In conclusion, disposal of wastefood in March was higher than in April. G3’s cafeteria has recorded the most number of waste generated with the amount of 1823.5 kilograms (kg). While only 96.8 kilograms (kg) of waste generated in the cafeteria Dr. Munie's. Next, the data collected found that the overall amount of foodwaste generated by all six cafeterias for two months was 6197.5 kilograms (kg). With these data, other studies can be carried out in more detail and used as a reference. Based on previous studies, some methods of solid waste management have been identified including landfill, recycling, composting, incineration, inert landfill and sanitary landfill. According to wastegenerationwaste produced in UTHM, composting method has identified the best and efficient method to manage foodwaste in six cafeterias in UTHM. This method was recommended as the best solid waste management for the recovery of organic waste. Further, this method cannot completely solve the problem of solid waste, but it will be able to move a number of waste mainly organic waste from landfill and thereby reduce the problem of organic waste. By using this propose a baseline figure for foodwastegeneration in UTHM cafeterias, UTHM can save cost of waste management and also can generate new revenue.
There are few aspects of the foodwaste problem which cause certain limitations while investigating the issue in its depth. One of the significant obstacles for fully revealing the foodwaste problem originates from the complexity of the food production/distribution/consumption chains. Another potential limitation of the current study is the complete lack of statistical data about the foodwaste in Albania considering the fact that, no previous research has been done on the topic in local context. This poses serious limitations in understanding the prevailing food practices of the Albanian consumers, as well as a lack of punctuality in assessing the magnitude of the foodwaste problem in the country. The implementation of household surveys is methodically simple, but usually it can provide only qualitative information, because quantitative estimates out of memory regarding the weight of the food purchased and discarded are very prone to error (Schneider 2008). Experience also teaches that consumers substantially underestimate their losses when self-reporting (Beretta et al. 2013).
It is important to consider the dimension of time in the analysis of the foodwaste challenge and identify key parameters that will influence the scale and nature of the problem in the future (for a discussion on the time dimension of sustainability see Lozano, 2008). Two of these parameters are the growing world population and climate change. As the global population is rising, foodwastegeneration is not diminishing and food security is becoming an increasingly urgent issue (Gustavsson et al., 2011; The Government Office for Science, 2011b; Lundqvist et al., 2008). In addition, while efforts to accurately predict the impact of climate change on crop yields and food production highlight uncertainties over future scenarios (Haberl et al., 2011), UNEP (2009) estimates that up to 25 % of the world food production may become ‘lost’ during this century as a result of climate change, water scarcity, invasive pests and land degradation. As previously discussed, food losses and waste across the FSC contribute GHG emissions linked to climate change. With climate change becoming an increasingly critical challenge, it is anticipated that the environmental implications of foodwaste will come under more scrutiny (FAO, 2013).
Abstract: There has been a increase in sewage and foodwastegeneration in India. In the last few decades because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country. In this study pre performance of the biomass to produce power. Sewage and foodwaste are chosen as to study and produce biogas under certain conditions. By which biogas production enhances and purify, leading to a high power generation. Wastewater that has been adversely affected in quality of water in the river . During recent years, there has been people are concern about water and their use, conservation of water all over the world. It has been observed that sewage water is directly supplied to the river. Sewage and foodwaste can be for generation of electricity form gas and remaining of biomass can be used for manure.
Importantly, this planning process in the Mississippi Gulf Coast provided evidence of the lack of accurate and tested estimates of foodwastegeneration in some stages of the food system. At the production and processing stages, the seafood industry generally keeps detailed records of how much processing waste is produced as this is cus- tomarily provided by their waste haulers. For land- based agriculture, records of foodwaste generated in the production stage are generally not available. The need for better estimates in the service indus- try, specially casinos and hotels, was also evident as the project team had to rely on a few studies that have not been replicated yet in other casinos and hotels offering the same regional amenities and catering to the clientele that the Gulf Coast seeks to attract. Research for developing measurement tools better suited to these generators and for developing reliable generation factors is needed to assist planners in undertaking accurate assessments and determining solutions.
Waste management (more specifically solid waste management) is a field with a large scope. This research is completely focused on to population in addition to municipal solid waste types. Therefore, this research would purely focus on solid waste management of Kulhudhuffushi. Though Kulhudhuffushi is one of the largest islands of Maldives, it has a land area of roughly 3.5km2. In the early ages there is no specific areas in the town marked as land fill zones or dump sites for the citizens, to collect dispose the waste. As a result, from the earliest of the times people used to dump the waste near the sea shore and to the ocean. Kulhudhuffushi has a small land mass and with a growing population the area considered as the dump site in the year 2000 was 17,010 square meters. Now this small area of land is over filled and in-need of renovation.
