As Malaysia is aspiring to be a developed nation by 2020, there is an increasing demand for cement for concrete construction. Hence, Malaysia has relatively high per capita emission of CO 2 in cement production. As

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Foamed concrete: potential application in thermal insulation

Foamed concrete: potential application in thermal insulation

population, development of industry and technology is the factors that contribute to the increasing of the waste production in the recent years. If there are no effort to solve this problem it will come out with some of environmental problem. Therefore, there is important to find a strategy in order to decrease solid waste problem. One of the strategies is focus on the reduction of waste materials by reuse of solid waste as raw material whenever feasible. Mannan [15], in his research on an agricultural waste, stated that natural fibres such as coconut coir, durian peel and oil palm really has profitable as a low-cost construction material especially in concrete industry as classified in Table 5.
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Prefabricated Fibre Reinforced Sandwich Panels over AAC Block and Conventional Brick

Prefabricated Fibre Reinforced Sandwich Panels over AAC Block and Conventional Brick

Abstract: The construction industry is evolving rapidly, and new materials and technologies are being introduced on a regular basis. Execution of construction projects and their timely delivery has become a prime concern for developers in view of the buyer’s agitation on delay in construction. The masonry brick wall is heavy and its construction is time consuming. Other products like plywood, Gypsum Board, Cement bonded particle board, Resin bonded particle Boards etc., have one or more deficiencies such as not being resistant to water, fire, or termites, or being non-load bearing etc. Process of manufacturing bricks is conventional and there is no scope to reduce the time required for completing the work. Bricks are not standardized, uneven in shape and having variation in properties. Manufacturing of bricks creates pollution, Many defects often occurs like cracking or rough and uneven surfaces because bricklaying and cement rendering are not standardized. Due to this there is increased consumption in cement and sand for the plastering work. Furthermore, it is difficult to control the loss of materials during construction. The purpose of this paper is to understand the Prefabricated Fibre Reinforced Sandwich panels and how it is a better alternative to conventional brick and AAC block.
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The basic materials for the production of foamed aerated concrete are: binder, fine aggregates, foaming agent, and water. The binder used for this work the ordinary Portland cement produced in accordance with [16]. The fine aggregate was river sand having specific gravity of 2.66, obtained from upland source of Ogun River to ensure that it has low chloride content and organic impurities, and all size particles passing through 2.36mm sieve. This is because the works of [2] has shown that higher compressive strength can be obtained by using sand with finer particle sizes. The foaming agent was protein- based with trade name Lithofoam SL 200L. Available literatures [17], and [18]) revealed that foamed aerated concrete of structural value can be produced at densities between 1200 and 1900kg/m 3 . A density of 1600kg/m 3 was adopted
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Investigation on Failure Modes of Precast Foamed Sandwich Panels under Punching

Investigation on Failure Modes of Precast Foamed Sandwich Panels under Punching

Puput Risdanareni et al [8] attained the compressive strength of 25.2 MPa at the density of 1822 kg/m 3 . These experiment indicate that the strength to weight ratio of foam concrete tends to be higher than the normal concrete and hence it can be used as structural material. Junsuk Kang [9] investigated that there were great difference between composite and non composite panels, the main effect was due to the arrangement of shear connector and the resistance provided by those shear connector. Mugahed Amran et al [10] studied that the increase in aspect ratio significantly reduces the flexural strength and the cracking pattern was along one direction only as in RCC panels, these panels can also be used as an alternative for RCC panels. Qian Huang et al [11] developed a finite element model of a sandwich panel having diagonal FRP bar connectors and their structural behaviour is investigated, their cracking, material and geometric non linearities are observed. Hamid Kazam et al [12] evaluated the shear strength by exposing it to the effect of sustained loading and EPS panels are affected by age more than XPS panels. Sani Mohammed Bida [13] showed that the thermal performance increased by using staggered shear connectors and also increasing the gap shows subsequent increase in thermal performance. Yun Hyun-Do et al [14] investigated the shear strength of sandwich panel with Glass fibre Reinforced Polymer(GFRP) as shear connector by pullout test and showed that the XPS panels tends to perform better than the EPS panels.
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On entrained pore size distribution of foamed concrete

On entrained pore size distribution of foamed concrete

Compared to the foam bubble size distribution, some larger sized pores were presented in foamed concrete mixes owing to the merging of bubbles during mixing... Bubble merging in all mixe[r]

