The population density of Meskan district is approximately about 250 people's km-2. The average land holding per household head is less than 0.5 ha, which is one of the main factors exerting a profound influence on land use/cover changes and land use intensification, resulted in severe land degradation in the area. Farmers own 2 or more fragmented plots of land and they practice diversified land use types to diversify their products and as risk aversion strategies. The major land uses land/ cover in the study area includes cultivated land, natural vegetation, grazing land, Acacia albida dominated parkland/scattered tree agroforestry system and plantation forest of exotic species mainly eucalyptus are the dominant land use/cover in the area. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is dominantly growing in Weyna dega agro ecological Zone, whereas Eucalyptus globulus is most common in dega agro-ecological Zone. The common annual crops grown in the areas includes wheat (Triticum spp.), teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays), and perennial crops such as enset (Ensete ventricosum). Teff is a fine stemmed tufted endemic annual grass to Ethiopia, used as main ingredient in the Ethiopian traditional flat bread called injera. Enset is a perennial, banana-like crop which native to Ethiopia that produces psuedostem and a starchy belly corm pulped for food, feed and fiber. Enset based land use is one of the dominant agricultural practices used for feeding about 13- 15millions people in the Central and Southern Highlands of Ethiopia [Tilahun and Mulugeta,2005].
supplementation of concentrate feeds to their animals. Recent research is therefore directed towards the exploration of an affordable and abundant, alternate CP and energy-rich feeds. In this regard, tree leaves have received increasing attention, due to many advantages such as supply of good quality green fodder during the dry periods, and high CP and mineral contents (Khan and Habib 2012; Habib et al 2013). Recent findings show that tree leaves can be more efficiently utilized as a low-cost CP and mineral supplement to the low-quality fibrous diets in the tropics, particularly during the prolonged feed scarcity periods (Patra 2010). Considering this need, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) has used Climate-Smart Village (CSV) models in Ghana to promote the adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) interventions such as agroforestry and farmer managed natural regeneration practices that promote the management of useful fodder tree and shrub species. It is envisaged that the adoptability and wider applicability of the aforementioned tree-based CSA practices will dwell on knowledge about priority fodder species in the CSV communities and evidence of their nutritive characteristics. While various authors have documented potential fodder species in the project areas, less is known about farmer perceptions of their use, priorities among livestock producers and the nutrient supply capabilities of the fodder species. Data on the above is crucial for strategic livestock farm technology development, feeding and supplementation to livestock ration in the region.
conservation, live fence and fuel wood. On the other hand, coffee is the dominant perennial crop grown in Sidama district and growing EMPFTs for coffee shade was an important function. EMPFT-functions in the present study compare to those in reports of Franzel et al. (2003) and Poshiwa et al. (2006) in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The present study showed that farmers perceived EMPFTs positively for feeding value and contribution to soil and water conservation in line with results about utilization of multipurpose foddertrees in the Philippines where Calub (2003) concluded that farmers appreciated foddertrees and shrubs like Leucaena and Glicirida sepium for their role in bridging the gap in fodder supply during dry months and also to avoid soil degradation. The positive perception of farmers about feed value of EMPFTs in Lay-Armachuho was associated with a high fodder tree availability and importance of (crossbred) dairy cows in the farming system. While in Sidama, even though farmers had crossbred dairy cows, their perception about the feed value of EMPFTs was lower as compared to Lay-Armachuho district, which may be associated with the lower number of trees they had but also to the availability of local multipurpose foddertrees which they perceive better than or comparable to the exotics. Also Franzel et al. (2003) and Paterson et al. (1998) reported that farmers appreciated the feed value of foddertrees if they had sufficient foddertrees and experience of feeding dairy cows. Furthermore, the difference in the ranking of attributes for productivity improvement could be attributed to the difference in the production objectives of each farming system as well as the extent of utilization of crop residues. In Debay- Tilatgen district, cattle are reared mainly for draught purpose and sheep served as a main source of income. Here, the nutritional attribute of foddertrees was more for body condition improvement and increasing straw intake than milk production. Conversely, in Sidama the contribution of crop residues as a feed resource was lower compared to the other districts and consequently the attributes of foddertrees to increase straw intake were not recognized.
