Footballbusiness existence is mainly based on the horizontal integration – the consolidation of football clubs for the collaborative performance using joint business structures. Football as a sport is based on the competition between clubs to achieve better sport results – Szymanski (1999) states that this is the main reason for spectators’ interests, which generates income for the sport clubs. It means that individual performance of football club may guarantee only minimal income (e.g. from the sales of souvenirs) and for a limited time (e.g. if club does not participate in any competition, its souvenirs will become worthless for the football fans). The football club that wants to earn has first of all to make its name famous. From the marketing point of view, popularity of the football club and its image are the main elements that contribute to the efficiency of the economic activities of the club. In this case, the sport results serve as an instrument for shaping the positive image of the club. Any club that is interested in economic efficiency must participate in various sport events (most often – in football leagues of particular scale). In the development of footballbusiness, the matches between football clubs became formalized, strictly controlled by formal structures, which existence is conditioned by the necessity of football clubs cooperation (Howie, 2004). The legal forms of those structures may be of several types, but most often they are the associations of football clubs and are responsible for the administration of footballbusiness system, which consists of the founding clubs. The football association guarantees the income generation for its members by organizing football matches.
It’s a unique program that
focuses on football professionals (players, coaches, technicians, managers) as well as those who are passionate about the sport. This combination allows people with a football mentality and different profiles, the chance to share experiences and learn from each other.
In this publication we compare clubs using revenue from day to day footballbusiness operations. We believe that our methodology – outlined in more detail in ‘How we did it’ – represents the best publicly available financial comparison. We are aware that in some cases clubs have other financial performance measures that they may consider to be a better basis for comparison. Some would prefer a profit measure, rather than a comparison of revenues. Even with regard to revenues there is debate as to the ‘right’ figure. Some have publicised their ‘gross revenue’ i.e. including the amounts earned by outsourced partners from deals with clubs rather than the ‘net’ amount that is recognised in the club’s accounts and/or the inclusion of player transfer receipts. Others would prefer to include revenues from sources not directly connected with day to day football club operations, such as property development.
We use the terms ‘revenue’ and ‘income’ interchangeably. Revenue excludes player transfer fees, VAT and other sales related taxes. In a few cases we have made adjustments to total income figures to enable, in our view, a more meaningful comparison of the footballbusiness on a club by club basis. For instance, where information was available to us, significant non-football activities or capital transactions have been excluded from income. Each club’s financial information has been prepared on the basis of national accounting practice or International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”). In some cases, a club has changed the basis of accounting to IFRS for the 2005/06 period, or will be changing to IFRS for 2006/07 or later. The financial results of some clubs have changed, or may in future change, due to the change in the basis of accounting practice. In some cases these changes may be significant.
Economics is a science that examines how people use scarce and limited sources of production to produce various commodities and distributes them to various members of society for consumption. Increasing economic value has introduced a new task for the football federation and has become an im- portant financial resource of sports clubs. When it is considered as football industry, football organizations, footballbusiness, football media, football products, soccer technology, soccer marketing and soccer federation are seen in the production and consumption of goods and services in the football. In- direct management of economic benefit through sports is a direct link to clubs and federations. The economic entrepreneurship that stands out in the pro- fessional football gives the football a great popularity and enables the income to be obtained more easily. Today, the football market has reached a budget expressed in billion dollars. For this reason both sports clubs and federations have to plan their budgets according to the rules of the economy. The aim of this study is to provide important economic resources in the football club and the football economy having a major impact to analyze the financial perfor- mance of the Turkey Football Federation and to examine the contribution made to improve the financial condition of the football club.
of individuals within this target group, it is necessary to build training capacity at the national level and seek alternative methods to deliver training. The e-learning modules developed present an excellent opportunity to reach this group. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the distribution and marketing of e-learning modules to ensure they reach the widest audience possible. In recognition of the specific training needs of those investigating allegations of match-fixing, recommendation #9 of the previous TNA states: “develop in conjunction with the appropriate law enforcement agencies a training programme on how to identify, investigate and prosecute match- fixing corruption in football. Those officers trained in this area could form the basis of a global LEA expert’s network to assist in these global investigations.” While existing workshops recognize the importance of law enforcement as a key stakeholder in the fight against match-fixing, additional training programmes should be developed that focus on specific investigative requirements. Also, as the need for information sharing between stakeholders has been identified, there is an additional training need for members of football associations (such as integrity officers) tasked with collecting information regarding allegations of match-fixing within their organization and liaising with law enforcement officials. Finally, while current training offerings are conducted at the national and regional level, there is a need to train investigators – from both law enforcement and the football community – on how to improve coordination of international investigations, given the scale and mobility of crime groups engaged in match-fixing.
