national, and international levels. Consequently, forestfires will always trigger the attention and presence of various policy actors. The relationship between forestfires and SDGs confirms the nature of the objectives and targets of SDGs that are not independent but interact with each other. In ASEAN region, forestfires often occur in Indonesia, Thailand , and Malaysia , . For ASEAN countries, especially Singapore and Malaysia, the haze caused by forestfires has a negative chain impact. In Singapore and Malaysia, the haze greatly disrupts the activities of residents outside the home. The city parks, restaurants, bike paths, and jogging that were usually crowded became quiet. Trade, tourism, and aviation activities were also disrupted. For Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia, this haze disaster has caused economic losses of $ 4 billion . For local governments, for example, the case of Riau, the smoke disaster that occurred in 2014 caused them to lose the economic benefits of Rp10 trillion . Normatively, Indonesia has a strong political commitment and vision to realize sustainable development. The 1945 Constitution of Republic of Indonesia state that “the national economy is carried out based on economic democracy with the principles of togetherness, efficiency, fairness, sustainability, environmental insight, independence, and by maintaining a balance of progress and national economic unity (the 1945 Constitution, Article 33 Paragraph 4). Indonesia also has the bill of environment management and protection and actively ratified several international agreements on environmental issues. Culturally, the Indonesian people are part of Eastern culture that emphasizes the harmonious relationship between humans and the environment around them . This principle
The conflict frame was visible only in two newspapers, The Straits Times and The Star, while The Jakarta Post didn‟t show any conflict. The Straits Times run three stories (18.8%) on conflict frame that highlight the dispute between the Indonesian government and PT RAPP, a subsidiary of April, a Singapore-based pulpwood company. For example: “Environment and Forestry Minister Siti Nurbaya told The Straits Times on Monday that PT RAPP breached a deadline where they needed to adjust their work plan to the existing regulation, and opted to follow their own version of the law. At the heart of the dispute is a decree issued in February this year. The law, aimed at encouraging plantation firms to shift off deep peatlands, says that companies with plantations on deep peat cannot replant on their concession lands after the next harvest. Instead, they must work with the ministry to negotiate land swaps to replant on non-peatlands” (The Straits Times, Oct 23). The Star published two stories (7.7%) on conflict frame as the media implied that the city-state‟s efforts to punish Indonesian companies under its own anti-haze law have become a conflict point with its neighboring country. For example, the Star wrote: “Singapore is refusing to back down in its pursuit of those responsible for haze-belching forestfires in South-East Asia last year, despite struggling to bring the perpetrators before the courts and drawing a sharp rebuke from neighboring Indonesia” (The Star, July 4).
are Tapin and Banjar Subdistrict. These two areas have large amounts of palm and rubber plantations, and due to the company's negligence caused 2,682 hectares of burning land. As a result of a thick haze occurs in South Kalimantan. Until now the efforts that can be done by the government is limited to efforts to extinguish in the area of land and forestfires. The efforts taken include bringing a water bombing helicopter from Russia, with pilots and a technician also from the country was named the Soviet Union. Artificial rain was not effective because several times goes to the wrong target. So, It cannot dispel the land and forestfires quickly. 9
[29, pp. 465–504], [30, pp. 227–233], [31, pp. 1109–1126], [32, pp. 1–13], [33, pp. 1–4], [34, pp. 679–690], [35, pp. 200–217]. However, other than the extreme weather factors, the causes of forestfires originating from humans are still very controversial [36, pp. 1–4], [37, pp. 159–171]. CIFOR [38, pp. 1–4], for example, consider the plantation corporation as the villain of forestfires. However, Varma [37, pp. 159–171] argue that the community is the villain of forestfires because they have slush and burn tradition to agriculture land opening. This research will contribute to this scientific debate by giving special attention to the causes of forestfires originating from the village areas and villagers who also have the potential to influence the occurrence of forestfires. Previous research has shown that topography dramatically influences the resistance of trees to burn [39, pp. 209–216], [40, pp. 446–455], the severity of fires [41, pp. 237–245], [42, pp. 1–33], [43, pp. 62– 79], and the potential for a fire [44, pp. 317–324]. Because the topography will affect the type of plant vegetation in the forest area and affect the agricultural activities of the population that uses fire, this study includes village topography variables as a predictor of forest and land fires. In addition to village topography, another variable to consider is the geographical position of the village with the area and function of the forest. In Indonesia, if it is associated with forest areas, villages in Indonesia can be divided into three categories: inside the forest area, at the edge of the forest area, and outside the forest area. The position of villages with forested areas also needs to be included as a predictor of forestfires. Because, as indicated by Cattau et al., [26, pp. 205–219], the majority (68- 71%) of forest
The forest fire monitoring system designed in this paper can real-time monitor smoke concentration, temperature, humidity and other environmental parameter, and it can automatically send warning signals to control room and completes corresponding control. Data processing flow of the system is as follows: At first, sensor nodes widely distributed in forest can real-time collect signals such as wind speed, temperature, humidity, etc. Data collected by sensor nodes is sent to central node in multi-hop routing manner through large numbers of routing nodes placed in the forest, and then it is packaged by the central node to be sent to monitoring center.