Foddertrees are important feed sources for livestock in a wide range of farming systems in Africa. Researchers, extension services and farmers have developed and promoted fodder tree practices in many different countries and contexts. Foddertrees are particularly important in the highlands of Eastern Africa, where over 200 000 smallholders plant them, mainly to feed dairy cows. They can meet production shortages in times of extreme climatic conditions such as droughts. Foddertrees are easy to grow, require little land, labor or capital, have numerous by-products and often supply feed within a year after planting. Key challenges constraining the uptake of foddertrees include limited species appropriate to different agro- ecological zones, shortages in seed and that farmers lack knowledge and skills needed to grow them.
This guide covers the broad-leaved deciduous species you are most likely to find in the UK, but includes a few rarer trees too. In some cases, namely with willows and poplars, a number of species have been encompassed under one heading and the commonest members of the group have been highlighted in order to make the information concise and accessible to beginners and experts alike. There are three ways to use the book:
For Obscure Root Weevil (Adults): Spray foliage in late spring as soon
as feeding is noticed (usually about April). Repeat every 4 weeks through September. (Mid-July through August are the peak feeding times.)
For Black Vine Weevil: Spray foliage and soil beneath plants. Begin
Two frustrating problems with ornamentals are: 1) Knowing if, what, and when pesticides should be used on more than 100 differ- ent plant genera, and 2) determining the identity and importance of any given pest found feeding on valuable and long-established trees and shrubs. More than 2,000 species of insects and mites may be encountered on woody plants. A great majority of these are uncommon, occasional, and pose little threat of serious damage to the plants, while about 15 percent are common, injurious, and potentially destructive. One of the best reference books on the subject is The Gardener’s Bug Book by Cynthia Westcott, which is unfortunately out of print. Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs 2nd Ed Revised is an excellent resource and is currently available. The aesthetic nature of prized ornamentals creates high values for individual plants. Therefore, even a minor or uncommon pest can be an important and costly problem for the owner if it is severe on only one or a few plants. The average home gardener is familiar with very few of even the more important pests, thus each unfamiliar insect found feeding on valuable ornamentals creates uncer- tainty as to possible damage or loss of plants.
Though the estimates given in this paper are only for a 1-year period (1994), analysis of changes in meteorology and pollution concentration on pollution removal by urban trees over a 5-year period in Chicago (1991–1995) reveals that annual removal estimates were within 10% of the 5-year average removal rate. Estimates of pollution removal may be conservative as some of the deposition-modeling algorithms are based on homo- genous canopies. As part of the urban tree canopy is heterogeneous with small patches or individual trees, this mixed canopy effect would tend to increase pollutant deposition. Also, aerodynamic resistance estimates may be conservative and lead to a slight underestimate of pollution deposition.
Source of feed for meat animals
Hydroponic fodder may be must suited to meat animals (horses, rabbits, pigs, and poultry) who would benefit more from the changes in the feed due to sprouting (e.g. less starch, more sugars) as compared to ruminants (sheep, goats, and cows) that are less efficient at digesting high quality feed. It is good source of feeds to rabbits and mature chickens; to feed them on the form of mash and pellets makes from maize germ, whole maize, soya beans, canola, sunflower and coccodiostat, among others, in the morning and evening. Chicks, on the other hand, are fed on commercial mash for seven weeks before they are weaned on the homemade feeds.
Examples of Animals that Eat Bark and Wood
Beavers are a good example of a hindgut fermenter. They are primarily bark-eaters, ingesting the bark of young twigs and sapwood of branches and small tree trunks. In the spring and fall, about half of the beaver’s food is woody vegetation, but in winter it feeds on woody vegetation almost exclusively. They actively cut trees and shrubs in the summer, storing sections of the wood under water as a winter food supply beneath the ice.