The impact of an injury on a club can be considered in relation to its severity and the number of potential competitive matches missed. An average of 4.0 matches were missed per injury, with 78% of the injuries leading to a minimum of one match missed. Major injuries represented 23% of those reported in the cur- rent study and slight injuries represented 10%. The mean number of days lost per injury was 24.2, and, based on the incidence of injuries per month, the mean number of injuries per club per season was 39.1. These figures confirm previous reports of the high risk of injury in professional football, 1 3–5
Based on the viewpoints of the experts, with advancements in social networks the opportunity was provided for spectators to make comparisons; it is not easy to get customers’ satisfaction! To this end, the provision of well-deserved customer services is one of the main factors in maintaining satisfaction and attracting spectators to football stadiums (32). Desirable and clean seats, good reception, fun and appealing programs, scoreboard quality, symbols and flags of the favorite team, behavior and appearance of the guides and volunteers in the stadium, and the presence and behavior of security forces are the facilities that, if improved, can promote attendance in stadiums. Furthermore, the use of football experts before and after the match, reviewing the history of games, analyzing and evaluating the technical performance of players and coaches, providing a complete report of the competition by the reporter, and the use of SLAM and repetitive systems in attractive scenes are among the things that make spectators to sit at home and watch the game on TV. Attending stadiums just to socialize with other spectators simply cannot compete with the media services that are increasingly developing. Hence, improving the quality of services in stadiums in order to increase spectators’ attendance is a top urgent. Generally speaking, good services in stadiums can include the appropriate quality of the matches, the good performance of the players, the performance and services of the stadium staff, as well as the suitable seats, which should be considered by the relevant authorities (33).
According to Coakley (1986), the family prevails as the primary socialising agent which socialises and treats girls and boys differently and exposes them to different cultural expectations as soon as they are born. To a certain extent, the parental expectations may change, shape, or dominate their children's selection of sport, as demonstrated in the study by Yan and Thomas (1995). Parents are known to push their children to do things that they want and not what their children want. Sport is not an exemption with most of the parents expecting their boys to be actively involved in football while choosing for their daughters a more “softer game”. Rarely would a family influence a girl positively to get involved in sports. Those who are already in it get negative reactions from family members which pose a great challenge to them. Buffer (1996), argues that the socializing process at home for both sexes is different and that males and females are created as early as the child is born. According to Snydera (1976), boys usually get more support and encouragement to get involved in sports and are also offered more sporting opportunities while girls receive greater encouragement for certain sports which are seen to be more feminine. This may redirect girls with an interest in football to other sports which seem more feminine.
Mintzberg’s later work had questioned the reliance on a single strategist, usually the CEO, in the prescriptive schools of thought ( Mintzberg, 1990 ). He questioned whether one person could understand the situation fully and be able to process all of the required information to make the decisions in advance of implementation ( Mintzberg, 1990 ). Mintzberg suggested that conceptual frameworks, designed to help explore a situation, had been taken as models to explain a situation. This distinction was picked up by Porter ( 1991 ) who suggests that models are used to simplify a complex situation by reducing the number of variable factors to those that could be measured whereas a framework retained the complexity of the situation. This can be linked back to Rumelt’s suggestion that the ‘overwhelming complexity’ of the environment needs to be simplified to allow managers to focus on the critical issues ( Rumelt, 2011 ). The use of models is common in other academic subjects, such as economics and biology, for classification or prediction. In strategy however, there is no limit to the number of labels, boxes or classes that can be used; companies adapt at a faster rate than in those subjects ( Baden-Fuller & Morgan, 2010 ) This “pretence of science” based on partial analysis and unbalanced assumptions can be dangerous in practice as it downplays the complexity of the business environment ( Ghoshal, 2005 ). The frameworks can be used in the process of sense-making ( Rumelt, 2011; Weick, Sutcliffe & Obstfeld, 2005 ) and this will be explored in a later section of the literature review as the role of frames is discussed.
in football fan violence do not simply reflect, in any direct and straightforward fashion, wider changes in criminality and public violence.
In view of this, we need to understand the logic of football in Brazil. As we noted in the introduction, the fact that there are no deaths in certain places of the country does not mean that, in those places, there is no violence. On the contrary, Paraná, for example, has no record of death; however, it has been the scene of several violent clashes involving football fans. Perhaps the most emblematic of them occurred at the end of 2009, when, outraged by the relegation of the club, Coritiba fans destroyed part of the facilities of ‘Couto Pereira’ (stadia of the club) and invaded the field, confronting the police. Outside the stadia, a woman was hit by a home-made bomb on her way back to the bus home and lost part of her left hand 6 . However,
Football-related arrests and football banning orders Season 2012-13
During 2012-13 season the number arrests in connection with all international and domestic football (“regulated”) matches involving teams from, or representing, England and Wales was 2,456. This represents a slight increase of 4%, or 93 arrests, on the 2011-12 total – which was the lowest total on record. The general downwards trend in football-related arrests is continuing, although there remains a significant risk it will escalate if efforts to prevent and tackle football-related disorder are reduced.