This increase has turned into a major challenge for The Gambia National Environment Agency (NEA), responsible for solid waste management and sanitation. Due to lack of integrated solid waste management, most of the plastic waste is neither collected properly nor disposed of in appropriate manner to avoid its negative impacts on environment and public health and waste plastics are causing littering and choking of sewerage system. Due to extremely long periods required for natural decomposition, waste plastic is often the most visible component in waste dumps and open landfills in the Gambia. Hence Plastic waste recycling can provide an opportunity to collect and dispose of plastic waste in the most environmental friendly way and it can be converted into a useful Energy. In most of the situations, plastic waste recycling could also be economically viable, as it generates resources, which are in high demand. Plastic waste recycling also has a great potential for resource conservation and GHG emissions reduction, such as producing fuel from plastic waste. This resource conservation goal is very important for The Gambia governments, where rapid industrialization and economic development is putting a lot of pressure on natural resources.
Despite bringing increased prosperity to more people, the economic development of the last few decades has produced ecological imbalances, such as climate change and the thinning of the ozone layer. These conse- quences have led to the creation of a new concept: sustainable development. Over the last two decades, public opinion has become increasingly aware, demanding measures to protect the environment from both economic agents and the government. The generation of solid waste is a natural consequence of human life. Among solid waste, foodwaste forms the major component in municipal landfills  . In addition to ethical issues, wasting edible food has negative economic, environmental and social impacts . Though foodservices are in a unique position to manage foodwaste, no studies have been reported in the literature during recent years on the causes of foodwaste within this stage of the food supply chain. The studies on foodwaste have focused on measuring plate waste (food served in the plate and not consumed) and overproduction (food prepared and not served) - . However, reasons behind why these wastes occur were not investigated. More researches are therefore needed to identify the relevant factors influencing the generation of foodwaste and devise preventive strategies. The objective of this study is to develop a checklist to assess good management practices that have a positive impact on eliminating or minimizing foodwaste in institutional food service units.
Flow composting system that is being used in Colorado university can compost the organic waste in 14 to 21 days after that the compost needs to cure for about 3 to 4 weeks before using 161. further look will show that t Ridan composter needs to compost the foodwaste for a minimum of two weeks before being removed, after that the compost needs mature in a maturation Box for 2-3 months17.lf we took a look into our designed project we can see that the process shall not take more than 24 hours to be completed which is a huge milestone compared to the other projects, also the compost can be used immediately which is also wonderful compared waiting compared up W 3 months When discussing compost an important matter shall be taking into considerations which is odors, if we looked closely to (Wright Environmental Management, Inc WEMI- 4000) system we can sue that it filters the exhausted air so that it wouldn't smell bad, but it does not address the issue with odors coming from the compost itself 51. The Earth Flow composting system does not filter the exhausted air or the compost itself so the area next to the machine and the compost will be filled with odors . The Ridan composter as well doesn't filter to the issue of odors to the compost17, When looking at our designed project we find that the exhausted air get filtered so that no odors will be on the site also the bacteria we use is able to suppress odors from the compost so we consider our design to have a big lead in this matter.
worldwide has been increasing at an alarming rate. The high decomposition potential of foodwaste has fostered its recycling into valuable end-products instead of adding to the already convoluted landfilling problem. In our project, a single-stage anaerobic digester is developed to manage foodwaste at a household level. Anaerobic digestion is a naturally occurring decomposition process which breaks down organic matter into simpler chemical components in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas and digestate. Foodwaste, being mostly composed of many complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, is digested through a complex process that can be split into three distinctive phases, namely hydrolysis, cytogenesis, and methanogenesis. Hydrolysis is the first step where fermentative bacteria convert complex organic compounds into molecules that are soluble in water such as fatty acids, sugar and amino acids. During cytogenesis, the soluble molecules obtained in the first phase are converted into volatile fatty acids by acid-forming or acetogenic bacteria. In the final step, methanogenesis, methane is generated from the volatile fatty acids by methane producing bacteria or methanogens.