The simulated concentrations of particles less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5), AOD, total and diffuse radiation, and gross primary productivity (GPP) were evaluated using observations across the Amazon. The PM2.5 measurements were made using gravimetric ﬁlter analysis at two ground stations in Brazil: Balbina (1.917°S, 59.487°W; October 1998 to May 2003), a remote forest site in central Amazonia, and Porto Velho (8.687°S, 63.866°W; September 2009 to December 2011), a heavily biomass burning impacted site in southwestern Amazonia. Measurements of AOD at 500 nm were made using Sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers at four stations in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET): Rio Branco, Alta Floresta, and Cuiabá-Miranda in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. These sites are strongly inﬂuenced by biomass burning emissions in the dry season [Hoelzemann et al., 2009]. We used Level 2 data available between 1998 and 2008, with all years of data available at Alta Floresta and Santa Cruz, ~7 years at Cuiabá-Miranda, and ~8 years at Rio Branco. At Caxiuana, Brazil (1.738°S, 51.453°W), total and diffuse radiation observations [Butt et al., 2010] have been collected every 2 min between March 2005 and August 2006, using a BF3 sunshine sensor [Wood et al., 2003] (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK), located at a height of 50 m, about 20 m above the top of the forest canopy. At Tapajos, Brazil (2.857°S, 54.959°W), total and diffuse radiation were measured using a BF3 sunshine sensor (2004 – 2006), and C ﬂuxes were measured using a close-path eddy covariance (EC) system [Saleska et al., 2003; Restrepo-Coupe et al., 2013]. The high-frequency ﬂux data were averaged to hourly values for the January 2002 to January 2006 period. The EC sensor is placed at a height of 63 m over a height of 35 – 40 m evergreen forest canopy. At Guyaﬂux, French Guiana (5.280°N, 52.926°W), total and diffuse radiation were measured using a BF3 sunshine sensor and GPP data calculated using eddy ﬂux data [Bonal et al., 2008] collected every 30 min between January 2007 and December 2009, at a height of 57 m (approximately 22 m above the canopy height) from an undisturbed mature evergreen broadleaf tropical wet ecosystem (for the GPP observations, only measurements between 9 A.M. and 5 P.M. local time were used).
Forests in the study area are predominately black spruce on wetter soils and white spruce (Picea glauca) on drier soils, described by  as follows: Open black spruce forest description—Total arboreal cover is between 25 and 60%. Paper birch (Betula papyrifera) may be present in small amounts. The trees tend to be small; the largest trees are about 5–10 cm in diameter and 6–10 m tall. A well-developed tall shrub layer domi- nated by dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) 1–2 m high often is present. Other tall shrubs locally important on moist sites include Alnus crispa, A. sinuata, Salix spp., and Rosa acicularis. A low shrub layer usually is present and consists primarily of some combination of Vaccin- ium uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea, Potentilla fruticosa, Arc- tostaphylos rubra, Empetrum nigrum, and Ledum spp. The moss layer is continuous or nearly so and dominated by a combination of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum spp., and Dicranum spp. Lichens such as Cladonia spp. are important on some sites.
The hypothesis that forestfires should occur in the daytime period was confirmed in the case of Puerto Rico. The period of increased occurrence of fire was from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm, accounting for 62% of the fires in 2013 (Figure 10) and 2014 (Figure 11); however, when the climatic conditions were less favorable, this decreased to 38%. In the fire areas in Arecibo and Barceloneta, night time fires accounted for 43% and a similar behavior appeared in Guayamazone, which experienced 42% night time fires. The economic, environmental, and social damage in 2013 generated by 4567 forestfires (Figure 12), over an area of approximately 68,000 m 2 (6800 ha), was an estimated $13.8 million (Source FRPR). In 2014, 2302 forestfires occurred (Figure 13), covering a sur- face area of approximately 64,000 m 2 (6400 ha) and causing an economic impact of $8.6 million. This value is calculated without considering the impact on the flora and fauna of the region. The two economic sectors most affected were agriculture and livestock. Most of the burned areas corresponded to grasses of high nutritional value for cattle feeding, so the decrease in pasture forced farmers to buy food for their cattle.
