Forest Ecology

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Three studies in forest ecology

Three studies in forest ecology

If the stocking is marginal of between 20 and 40 per cent it Recommended survey practice for young regeneration Regeneration surveys of 1 to 2 year old may be necessary to run further st[r]

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Roles of transport and mixing processes in kelp forest ecology

Roles of transport and mixing processes in kelp forest ecology

One limitation of existing dispersal representations (and thus estimates of I and E in particular) is that they have not typically accounted for the effects of kelps themselves on phases of spore transport taking place within a forest. This means that short- distance portions of the dispersal distribution may be subject to error. Until recently, this weakness was not easily addressed. Despite early work examining the ability of kelp forests to attenuate currents within their interior (Jackson and Winant, 1983; Jackson, 1998), there was little information available for generalizing to forests of a broader array of sizes, densities or geometries. Perhaps even more crucially, measurements of vertical mixing within forests were absent. However, several recent studies (Gaylord et al., 2007; Rosman et al., 2007; Rosman et al., 2010) have offset some of these challenges. Findings now suggest that a profitable approach could be to take phenomenological dispersal representations developed for within- and outside-forest portions of the spore transport process, and combine them. Each representation would be based on its own appropriate patterns of vertical mixing as quantified by Eqns 2 and 3. Data such as those presented in Fig.  2 could also be employed to estimate current velocities at various positions within a forest. Whether core conclusions would change with the addition of such complexity is unclear, but warrants evaluation.
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Structural Equation Model into Interaction Mechanism between Forest Industry and Ecology with Environmental Mediator Introduced

Structural Equation Model into Interaction Mechanism between Forest Industry and Ecology with Environmental Mediator Introduced

(1) Regarding the current empirical data analysis, China hasn’t yet arrived at a level of forest ecological security and forest ecological civilization whose essence is forest industry and ecology symbiosis. In other words, forest industry has a destructive influence on the ecology in contrast forest ecology has a promotion influence on the industry whether forest industry and ecology have a direct or indirect interaction. This represents that the China’s forest industry and ecology are not in a symbiotic relationship and haven’t yet reached the win-win goal of forest ecological-economy benefit. To coordinate the symbiotic relationship between forest industry and ecology, new modes of industrial integration and circular economy should be developed. (i) The modes of forest-pulp-paper integration should be developed. Forest-pulp-paper integration is the typical case of forest industrial integration. Forest primary industry extends forward and forest secondary extends backward, which can meet the benefit demand and make a contribution to the forest ecology. Forest tertiary industry extends more flexible. In addition, there are mergers, joint management, contracting, leasing, cooperation, joint ventures and other integration modes to be developed, too. (ii) The modes of forest circular economy should be innovated. Forest industry ecology parks putting cities as the center should be established to take most use of advanced technologies to build channels of waste wood recycle, which can develop the mode of pollution-reducing, input-reducing and out-increasing forest circular economy.
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Necrotic disease of beech in individual growth stages

Necrotic disease of beech in individual growth stages

CICÁK Institute of Forest Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Zvolen, Slovak Republic ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the present state of necrotic disease of beech in the growth s[r]

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An Eternal Flame: The Elemental Governance of Wildfire’s Pasts, Presents and Futures

An Eternal Flame: The Elemental Governance of Wildfire’s Pasts, Presents and Futures

Debates surrounding fire’s exchanges have been particularly intense within tropical forest ecology. While an uneasy truce between scientists and policy-makers surrounding prescribed burning has emerged over the course of the twentieth century in the earth’s temperate zones, the role of fire within tropical landscapes remains intensely divisive. Tropical forests of Southeast Asia are not strangers to fire, even if they are clearly less prone to the kinds of conflagrations that regularly unfold in temperate nations such as Australia, Canada and the United States. Archaeological evidence throughout the region has demonstrated the longstanding and recurring nature of wildfires alongside and beyond human occupation. This evidence, gleaned from the sedimentation of pollen and charcoal stretching back at least 300,000 years, suggests that wildfires often occurred in concert with recurring El Niño events and other changes in climate that have periodically sapped moisture from fuels. 50 The
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Long term annual nitrogen fertilisation of Eucalyptus regnans F  Mueller and Pinus radiata D Don : effects on tree growth, soil chemistry and net nitrogen mineralisation

Long term annual nitrogen fertilisation of Eucalyptus regnans F Mueller and Pinus radiata D Don : effects on tree growth, soil chemistry and net nitrogen mineralisation