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Pore structure and permeation characteristics of foamed concrete

Pore structure and permeation characteristics of foamed concrete

Ramamurthy 2007b) which represent the most impor- tant factors affecting the service life of a concrete struc- ture (Sanjuan and Munoz-Martialay 1996b). In conse- quence, an important indicator of concrete long term durability is its permeability which is the relative ease with which an aggressive substance can penetrate into concrete (Alshamsi and Imran 2002; Neville 2011; Sanjuan and Munoz-Martialay 1996b). The relationship between porosity and water vapour permeability was studied in foamed concrete and cement pastes by Kears- ley and Wainwright (Kearsley and Wainwright 2001a). In this study, it was concluded that water vapour perme- ability increases with increased porosity, or decreased density, with similar trend lines for mixtures both with and without foam. The authors claimed that in the case of foamed concrete the air voids that are entrained can be considered as an aggregate and their inclusion might reduce the permeability not only by obstructing flow but also because of the absence of microcraking at the inter- face between air voids and the mortar. In a study of the pore structure of ordinary Portland cement paste, Cui and Cahyadi (2001), defined a critical pore diameter (l c )
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Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

Banana skin fibers has found to increase the tensile strength and tensile modulus of composites at optimum usage of 5% [9]. A research was conducted on the mechanical and thermal characterization of banana peel fibers/HDPE composites where the banana fibers were mixed with high density polyethylene to produce the banana peel fibers/HDPE composites. This composite was characterized by tensile test and thermal analysis. It is found that 5% of fibers improved the tensile strength of composite in comparison with the pure HDPE. It is also found that the addition of fibers decreased the thermal stability of composites but increased its thermal crystallization temperature [10]. Replacement of 40% fly ash in the self-compacting concrete mixture had resulted with optimum workability, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of the mixture with the highest compressive strength achieved was 27.2 MPa and MOE 31 GPa [11]. Meanwhile the optimum percentage of POFA in SCC mixture was found to be 5% where highest compressive strength was achieved, which is 38.4 MPa and modulus of elasticity of 31.6 GPa [12]. POFA, a by- product obtained by burning of fibers, shells and empty fruit bunches as fuel in palm oil mills, contains pozzolanic properties is also considered as a promising supplementary cementing material. The incorporation of pozzolans, either naturally occurring or artificially made into concrete has been in practice since early civilization [13]. A review on potential mixture of POFA as cement replacement was conducted, where it is proven that by incorporating POFA in a concrete mixture, enhanced mechanical properties would occur, provided the optimum volume of POFA was utilized [14]. In a study conducted on fresh state and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with added POFA, the results obtained indicated that replacement of 5% POFA is the optimum value for cement replacement to obtain high workability and mechanical properties of concrete [15].
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Study on Blast Pressure Resistance of Foamed Concrete Material

Study on Blast Pressure Resistance of Foamed Concrete Material

This observation suggests that if one is to increase the volume of solid material within the foamed concrete the material is less able to dissipate and absorb the shock energy of the blast from the RP80 detonator. However, this may be explained by theory of cellular materials under blast loading – with less solid material and more air in the sample, the are more open celled spherical structures (one of the most efficient force distributing structures under compression). Hence, design mix one is better able to absorb and dissipated the shock waves driven into the material.
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CO2 Uptake Model of Biomass Silica Foamed Concrete

CO2 Uptake Model of Biomass Silica Foamed Concrete

Though China has the largest population in the world, and its industrial and construction sector is blooming, the urban population is only 40.4% out of 1.3 billions. 3.9 metric tons per capita is considered low compared to the rest of the developed nations. As Malaysia is aspiring to be a developed nation by 2020, there is an increasing demand for cement for concrete construction. Hence, Malaysia has relatively high per capita emission of CO 2 in cement production. As

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Utilization of fly ash in lightweight aggregate foamed concrete

Utilization of fly ash in lightweight aggregate foamed concrete

AIV test are done towards FALA to know its toughness against shock. The value of AIV will represents the strength of aggregate produced. The results for 5F are the highest with 59% followed by 10F with 58% and finally 15F with 56%. This indicates that as the amount of fly ash increases, the loading impact reduced showing 15F is better in handling impact than 10F and 5F. In this test, it is obvious that fly ash act as a binder to the cement in the concrete that holds its structures to withstand the impact. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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