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Modeling Of The Process Of Functioning Of The Mechanism Of Economic Security Of Foreign Economic Activity Of Enterprise Taking Into Account Weak Signals And Identification Of Risks And Threats

Modeling Of The Process Of Functioning Of The Mechanism Of Economic Security Of Foreign Economic Activity Of Enterprise Taking Into Account Weak Signals And Identification Of Risks And Threats

is not a governing body to ensure the economic security of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise, but rather acts as a management object. Such a situation is not useful, but even harmful in the context of ensuring the economic security of the enterprise, since then the response of the governing body is less dependable on many possible stimuli, and such a reaction is narrowed regarding the entire spectrum {S}. Of course, it is difficult to talk about the effectiveness of MESEFEA in this situation, therefore, to ensure the normal efficient functioning of MESEFEA in the case of a wide range of {S}, the variability {R} should be adequately high. But this fact must be checked before, at the step of MESEFEA construction. Another aspect of checking the set {R} is to establish the completeness of the reaction for all the sets {R1}, {R2}, {R3} and {R4}. That is, in general, for the set {R} the number of reactions may be sufficient, but for individual sets of {R1}, {R2}, {R3} and {R4} the number of reactions may be insufficient. In such a situation, when checking the effectiveness of the developed algorithm for constructing MESEFEA, it is advisable to check for sufficiency of each of the sets under consideration and, if necessary, supplement it with the necessary reactions. If the verification of the effectiveness of the generated MESEFEA in all areas recognized the adequacy of MESEFEA, its adequacy, the ability to perform the main task is to ensure adequate {R} in the case of empirically and scenario-confirmed {S}, then the action of the algorithm should be considered as completed, and the generated MESEFEA is ready for work. If an imbalance is identified in one or more of the proposed areas of verification, or iterative simulation has revealed insufficient functionality of the mechanism, then the proposed algorithm provides a return to the stage of determining the internal content of MESEFEA, its refinement in order to provide an
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Justification Of Management Decisions On Assessing The State Of Economic Security Based On Financial Indicators

Justification Of Management Decisions On Assessing The State Of Economic Security Based On Financial Indicators

conduct a financial analysis of their activities. After receiving the necessary information about the potential partner, you can determine the level of its reliability and make sure on the optimal choice of the counterparty. In our opinion, there is no need to carry out a full analysis of the economic activity of industrial enterprises and calculate a whole range of indicators that may not be sufficiently informative in this case. But in the process of assessing the level of economic security of the enterprise foreign economic activity, we decided to evaluate the export and import components, based on two main criteria: maximizing the marginal profit from foreign economic activity and minimizing the import dependence of an enterprise. Margin analysis is very useful in terms of improving the quality of information and analytical support for the economic security of foreign economic activity of domestic industrial enterprises and for assessing its level. The fundamental basis of this analysis is the marginal income and profit of the enterprise as a whole [6], [7]. It should be noted that one of the key parameters of the enterprise economic security is the realization of the economic interests of the entity, which are expressed by the profits available to the enterprise and used by it for production and social purposes. Accordingly, it can be stated that profit is the basis of an appropriate level of the enterprise economic security. Thus, profit is an important economic category for any enterprise along with the category of ―economic security‖, which, moreover, is interdependent. Today, determining the profit of an enterprise is carried out on the basis of a direct calculation method, it compares income and the total cost of production of the enterprise and on the basis of margin
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OPTIMIZATION OF TAXATION IN EXPORT AND IMPORT TRANSACTIONS OF RUSSIA

OPTIMIZATION OF TAXATION IN EXPORT AND IMPORT TRANSACTIONS OF RUSSIA

The development of commodity markets and the growth of international trade are the most characteristic features of globalization. In modern conditions, many previously functioned rules are no longer effective. With this in mind, all countries (individually) have to adapt to the new order. An understanding of the processes of globalization, will allow them to reduce costs to a minimum and to increase its own profits. Economic policy can encourage and support the process of globalization, or, on the contrary, hinder the action of forces which accelerate. Customs policy, as an important component of economy, is also subject to this phenomenon. It is globalization of international trade which is the main driving force encouraging a change of philosophy and function of modern duties. The result is a different view of its role, the creation of new functions and tasks of the customs administration - the chief architect and regulator of foreign economic activity (G. Mosey, 2004).
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Complementarity of Foreign Aid and Domestic Savings as Drivers of Economic Growth: Evidence from WAMZ1 Countries