"Soil organic matter and nitrogen cycling in response to harvesting, mechanical site preparation and fertilisation in a wetland with a mineral substrate." Forest Ecology and Management 1[r]

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“Poe(trees) of Place: Forest Poetics from Lithuania to Tasmania”

“Poe(trees) of Place: Forest Poetics from Lithuania to Tasmania”

Lithuanians have long since been stereotyped as lovers of Nature who find solace and succour from their surrounding environment, and who feel disjointed when they are apart from it (Kelertas 117). Beyond these initial assumptions, Violeta Kelertas argues that for Lithuanian people, Nature offers a “cultural alternative” that represents an inclination towards an animist, “pre-Christian sphere of possibilities” (117). A history of people’s interaction with forest ecosystems is central to Baranauskas’ idea of Lithuanian identity. In nineteenth-century Lithuania, there remained a strong connection with pre-Christian beliefs. The mythic representation of trees and the animist embodiment of souls within them are relics of what Violeta Kelertas labels “the age of forest culture” (108). The late step away from animism caused a certain amount of nostalgia and romantic reflection on pre-Christian times (Kelertas 108). However, despite his nostalgia Baranauskas describes the people of Anykščiai’s own exploitation of the forest: “[t]hey wept, did those who first a few trees felled,” but soon the forest was gone (Tempest 164). The “treeless generation” felt keenly the missing link in the symbiotic relationship between culture and environment, and learning “forest lore” from old songs, they regrew a forest on the site that was protected until Russian colonisation (Tempest 166).
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Feeding ecology of kereru; (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) in podocarp–hardwood forest, Whirinaki Forest Park, New Zealand

Feeding ecology of kereru; (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) in podocarp–hardwood forest, Whirinaki Forest Park, New Zealand

Between February 2000 and March 2001, timing and duration of leaf growth and fruiting of selected forest species were recorded to determine seasonal variation in food availability. Eleven species were chosen for regular monitoring because they were present in the study areas, and elsewhere are common components of kererū diet (McEwen 1978; Clout & Hay 1989; Clout et al. 1991; O’Donnell & Dilks 1994). Karamū (Coprosma robusta), makomako, putaputaweta (Carpodetus serratus), white maire (Nestegis lanceolata), tawa, kōtukutuku, rimu, kahikatea, and miro (Prumnopitys ferruginea) were monitored for fruiting; kōwhai for leaf development; and māhoe (Melicytus ramiflorus) for both. In each study area, we established five plots (100 × 100 m) containing all of the fruiting species, and within these a representative of each species was chosen. Kōwhai, however, was absent from Otupaka and only patchily distributed in Oriuwaka where we established five plots for kōwhai in addition to the plots for the fruiting species. The plants monitored within each grid were mature, healthy, of a sufficiently large size that kererū would feed from them, and visible for accurate fruit scoring. Fruit and leaf abundance were given a score from 0 to 5: 0 = absent, 1 = scarce; 2 = below average; 3 = average; 4 = above average; 5 = high. Unripe and ripe (full-sized and consisting of more than 80% of usual ripe colouration) fruits, and actively growing (pale green and less than 80% of mature leaf size) and mature leaves were scored separately. These assessments were carried out using 10 × 50 binoculars and a telescope with ×60 magnification.
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Recruitment of reviewers is becoming harder at some journals: a test of the influence of reviewer fatigue at six journals in ecology and evolution

Recruitment of reviewers is becoming harder at some journals: a test of the influence of reviewer fatigue at six journals in ecology and evolution

Albert et al. [7] also asked whether reviewer fatigue might explain a decline in the willingness of people to review for journals. They found no evidence that the number of invitations sent to specific individuals has in- creased over time at any of the journals they examined. This remains true in our expanded dataset. The average number of invitations sent to each invitee varied sub- stantially among journals (significant Year*Journal inter- action; Fig. 2a) but, despite substantial increases in the total number of review invitations sent by editors cumu- lative across all invitees (Fig. 2b), there was no consistent increase over time in the average number sent to each individual invitee. There was a decline over time for J Animal Ecology and J Applied Ecology, an increase for J Ecology, and no significant directional change over time for the other journals. Because five of the journals exam- ined here use a common reviewer database, we can also ask whether the average number of invitations sent to individuals across all of these five journals increased over time (brown line, solid circles in Fig. 2a), but we see that the pattern does not change, and there is no evidence for a consistent increase over time.
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Habitat Characteristics of Bracken Covered Areas Intended for Afforestation in Ličko Sredogorje

Habitat Characteristics of Bracken Covered Areas Intended for Afforestation in Ličko Sredogorje