The sensor node attached to the bin helps in the collection and transmission of data. The sensor node is divided in 2 groups. The first group consists of accelerometer sensor, temperature and humidity sensor, ultrasonic sensor. The Accelerometer sensor checks the opening/ closing of the lid. The temperature and humidity sensor keeps track of the temperature and humidity inside the bin; two parameters that become important when storing organic waste. The ultrasonic sensor measures the filling of the bin. The second group consists of a Zigbee Pro that acts as a transmitter to send the collected data to the gateway. The importance of this bin is that it can be used to store any waste: Plastic waste, E-waste, Metal waste, Foodwaste, Organic waste as in all these types of waste, collection interval will depend on the filling of the bin except in foodwaste and organic waste where all these parameters decide the collection interval.
Development [UK DFID], 2004). Yet surprisingly little research is being conducted into how much food is wasted and why (Gustavsson, Cederberg, Sonesson, Van Otterdijk, & Meybeck, 2011), particularly since reducing the wastage of food already produced is the more appropriate option for feeding a growing population and lessening the agri-food industry’s impact on the environment (Gooch, Felfel, & Marenick, 2010). The UK’s Waste Resources and Action Program (WRAP), which sponsors the “Love Food, Hate Waste” website, estimated that if food that is currently wasted were eaten in the UK (5.3 million tons or 60 percent of 8.3 million tons annually), it would have the same carbon impact as taking five million cars off their roads (WRAP, 2011). This 5.3 million tons of foodwaste required 6.2 billion cubic meters of water to be produced, which is 6 percent of the UK’s water requirements and nearly twice the annual household water usage of the UK (WRAP, 2011).
Nitrogen has traditionally been considered as one of the most important plant nutrients. It is an essential component of the proteins that build cell material and plant tissue. Of all the major plant nutrients, N is often the most important determinant of plant growth and crop yield. Plants lacking N show stunted growth and yellowish leaves. Plant growth and crop yield usually increase when N is added, despite the presence of N in soils. This is because most of the N in soils is stored within the soil humus in forms that plants cannot access. The quantity of nitrogen supplied by the soil is determined by the quantity of nitrogen released from the soil organic matter, that released by decomposition of residues of the previous crop, any nitrogen supplied by previous applications of organic waste, and any nitrogen carried over from previous fertilizer application. Therefore, we can see that the soil from the vermicomposting is better in terms of fertilizer usage as it contains the greater number of nitrogen for plants to growth.
According to Lebersorger and Schneider, 2014 refer to Hölzl, 2014; Schneider and Lebersorger, 2009, the retail transaction is at the end of supply chain. Retail management is really important in order to reduce foodwaste or loss happen. Because when the media and public discussion about foodwaste and foodwaste prevention, retail is often blamed for being one of the main contributors. He add that, only a small percentage of the overall amount of foodwaste along the supply chain is produced by retail. The amount of foodwaste generated by retailers is a minor fraction of all the food discarded along the supply chain. That’s is the one of the reasons why until now waste in retailing has not been studied in depth like other stages such as household and food service (Cicatiello et al., 2016). While (Buisman, Haijema and Bloemhof-Ruwaard, 2017) said The reason foodwaste occurs in retailing is inappropriate quality control, overstocking and inaccurate forecasting. This shows retailing need good management in order to reduce foodwaste happen in the industry In Malaysia, there is no specific studies in that focusing on foodwaste in retail industry. Thus this paper will do a research on retail industry in Malaysia on how much they contribute on foodwaste and how they prevent or reducing it. On top everything, by preventing foodwaste from their roots will solve this problem from occurring and making more foodwaste in retailing industry in future.
One quarter of all produced food for human consumption is wasted. Thereby, half of the waste is generated in households. Although consumers commonly dislike the resulting environmental, economic and social consequences, interventions to reduce household-based foodwaste could not result in large-scale improvements. Previous research shows that consumers adopt a self-interested point of view when considering the implications of self- produced foodwaste. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate whether addressing consumers’ egoistic tendencies by means of a corresponding informational text about foodwaste consequences has the potential to intrinsically motivate consumers to alter their attitudes and intentions with regard to foodwaste. A one factor between-subjects design (other-focused vs other- & self-focused) was used with self-interest as moderator. In this context, the extent to which participants are considered as self-interested was also taken into account using a correlational design. Next to self-interest, attitudes towards foodwaste and the intention to reduce foodwaste were measured after the manipulation took place using an online survey of 199 consumers. About self-interest, the results show a significant association with attitudes and intention. Less self-interested consumers seem to have a more negative attitude towards foodwaste and a greater intention to reduce foodwaste. The results also show that there were no significant effects resulting from the provided extra information. This implies that the additional presentation of self-focused information next to other-focused information about foodwaste is not persuasive enough to change consumers’ attitudes and intentions in this context. A plausible explanation is that textual information (alone) is not effective enough to trigger consumers’ intrinsic motivation. Future research is advised to adopt other methods than solely providing information by means of a text to validate the outcomes of the present study.