Winning is the purpose of football and it is an important part of player development; however, the Youth Coach must remember that their role is not to get their team to win the Championship, but to develop individual players who will be successful within the Playing Style when they reach the Performance Phase (winning titles is an incidental bonus!) So, on Match Day the youth coach avoids emotional behavior with constant reaction to every incident in the game; rather than shout instructions, they observe what the players do and listens to their communication. This will help them gain an accurate indication of the players’ progress and the success of their training program.
Problems remain, however, when journalists fail either to familiarize themselves with the issues or seek expert advice. Jim Traynor of The Daily Record suggested that in contemporary journalism ‘there are too many lazy journalists about’ (interview, May 2000). The business journalist and PR consultant, Maurice Smith, recently bemoaned media analysis of the business logic of the proposed new European League (involving the Old Firm), asking ‘So when did our armchair sports commentators become business experts?’ (Sunday Herald, 20 August 2000). This is exacerbated by the preference among sports journalists for relying on traditional sources, often former players or managers, to provide ‘expert’ analysis, irrespective of whether the issue under discussion relates to their area of expertise. Following Celtic’s 1999/2000 Scottish Cup defeat by Inverness Caledonian Thistle, Alan Wright wrote in The Scotsman: ‘Defeat costly for investors as Celtic shares take a dive’. The former Celtic manager and player, Billy McNeill, was quoted as saying ‘obviously they [the plc board] must be worried about that amount of money being wiped off the club’s resources’.
An NCAA football game lasts approximately 3 hours, with a 15-minute halftime. To meet his hydration and carbohydrate energy needs, we suggest Marcus consumes about 85 oz of Gatorade, and work with his athletic trainer to space this out over the course of the game if possible. This will meet his hydration needs as well as provide 149 g of carbohydrate. Combined with the additional 25 g of carbohydrate from the chews during halftime, Marcus will meet the recommended amount of carbohydrate and should feel that he has more energy at the start of and throughout the second half. Additionally, as part of his fluid intake, we recommend Marcus add one packet of Gatorlytes to a 20 oz bottle of Gatorade at halftime to increase his sodium. If this does not help decrease the risk of muscle cramping in the fourth quarter, he could replace Gatorade Thirst Quencher with Endurance Formula, which provides the same carbohydrate energy with additional sodium.
Real is currently buoyed by its bumper broadcast revenues that it can negotiate on an individual basis. However this luxury looks set to change, with La Liga instituting a more equitable distribution of broadcasting rights similar to the Premier League, particularly now that Atletico has disrupted the unquestioned dominance of Real and Barca. On the other hand the slowly improving Spanish economy is steadily reducing the risk associated with the brand and is likely to increase domestic revenues, increasing brand value in the years to come. For Real to overtake Bayern to become the world’s most valuable football brand once more, it will need to focus further on its commercial and match-day revenue streams; the plans for the new Bernabeu suggest it is well on its way.
Nebraska has won 43 football conference championships in school history and is looking for its first Big Ten Conference crown in in 2014. The Huskers won 13 conference titles under Tom Osborne and eight under Bob Devaney. During its 15-year history in the Big 12 Conference, Nebraska won league titles in 1997 and 1999, and also appeared in the Big 12 Championship Game in 1996, 2006, 2009 and 2010. Nebraska was one of just three teams to capture two or more Big 12 titles in the first 15 years of the league, joining Oklahoma and Texas. Nebraska’s six Big 12 title game appearances were second only to Oklahoma’s eight. Nebraska made its first appearance in the Big Ten Championship Game in 2012.
In the year of the World Cup in Brazil 2014, the sheer mass of content across multiple sources in both the media and research outputs suggests that football is a World game. Estimates of viewing figures for the most recent Football World Cup Finals range from 250 million actual viewers (i.e., those that watched the final game) to 700 million viewers who consumed ‘some part’ of the game (i.e., the reach) (see FIFA, No 1 Sports Event). FIFA also reported that the cumulative television viewing figures for each of the 2006 and 2010 World Cups in Germany and South Africa was an incredible 26.29 billion 1 . Significantly, it is the ability of football to ‘reach’ so many people that makes it a true game for all; irrespective of gender, age, ethnicity, religious belief, disability, socio-economic or health-status. Brazil is the heart of creative and attractive football and the home of carnivals and sunshine. The business world readied itself to capitalize on the exposure that any alignment or presence at the World Cup could bring to the global awareness of their brand. However, it would seem that those who seek to encourage and foster social good through football have been slow to capitalise on such intrigue and interest in order to capture and connect with all who have some propensity to consume football or to be reached by and through football. Most notably, the limited attention to social good or social welfare campaigns aligned to the World Cup was arguably the biggest miss of the whole tournament? This volume explores the power of football and its role in engaging and including its ‘populous’ in positive social and behavioural activity. Specifically, this volume highlights a range of approaches that have
Terry was born December 3 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He attended Central High school where he was a star basketball player and started as a junior on the foot- ball team. Terry Jones is a graduate of the University of Alabama located in Tus- caloosa, Alabama with a Bachelor of Science in General Business Administra- tion. As a student Athlete, Terry started all four years. In his senior year he was voted a captain by his teammates.