Complementarity of Foreign Aid and Domestic Savings as Drivers of Economic Growth: Evidence from WAMZ1 Countries

Saving is one of the economic growth drivers - an important precondition for economic growth, macroeconomic balance and the maintenance of financial and price stability (Arawomo, 2012). Gale and Sablehause (1999) defined savings as output of resources which have been unconsumed in current year and available for future period. Accordingly, a relatively low level of domestic saving could limit growth and makes the country much more vulnerable than it would otherwise be to international capital shifts. There has been a marked divergence in the level of saving rates across the world in the last few decades. While countries in East Asia, Europe and America saved as much as 30%, disappointingly, the average saving rate in Africa is around 16%. More worrisome is that the average saving rate of countries in WAMZ is below 11% (Adewuyi et al 2010).
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Foreign aid and economic growth in Ethiopia

Foreign aid and economic growth in Ethiopia

Mallik(2007) examined the effectiveness of foreign aid on economic growth using a cointegration analysis for the period 1965-2005 in the six poorest highly aid dependent African countries: Central African Republic, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Sierra Leone and Togo. He used the following variables in the study: real gross domestic product, aid as percentage of GDP, investment as a share of GDP and openness. The study made a distinction between the long-run and short-run impact of foreign aid on economic growth using country specific data by applying cointegration technique and error correction (ECM) method. The empirical result, estimated for each country, shows that in the five out of the six countries, foreign aid has a significant negative long run effect on economic growth, the only exception was Togo. Foreign has a long run positive impact on growth in Togo. Given that the six selected countries have common characteristics like low income and low human capital, the effectiveness of aid in Togo may be associated to the favorable macroeconomic policy environment. In the short run aid has no significant effect on economic growth per capita for most of the countries except for Niger. The negative effect of foreign aid indicated the long-term deleterious effect of international aid on living standard in these countries. However, the negative impact of aid may not show the reality of aid ineffectiveness in those countries but rather the short comings in the model specification. The problem is that aid and investment are used together as explanatory variables which lead to the problem of double counting as part of foreign aid is used to finance investment(see Girma, Gomanee and Morrissey, 2005).
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ANALIES OF SINGAPORE'S FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

ANALIES OF SINGAPORE'S FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Thus, we see that international trade plays a vital role in the economic development of Singapore. The interests of foreign policy are put in the first place. Singapore with its specific economic position of the city-state has firmly entered into the system of world economic relations and established itself in the world market, having achieved a favorable attitude towards itself from both regional and non-regional states. Despite the fact that the share of foreign trade operations of Singapore in world exports and imports is not so great, this figure continues to grow. In addition, the geography of exports and imports of Singapore is determined not only by its geographical location, but also the historical past of the country. Singapore’s colonial past reflected in the fact that today the United Kingdom is one of the country's major trading partners on the world stage, although most of Singapore’s exports and imports come from Asia. So, in the
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Factor Endowment, Institutional Constraints and Regional Economic Development Potential—Empirical Analysis Based on the Perspective of New Structural Economics

Factor Endowment, Institutional Constraints and Regional Economic Development Potential—Empirical Analysis Based on the Perspective of New Structural Economics

economics favored the strict control of all forms of international financial flows. It also believes that foreign direct investment is a form of foreign capital flow that is most beneficial to developing countries, and that foreign direct investment generally brings technology, management, market channels and social networks, which will be beneficial to industrial upgrading in developing countries (Lin 2011)[1]. Infrastructure construction is the general material condition for social development. It enlarges the possible boundary of social production by providing better services and facilities for the private sector and the public, and promotes the productive efficiency of all sectors of society. Infrastructure construction under the new structure economic theory has become a way for government departments to stabilize economic development. As a non-market behavior, government expenditure can influence economic growth by influencing the efficiency of factor use. Rao and Liu (2014)[2] through the establishment of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to study the relationship between government expenditure and economic fluctuations in China, pointed out that government expenditure will cause the externality of production, and the impact of government productive expenditure on consumer consumption and private investment will cause short-term crowding-out effect. A notable feature of marketization is the extent to which non-state-owned enterprises play a role in the market. Liu and Zhang (2007)[3] pointed out that the development of China's non-state-owned economy has promoted the quantitative expansion of economic growth. The main reason is that the non-state-owned reform as a system innovation makes the interests within the system achieve Pareto-type growth.
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UGC APPROVED JOURNAL