Cleland, D.T.; Freeouf, J.A.; Keys, J.E., Jr. [and others]. 2007. Ecological subregions: sections and subsections for the conterminous United States. Sloan, A.M., tech. ed. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-76. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Map, presentation scale 1:3,500,000; Albers equal area projection; colored. Also as GIS coverage in ArcINFO format on CD-ROM or at http:// fsgeodata.fs.fed.us/other_resources/ecosubregions.html. [Date accessed: March 18, 2011].
ABSTRACT: This research studies analysis the community and students in Singkawang City that have an impact on forestfires on peatlands, fire attacks because it increases the dry season that triggers forestfires so it is felt, this research was conducted to prevent dangerous material. Data was collected using a questionnaire method, through this questionnaire will be discussed the level of preparedness to deal with forestfires in the City of Singkawang. The method used in this research is descriptive quantitative. Quantitative samples using purposive random sampling techniques. The subject will be used as a sample of research in Singkawang City community and high school students in Singkawang City. The data to be obtained in this study will be published by descriptive by describing the results of the research obtained from the research questionnaire and then the data obtained will be classified by techniques that can compare each person so that from the groups that can be done this can be done to improve disaster fire preparedness.
plume that can help to assess its structure and dynamical behaviour. In addition, MODIS thermal anomalies can be superimposed, which helps identify the locations of smoke sources from active fires. A user needs to digitise the bound- aries of the plume, starting at the source point, and to in- dicate the direction of smoke transport. The MINX stereo- scopic algorithm also calculates wind speed from the dis- placement of plume contrast elements, which is used sub- sequently to compute wind-corrected heights, accounting for displacement due to the proper motion of the plume elements between camera views. As with the MISR standard stereo- height product, MINX automatically retrieves smoke plume heights and wind speed at a horizontal resolution of 1.1 km and vertical resolution of 250–500 m, but with greater accu- racy for the plume itself due to the user inputs (Nelson et al., 2013). MINX plume heights are reported above the geoid, which correspond to the level of maximum spatial contrast in the multi-angle imagery, typically near the plume top, but actually offer a distribution of heights in most cases, because aerosol plumes are rarely uniform (Flower and Kahn, 2017). Additionally, MINX provides local terrain height from a dig- ital elevation map (DEM) product. Here we report heights above the terrain by taking account of the DEM values. Fur- ther information from the MISR standard aerosol product about aerosol amount and type is collected and reported, along with FRP from MODIS (Nelson et al., 2013). MINX has been successfully used to investigate fire smoke plume heights over many regions across the world (e.g. Kahn et al., 2008; Val Martin et al., 2010; Tosca et al., 2011; Jian and Fu, 2014).
W ildland fire represents an important ecological mechanism in many forest ecosystems. It shapes the distributions of species, maintains the structure and function of fire-prone communities, and is a significant evolutionary force (Bond and Keeley 2005). At the same time, fire outside the historic range of frequency and intensity can have extensive economic and ecological impacts. Current fire regimes on more than half the forested area in the conterminous United States have been either moderately or significantly altered from historical regimes, potentially altering key ecosystem components such as species composition, structural stage, stand age, canopy closure, and fuel loadings (Schmidt and others 2002). Fire suppression and the introduction of nonnative plants, in particular, have dramatically altered fire regimes (Barbour and others 1999). Additionally, fire regimes altered by global climate change could cause large-scale shifts in vegetation spatial patterns (McKenzie and others 1996).
The State of Mexico is located between latitudes 18˚21'15" and 20˚19'00" north and longitudes 98˚35'30" and 100˚37'00" west, between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre del Sur . According to , the dominant vegetation types are (ordered by extension): Pine forest (250 thousand hectares), Oak forest (199 thousand hectares), deciduous and semi-deciduous rain forest (186 thousand hectares) and sacred fir forest (83 thousand hectares). The 513,500 hectares comprised in this State forest are mainly located in the southwest and on mountainous terrains (Figure 1).