The development of our civilization results in an ever increasing demand for energy. In the last years, the reserves of traditional fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas have been determined. One of the most commonly debated issues is their negative impact on the environment. One of the possibilities for increasing the share of renewable energy could be the agricultural biogas. Biogas is most frequently used in co-generation when creating heat and electric energy. It’s becoming more and more popular source of bio methane. The experimental and field results from this study from the operation of biogas production system lead to the following conclusions; 1. The use of water hyacinth with cowdung and foodwaste can improve the rate of biogas production.
Foodwaste, the word comprises of all the waste or left - over’s resulting from food at different phases, initiating from the harvest till it reaches the household levels. Foodwaste is defined by FAO as “the food appropriate for human intake being superfluous, whether or not after it is kept beyond its expiry date or left to spoil” . Often this is because food has spoiled, but it can be for other reasons such as oversupply due to less market demands, or changes in individual consumer shopping or eating habits. In developing countries in contemporary years, due to globalization, urbanization and increase money flow the food is being bought at large beyond the needs and being squandered easily, is a key menacing factor for foodwaste management systems and food security as well. This also leads to difficulties in upholding a hygienic and sanitary environment due to foodwaste disposal hitches, as a resultant severe health hazards and spread of many communicable diseases is uncontrollable. This article is reviewed with the intention of highlighting the various sites of foodwaste origin and the means and ways to overcome so as to ensure food security.
vegetables (r = -.22, p < .05) and protein (r = -.32, p < .01). The intention to avoid foodwaste shows statistically significant negative correlations with three out of six food categories, fruits and vegetables, protein and ready-to-eat products (r = -.32, p < .01, r = -.44, p < .01 and r = - .22, p < .05, respectively). Financial attitudes show no significant correlations with any food category. The perceived health risks show a positive correlation with four out of the six foodwaste categories. This illustrates that when the participants feel that there is a low health risk then will tend to waste less food in these categories. On the other hand when the participants feel that there is a high health risk they will tend to waste more food in these categories, due to the fact that they perceive the risk of becoming ill by these foods. This goes for protein (r = .29, p < .05), ready-to-eat products (r = .24, p < .05), starches (r = .29, p < .01) and dairy (r = .26, p < .01). Personal norms and household planning habits both only show one significant negative correlation with the same foodwaste category, protein (r = -.31, p < .01 and r = -.39, p < .01, respectively).
production as it contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates and various trace elements, this promote a balanced process . Foodwaste must not contain a lot proteins as this will lead to ammonia inhibition . Pigs and chicken manure contain more protein compared to cattle manure. This is because most of the organic material in the feed has already been converted into methane in the stomach of ruminants. Various crops and plant materials such as corn, grain, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit, grass maybe used for biogas production . Many bioenergy crops have a high C: N ratio and mixing with more nitrogen-rich material can achieve optimum process conditions. Co-digestion of energy crops with manure can increase methane recovery by 16- 65% . Slaughterhouse waste has high protein and fats contents, thus very energy rich hence high biogas production potential. Stable process operation can be achieved with co- digestion . Fig. 6 shows biogas yield from various substrates .
23 been demonstrated to be effective in achieving process stability, these methods add significantly to the process cost by requiring additional infrastructure or chemicals. In Chapter 3, the possibilities of adapting these regimens by using only foodwaste without any synthetic chemicals or conventional feedstocks like manure to attain improved process stability were assessed through an experimental study. Other food sector waste materials, including acid whey (AW), energy drinks (ED), wasted bread (WB) and paper napkins (PN) were used as co-substrates to evaluate stability issues in food scrap digestion. While foodwaste is commonly co-digested in small amounts with manure, there is a need for significant developments in achieving foodwaste-only digestion to accommodate increasing rates of landfill diversion. The majority of the studies have used animal manure and sludge as the co-substrates, except for a few studies which involved rice straw  and fats, oils, and grease . There are specific challenges associated with foodwaste-only digestion because, without any co-substrates, foodwaste digestion results in process instability due to insufficient trace elements that regulate enzyme reactions and ammonia formation. Therefore, the conventional practice has been to digest foodwaste at a relatively low fraction with primary substrates of animal manure or sewage sludge. The specific research contributions related to anaerobic digestion of pure foodwaste are discussed in detail in Chapter 3.