Group 1 is present in colluvial and ﬂood plain forestall areas of central Georgia ( Fig. 4 a) within Carpinus – Quercus forests, at altitudes from 250 to 610 m above sea level. Carpinus betulus, Cornus mas, Cornus sanguinea, Crataegus caucasica and C. monogyna, Diospyros lotus, Pyrus caucasica, Paliurus spina-christi, Populus alba and Corylus avellana pro- vide mechanical support to Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris. Other species of trees, like Acer monspessulanum, Acer platanoides, Fagus orientalis and Table 1
The part of plants mostly used for medicinal purpose include: leaves, roots and bark. Edible plants constitute the second highest category. Some of them are collected as fruits for example: Maranthes polyandra, Hibiscus sarbdariffa, Citrus cinensis, Mangifera indica, Detarium microcarpum, Carica papaya, Ficus sur and Vitex doniana. While others are collected as leaves and seed e.g Ricimus communis, Parkia biglobosa and prosopis africana. The use of this plant as food has also been reported by Shomkegh, et al. (2016). In craft making, the following species Vitellaria paradoxa, Prosopis africana, are particularly important and are utilized for making crafts like hoes and cutlass handles, mortar, pestles etc in the study area. The use of these plants for the purpose described has also been reported by Shomkegh, et al. (2016). Similarly, crafts like local beds, brooms and chairs were made using Raphia Sudanica and Elaesis guinensis, while Bombax costatum and Ceiba petandra were used for making local drums because of their light nature. In the study area, some local construction activities includes, roofing of housing using trees like Parkia biglobosa, Prosopis africana, Pterocapus osum, Alcornia cordifolia, construction of bathrooms using Newbouldia laevis Agbogidi, (2010) have made similar observation.
Dairy cattle require green fodder for high milk yield. However, it cannot available throughout the year and in some area, it is difficult to have access for green fodder. Thus, hydroponic fodder production has become an alternative way to fulfill this green fodder requirement of the dairy cow. The adoption of this technique has enabled the production of fresh forage from grains without soil. Hydroponic fodder has high nutritive value due to the conversion of complex compounds into simpler and essential form, and activation of enzymes during germination. Thus, it contains high protein, vitamins and minerals which are essential for dairy cows. There were improvements in digestibility and intake of nutrients results in increased milk yields and quality like milk fat of dairy cow on the feeding of hydroponic fodder. In general, research data on dairy cows is limited to determine definitively whether or not feeding the fodder changes production enough to warrant the additional cost. Therefore, this area requires further information to draw a concrete conclusion about feeding hydroponic fodder.
The aim of the research was to present the production of the fodder for cattle feeding on OPG Janko Lomjansky from Ilok. Field research was carried out through multiple expeditions to the production areas of the explored economy, production facilities (stalls) and warehouses. It was found that Family farm Lomjansky achieved a medium high level of milk production (approximately 18 l/day/head) and a satisfactory body weight gain of calves (about 1 kg/day/head) and heifers (about 1,2 kg/day/head). Family farm for cattle feeding in the warm half of the year uses pasture, whilst in the cold half the hay and the haylage of alfalfa, red clover and meadows, along with the maize silage and bought-in concentrates. The permanent grassland surfaces proved to be more than adequate for grazing, as well as the total area of the Farm for the whole-year feeding of forages. As the most important measure to improve the business, it is recommended to include silage maize in crop rotation in order to increase the yield of forages and digestible energy.
Results of this study showed that the green fodder with lush vegetation can be produced in 8 days from planting to harvest using hydroponic technique. The net green product was 7.5 kg HB/kg barley grains (Table 2). This value is similar to that reported previously  . However, Kruglyakov  reported a production up to 10 kg of fresh green fodder out of 1 kg of barley seeds. The green fodder yield depends on type of grain and the grow- ing conditions  -.
Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace had a substantial effect in reducing soil surface temperature var- iation compared herbaceous vegetation, whereas woody vegetation in domestic gardens only slightly reduced mean daily temperatures, and tended to increase temperature extremes in March and April compared to lawns and other herbaceous vegetation (Fig. 2). In the non-domestic greenspaces the effects of woody vegetation were most apparent during the summer months, when average temperature beneath herbaceous vegetation was more than 3 °C higher than beneath trees and shrubs; 17.2 and 14.1 °C respectively (Table 1). The largest effects were on summer mean maximum daily temperatures which ranged from 20.9 °C in the non-domestic herbaceous green- space to 15.2 °C under trees and shrubs in the same land-use category, a decrease of 5.7 °C (Table 1). On many days maximum temperatures in grasslands exceeded 30 °C, whereas this temperature was never reached under woody vegetation in non-domestic greenspaces (Fig. 2, Table 1). In domestic gardens the overall effects of trees and shrubs decreased maximum temperatures on average by only 2.2 °C (Table 1).