UGC APPROVED JOURNAL

finished goods, Cash in handand bank balance, Other current asset, Total current liability, Total Output, Total sales value, total export, Salary and Wages, Total Input, Total Profit (after tax),Import of capital goods, Equity, Income and FDI. This analysis was done using 11 years data over the period from 2006 to 2016 for each variable, depending on the availability of data. Eighty five companies had not received any foreign direct investment till 2016. Hence eighty five companies could not be included for analysis.

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The effects of FDI, CO2 emissions, and Inflation on Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan

The effects of FDI, CO2 emissions, and Inflation on Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan

the FDI in the country; First government needs to cover the energy shortage in the country that will attract more FDI in the country. There is also need to improve the law and order situation as poor peace conditions negatively affects the investment opportunities. Inflation is also a major economic issue of Pakistan; there might be several reasons for the inflation both monetary and non-monetary. Therefore first need to determine the roots of inflation; if monetary factors are the responsible for higher prices in economy government should control money supply in the economy; in case if the inflation are due to non-factors then government should be control non- monetary factors. Since environmental degradation is the hurdle in the way of long-run economic growth, therefore actions are needed to keep the pollution below certain level. Also, proper legislation is required to control the level of CO 2
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Nationalization of foreign investments in international law : the experience of selected African countries

Nationalization of foreign investments in international law : the experience of selected African countries

of payment of compensation for nationalized foreign-owned property, the third is concerned with the role of foreign investments in African economic development and lastly the fourth chap[r]

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Brain Drain or Brain Gain? The case of Moroccan Students in France

Brain Drain or Brain Gain? The case of Moroccan Students in France

Our findings provide important lessons and offer additional insights about the migration determinants for both origin and host countries. If the Moroccan authorities turned a blind eye on the issue of return of migrant students, as if they implicitly encourage their migration regardless of their return, considering them as a common source of foreign exchange (via remittances); the French authorities are also satisfied with the current situation, given the number of Moroccan graduates and researchers who settle in France permanently. The question posed by this paper is very important and makes reference to ethical debate in the context of brain drain. It is heavily difficult to accept that the best trained human resources in the poor countries migrate to rich countries without any consideration. Especially when, France decide to implement a new immigration policy (June 2006) to encourage more talented foreign students graduated from a French institution of higher education to still in France (“ Migration choisie ”) . One of the important measures of this policy is the three-year residence permit for highly-qualified students in order to enhance the development and attractiveness of France as leading research country. “ To sweeten the pill ” and counterbalance the negative effects of the brain drain, the French authorities have implemented mechanisms to assist the return of students and facilitate the movement of “ brains ” , which were brought into the “ original ” concept of co-development . In preamble, it is noteworthy to pinpoint that the co-development policy is not efficient and operational, since it focuses on circular migration but returns actually are very scarce so that return migration is a total failure. It is important to acknowledge that the reason behind individual return migration is usually tied to economic opportunities. However, in the origin countries, a phase of increased growth rate did not benefit to all agents and could hit some workers so that inequality increases and reinforces the migration propensity. In other words, accelerating growth in the South provides no guarantee that migration will slow down. On the contrary it is quite possible that it speeds up, whereas a massive migration of skilled workers from Southern countries will slow down their growth rate.
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Economic Theories of Foreign Trade Transactions

Economic Theories of Foreign Trade Transactions

David Ricardo continues the line of thought of Adam Smith with whom he agrees in many respects, but has a greater power of abstraction and generalization, which allows him to raise the economic theory of one step higher, indicating that exchange of goods is governed of different principles depending on the level at which they are made: macroeconomic or worldeconomic.