In order to have a realistic fire risk estimate, the history of fire events in terms of occurrence, fre- quency and spatial distribution must be available to fire managers. World and/or national fire atlases are very useful sources of information, where the fire event is recorded by means of geographical position and other details. Especially for small fires, data re- lated to perimeters, size and severity are mostly not included in the fire atlases, and even countries sig- nificantly affected by forestfires do not have proper data on fire incidence. Besides, a fire event is gener- ally registered by x and y coordinates, totally loosing its surface nature and its spreading behavior. The as- sumption of considering each fire event as a single point process with a spot nature is currently valid in the Mediterranean fire regimes, where small dimen- sion of fire events and broad pixel resolution of sen- sors do not allow a surface recording but only an event point process recognition, leading to serious positional inaccuracies since the exact location of ig- nition points are usually not known (Amatulli et al. 2005, Koutsias et al. 2004). Therefore, a reliable meth- od is necessary to convert ignition point dataset into a continuous surface representation of the fire igni- tion density as a source of data to create fire occur- rence maps and fire risk maps. Another advantage of the use of a continuous density is the possibility to integrate this information with other types of area
mobilization of the individuals and the cooperation of the residents of the affected area in conjuction with the active participation of the non-governmntal organizations and the volunteers from other areas were the only materials used in the building process of a resilient society during and after the traumatic forest fire experience in Ilia. Although the forestfires occurred in Ilia revealed the dynamics of the non-governmental organizations and the groups of volunteers, underlining the need for public participation and cooperation in such emergency cases, the impact caused in the local communities by that natural disaster proved that when individuals and volunteers operate without a well structure governmental and local authorities infrastructure, the outcome could be chaotic and the benefits debatable if not negative. The present wide spread Greek economic crisis has placed the area recovery, from the forestfires of 2007, as a low priority. Respondents seem to have a crystal clear understanding that even if fate brought them against the same risk, the assistance that they would receive would be equally or even less adequate. The participants of this study know they need to be environmentally educated and learn to be resilient. They weren’t aware that programs like this can be offered to them.
To evaluate the fire situation in Kalimantan accurately, satellite monitoring is the best method. JICA (Japan In- ternational Cooperation Agency) started to collect hot- spot data using NOAA (National Ocean and Atmosphere Administration) sensor from July 1997 . However, NOAA covers only the western part of Indonesia, and there is some missing data from recent years. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has been collecting hotspot data since 2002 and has therefore accumulated more than 10-year of data. Analysis of MODIS data has already been used to identify Asian vegetation fire trends, fire statistics of individual coun- tries, and monthly fire occurrence . Fire regimes in 2008/2009 in South East Asia peatlands were analyzed by Miettinen et al. (2011) . In a previous paper, we also used MODIS hotspot data of one-degree cells to identify forest and peat fire trends in Indonesia . The spatio-temporal fire occurrence trend until mid-2000s in Kalimantan has been investigated by Langner and Siegert (2009) . Our research group  also analyzed peat fire activity in the MRP area and found the relationship between precipitation, Niño 3.4 SST anomalies, ground water level, and peat fire occurrence in the MRP area.
with the aim of obtaining a prediction model. For this paper, we also got six prediction equations by combining the optimum, and maximum tolerance, to predict the abundance of six plant species when you know the x position of the species in the gradient. Our study did not address all the common vascular species of the Beijing forests. However, the results we have presented could not be observed if we had studied all species presented in this ecosystem. Moreover, we have not considered other parameters, for example the influence of competitive conditions on the ecological response of species. We hope that further studies are planned so that ecological theory can provide more information about the distribution and abundance of species prediction Dongling. To conclude this work, we have just analyzed the ecological behavior of six species of a forest ecosystem in southeastern Beijing; the chosen methods enable us to build six models of abundance distribution and six prediction equations abundance of each of its species. Certainly, the experiment was focused on a small number of sample, but constitutes a source of information on which to launch major work on the deep comprehension the ecological behavior of the species. We don't work on a database, from which we could select statements; but we perform field measurements to obtain the data. The number of plots and the sample size can’t inform about all the main factors that affect the survival or development of species in the Beijing area. But this work is important, because it already informs the behavior of six species and provides research of the figures that relate to ecological parameters and then, and offers at the same time relationships templates that can be used to calculate a predictive value of species abundance. The distribution of species on the five stages of vegetation of the forest of Dongling seems irregular. We therefore believe that the modeling of the distribution of the species is a strong argument to show that environmental factors may account for over 50% of presences and absences of species along an ecological gradient. With the advent of climate change and its adverse effects on the trees of the forest, paper is an opportunity to strengthen the conservation of plant species in China.
For a forest fire to start, three factors are needed: fuel (vegetation), an oxidizing gas (oxygen from the air), and a source of ignition (a flame or incandescent material). The water content plays an essential role since the fuel ignites only after having lost a large quantity of its water by evaporation. Thus, living plants are more flammable and not very combustible, unlike dead plants that are very poor in water.
Faced with the need to preserve their forests, the Pueblo Nuevo ejido land owners have decided to install surveil- lance towers to develop permanent and effective actions in the prevention of forestfires. According to , the ejido forests have been severely affected by the fire; a total of 8522 hectares were burned in the period 2001- 2010.