Background and Purpose: Forest cultures in continental part of Croatia are mainly based on bracken-covered areas and moors on deserted agriculture soils and pastures. Successful afforestation i.e. establishment of forest cultures depends among other things on the understanding of habitats and ecology of forest trees. The choice of best species of forest trees for afforestation needs to be based on the research in soil and climate characteristics of target habitats. The aims of this research were to show mesoclimatic characteristics of Ličko sredogorje and microclimatic and pedological characteristics of Ličko polje. Also, based on habitat characteristics and ecology of forest trees, the aim was to determine species of forest trees suitable for afforestation of bracken-covered areas. Materials and Methods: Climate, microclimate, pedological and plant nutrition researches were done at the area of Lika highlands. Climate analysis was done according to air temperatures, amount of precipitation, relative air humidity and other climate elements and appearances. Composite soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm in order to determine plant nutrition potential. Samples were prepared for further analysis in the laboratory.
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Landscape dynamics in a sub tropical deciduous forest in north western himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Landscape dynamics in a sub tropical deciduous forest in north western himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir, India

respectively for quantitative sampling. IRS-P6 LISS-IV data of 2010 was used for carrying out the change assessment statistics of different vegetation types and land use patterns. Stratified random sampling was adopted for primary and secondary analysis of vegetation. A sample intensity of 0.01 per cent of the total area was adopted covering all vegetation types. The diversity (H′) was determined by using Shannon-Weiner information index (Shanon and Weaver 1963) as H′ = - ∑ni/n log2 ni/n ; where ni was the IVI value of a species and n was the sum total IVI values of all species in that forest type. A single summary statistic or Importance values was calculated by summing the relative values for species according to Ganesh et al. (1996). The equations used is Species Importance Value (SIV %) = relative frequency + relative density + relative dominance.
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Niche differentiation, rarity, and commonness in the sympatric Australian white-tailed rats: Uromys caudimaculatus and Uromys hadrourus

Niche differentiation, rarity, and commonness in the sympatric Australian white-tailed rats: Uromys caudimaculatus and Uromys hadrourus

Kinlan, B., and A. Hastings (2005). Rates of population spread and geographic range expansion: what exotic species tell us. In: Species Invasions: Insights to Ecology, Evolution and Biogeography (eds Sax, D., Gaines, S.D. & Stachowicz, J.J.). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 381–419.

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Geographical ecology of dry forest tree communities in the West Indies

Geographical ecology of dry forest tree communities in the West Indies

Hierarchical agglomerative clustering using Jaccard distance and Ward ’ s linkage (Peet & Roberts, 2013) was applied to species pres- ence/absence data for 572 sites and 649 taxa to identify patterns of tree species composition in Caribbean SDTF (question 1). Differ- ences among clusters were tested using analysis of variance based on 999 permutations (PERMANOVA, Anderson, 2001). Patterns of similarities and differences among groups identified by clustering, and their distribution with respect to environmental gradients, were visualized using indirect ordination based on non-metric multidimen- sional scaling (NMDS, Clarke, 1993). Indicator species analysis (Dufr ^ ene & Legendre, 1997) identified species characteristic of the groups of sites identified by hierarchical clustering. The multivariate vegetation analyses used are robust to variations in forest plot sizes ranging from 50 to 1000 m 2 (Otypkov a & Chytry, 2006), encompass- ing most of the range found in this study. We were able to use Importance Value (IV) and stem density (from the plots where those were measured) to evaluate patterns of species frequency versus abundance within and among groups defined in the multivariate analyses.
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Ecology in health: Beyond medical ecology

Ecology in health: Beyond medical ecology

homes a neutrality that makes it pass through different discourses (Baktin, 1988). The origin of the issue that instigates this study comes from one of the researchers first contacts with the Medical Ecology in the Graduate Program in Human Ecology of the State University of Bahia / Brazil (PPGECoH), in the second half of 2017 as a Master's student. We could see in our experience with Medical Ecology that the incipient and tangential way in which the various sectors of health have discussed intrinsic elements of Medical Ecology (Ávila-Pires, 1974), leading them to suspect that the medical attribute in the expression Medical Ecology could be excluding other enormous contributions from approaches to the human health phenomenon, which, because they are not specifically produced or performed by medical professionals, would not be considered within the scope of what medical ecology has been doing. It has been called Medical Ecology the processes that comprise the homeostatic balance of organisms with their surroundings (Ávila-Pires, 1974), knowledge about diseases and their connections with the Human – environmental relation (Dias-Lima, 2014), aiming to restore balance, in a holistic perspective of health as a fundamental human right, based on the inseparability between environmental justice and social justice (Porto, Ferreira & Finamore, 2016). From an ecological perspective in Ávila-Pires (1974) to a political aspect (Porto, Ferreira & Finamore, 2016), Medical Ecology substantiates the emphasis on health in a broad sense, resulting from cultural, economic, political and environmental elements, acclaiming for its debate not only other specialists and researchers of the natural and social sciences, but several health professionals, especially those whose formation is sensitized to collective health: nurses, psychologists, nutritionists, pharmacists, among others.
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Civic Ecology Education and Resilient Societies: a Survey of Forest Fires in Greece