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The effect of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Ethiopia; an empirical investigation

The effect of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Ethiopia; an empirical investigation

In the above result, the estimated coefficient of the real GDP growth rate (0.19) is statistically significant at the 1 percent level which is positive and consistent with the expectation. This statistically significant coefficient of GRGDP confirms the existence of simultaneity problem which justifies our specification of a simultaneous equations model is therefore correct. And this estimated coefficient on growth rate of real GDP indicates that, other things remaining constant, a 1 percentage point increase in real GDP growth rate would raise rate of FDI growth by 0.19 percentage point. It seems that higher economic growth in Ethiopia indeed reflects good signals about the Ethiopian economy to foreign investors. Thus, countries with large market and high market potentials are more likely to be successful in attracting FDI than poorer countries which is perfectly in line with the FDI theory. That is, the higher the rate of economic growth is the higher the rate of FDI inflows in a country. It is believed that foreign investors are keen to invest their money in those countries where the growth rate of the economy is showing an upward trend. A high level of economic growth is also a strong indication of market opportunity which in turn a basis for high amount of FDI inflows. The coefficient of inflation (-0.86) which is significant at 5% level indicates that there is a negative correlation between FDI and inflation. That is, High and unpredictable inflation which is a proxy for macroeconomic instability distorts the information content of the market prices and the incentive structure which affects FDI inflows negatively. The growth rate of total external debt variable (GD) has also negative effect on growth rate of FDI which is significant at 5 percent level. This suggests that growth rate of total foreign debt is a case for macroeconomic instability which affects FDI inflows negatively. A devaluation of real exchange rate tends to raise FDI inflows into Ethiopia as the estimated coefficient of real exchange rate (0.37) is positive and statistically significant at the 1 percent level in the 3SLS estimation. Also the dummy variable coefficient (56.09) which is significant at 5 percent level indicates that there is a significant increment in the inflow of FDI in Ethiopia after 1991, where the Ethiopian economy shifted from command economy to market oriented system.
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RJ policy transfer: the case of Jamaica

RJ policy transfer: the case of Jamaica

As stated previously, the questionnaire and the focus group were not utilised in order to gain public consensus on RJ. Instead they were used to demonstrate the detailed, rich information that the Jamaican government might have garnered had they embraced a collaborative approach to policymaking. As will be discussed in greater detail, the Jamaican government distributed questionnaires to the same cohort that participated in their ‘talking circles’ in order to bolster the validity of their data collection. However, I demonstrate that the questionnaires could have been used to garner a perspective that is less widely found in public consultation. Unlike, the focus groups, which garnered the opinions of persons from a lower socio-economic status only, the distribution of an online questionnaire data might have provided insight into the attitudes of individuals who are often not part of these studies but contribute to public opinion and can provide support to the RJ programme as volunteers and financial donors. A number of studies that attempt to obtain information from a range of social classes use self-administered questionnaires (Griffith, Negy & Chadee, 2006; Jones & Jemmott, 2009; Jones, 2011; Pasura et al. 2013). Therefore, the issue of selection bias is not applicable, since my intention was not to capture public opinion, but rather to demonstrate how it might have been captured more effectively. A questionnaire was the most suitable complement to focus groups in order to obtain information from a wider cross-section of Jamaican society.
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Evolution of Free Economic Zones: A Functional Taxonomy

Evolution of Free Economic Zones: A Functional Taxonomy

This study investigates the evolution of Free Economic Zones (FEZs) using the functional criteria. The methodology of the study involved analysis of the literature. The study makes five main revelations. First, the evolution of FEZ is in general consistent with theory of city life-cycle that states that a city will undergo different stages such as birth, growth, flourishing and decline. And at each stage there are several specific challenges concerning its industrial structure, enterprise structure, spatial structure and so on. Second, the study identifies five evolutionary phases of FEZs which are: Free Trade Zones, Export Processing Zones, Science Industrial Parks, Service Economic Zones and Special Economic Zones; each of these basic zones contain several variants. Third, as the typical FEZs evolve they change the focus of their functions both vertically and horizontally. In vertical terms the zones change the focus of their activities from trade related to manufacturing of the traded goods. In horizontal terms the zones expand their scope by embracing more sectors such as services, science and residential issues. Fourth, there is a progressively stronger orientation toward technology and skill intensive manufacturing and services. Fifth, FEZs are attractive to investors because of the existence of policy failures in the greater host economy: as policy reforms happen investors will see no need for staying in the FEZs and the relative significance of FEZs in economic terms can be expected to decline; at this point FEZ and non-FEZ firms would be treated equally. These findings lead to two general guidelines for sustainable zone development in a developing country context. First, policy makers should start by encouraging trade-intensive FEZ activities in the zones, followed by labor-intensive manufacturing; later on upgrade to technology- and skill-intensive manufacturing and services. Second, policy makers should encourage FDI in industries in which the country has comparative advantage; this increases the likelihood that development will be sustained long after FEZ incentives are removed and all firms are being treated equally in an economy.
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The development of relations between Russia and the European Union

The development of relations between Russia and the European Union

Chapter 3: The Effect of Russian Economic Reforms on Foreign Trade, and on the Prospects of Closer Russia-EU Economic Relations. 3.1 Introduction[r]

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AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF FOREIGN AID AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY OF AFGHANISTAN

AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF FOREIGN AID AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY OF AFGHANISTAN

The invasion of USSR in Afghanistan in 1979 and followed by civil war in 1980’s destroyed the limited infrastructure, SMEs and other economic and financial institutions. The trend in Afghanistan moved to planned economy from traditional economy in 2002 led by US based policies. The domestic trade and GDP of the country has decreased enormously since 1980 and needed a big push since 1980s. The economy moved to a reasonable extent in 2010 as a result of multi billion dollars received in various forms of foreign aid. The GDP growth rate was 22.5 percent in 2010 which was highest in last few decades but again policy makers proclaimed that it happened as a result of easy money (foreign aid). The respondents from Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) were much optimism about the future of Afghanistan. They were of the opinion that the multi-million projects and programme started by the ministry will have a long term sustainable impact on the economy. As a result of private-public sector programme initiated recently by the ministry will stand still after the donor countries stop its funds. The reason for such opinion was that MRRD is working on such projects which will remain for years because these programmes can generate revenue by its own, once it was launched successfully.
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The legal status of foreign undertakings – could undertakings with a registered seat abroad be regarded as undertakings entitled to file a request for the institution of antimonopoly proceedings under Polish antitrust law?
 Case comments to the judgment

The legal status of foreign undertakings – could undertakings with a registered seat abroad be regarded as undertakings entitled to file a request for the institution of antimonopoly proceedings under Polish antitrust law? Case comments to the judgment of the Supreme Court of 10 May 2007 – Netherlands Antilles (Ref. No. III SK 24/06) Commented by Rajmund Molski

II. Both the conclusions reached as well as the justification given by the Supreme Court are correct. In the light of the Supreme Court’s judgment in case III SK 41/04, there is no doubt that with regard to the case under consideration here, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the request for the institution of antimonopoly proceedings, as well as the legitimacy of such request, should be performed in accordance with the provisions of the Antimonopoly Act. According to Article 21 of this Act, the said proceedings could be instituted on an ex officio basis or upon request of an entitled entity. Those entitled to request the institution of antimonopoly proceedings included, among others: economic entities whose business suffered or may suffer as a result of monopolistic practices.
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Foreign direct investment and economic integration

Foreign direct investment and economic integration

An awareness of the determinants of potential value added and the factors that can help realize/capture value can provide useful insights to policy makers who seek to achieve superior economic performance to that of their peers. At the broadest possible level, a superior ability to create and, especially, capture value in international markets is tantamount to superior economic performance by a particular nation. The mix of market/hierarchy/cooperation, private-public-hybrid, institutional, micro and macroeconomic policy, and the effectiveness and innovativeness of institutions, organisations and policies, will tend, in their interaction, help the “leaders” and “laggards”, in this game, see Abramovitz (1986) and, for a critical survey, Fagerberg and Godinho (2005). It is not possible to go into further detail on exact policies here. This would, in effect, be the economic equivalent of searching for the “holy grail” (but see Shapiro and Taylor (1990), Solow (1997), Rodrik (2004) and Serra and Stiglitz (2008) for more on this. 26 ) Instead, our aim here is to draw on the discussion above in order to discuss the relationship between FDI and economic integration in the context of our framework and discussion.
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Foreign workers in Malaysia: labour market and firm level analysis

Foreign workers in Malaysia: labour market and firm level analysis

Third, the introduction of more detailed information on the foreign workforce in the Malaysian Economic Census, for example, the number of foreign employees by education level or the[r]

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