Civic Ecology Education and Resilient Societies: a Survey of Forest Fires in Greece

Forest fires, as all natural disasters, have the potential to seriously affect both the environment and the social structure of a local community. Unlike some of the natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornados and tsunamis which are unpredictable, the phenomenon of forest fires could be easily predicted and controlled, since the causes are mainly anthropogenic. This article, focusing on the paradigm of forest fires that occurred in Greece during the summer of 2007, deals in depth with the significant role that Civic Ecology Education plays in the promotion of resilient societies. Given the fact, that the specific forest fires resulted in an unusually high death toll, the article argues about the need for successful environmental education for resilience in order to avoid similar tragedies. Increasing the social tolerance to natural hazards and directing communities’ efforts towards strengthening sustainable development in their area should become common practices everywhere.
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The feeding ecology of the fallow deer (Dama dama L ) in the New Forest

The feeding ecology of the fallow deer (Dama dama L ) in the New Forest

Ashurst Burley Blackflekj Brockenhurst Dibden East Boklre Fritham Lyndhurst Minstead Sway... 2 North Oakley jifrAt-noMW Anh...[r]

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The feeding ecology of the fallow deer (Dama dama L ) in the New Forest

The feeding ecology of the fallow deer (Dama dama L ) in the New Forest

By comparing the diets of ponies and fallow deer it is evident that a certain amount of competition does occur for certain foods such as sweet grasses, bramble, holly and acorns, often a[r]

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Palaeoecological evidence for survival of Scots pine through the Late Holocene in Western Ireland: Implications for ecological management

Palaeoecological evidence for survival of Scots pine through the Late Holocene in Western Ireland: Implications for ecological management

Abstract: The dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Europe during the Holocene have been spatially and temporally complex. The species underwent extirpation and reintroduction in several north-west European countries. This study investigated the late Holocene vegetation history of a present-day pinewood in western Ireland, to test the widely accepted hypothesis that P. sylvestris became extinct in Ireland c. AD 400. Palaeoecological, chronological and loss-on-ignition analyses were conducted on a sediment core extracted from an adjacent lake. The pollen profile showed no major Pinus decline and a Pinus macrofossil occurred c. AD 840, indicating localised survival of P. sylvestris from c. AD 350 to the present. The available archival maps and historical literature provide supporting evidence for continuity of forest cover. The hypothesis that P. sylvestris became extinct in Ireland is rejected. The implications for ecological management are significant. We argue that P. sylvestris should be considered native to Ireland, at least at this site. As Ireland’s only putative native P. sylvestris population and the western limit of the species’ native range, this site is of high conservation value and must be carefully managed and monitored. Seed-sourcing for ex-situ forest restoration must be compatible with the long-term viability of the population in-situ.
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Dynamics of plant processes and populations in semi arid Australia and the influences of drought, grazing and fire : a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Science of Massey University

Dynamics of plant processes and populations in semi arid Australia and the influences of drought, grazing and fire : a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Science of Massey University

The author has made a sustained, coherent, and significant contribution of high­ quality original research which has advanced knowledge in the general fields of plant physiology and ecology and their application in semi-arid Australia. Summaries of this research, the resultant publications and research recognition are given below in Sections 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4, respectively. A selection of 40 refereed publications which encapsulate the main research theme, Dynamics of plant processes and populations in semi-arid Australia and the influences of drought, grazing and fire, appears in Section 4, representing the bulk of this thesis.
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Residual spatial autocorrelation in macroecological and biogeographical modeling: a review

Residual spatial autocorrelation in macroecological and biogeographical modeling: a review

2014 Trends in Ecology and Evolution No mention Species distribution modeling 86 Wieczorek and Bugaj-Nawrocka 2014 Agricultural and Forest Entomology No mention Ecological niche modeling[r]

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