Forest Growth and Yield

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Linking individual-tree and whole-stand models for forest growth and yield prediction

Linking individual-tree and whole-stand models for forest growth and yield prediction

Background: Different types of growth and yield models provide essential information for making informed decisions on how to manage forests. Whole-stand models often provide well-behaved outputs at the stand level, but lack information on stand structures. Detailed information from individual-tree models and size-class models typically suffers from accumulation of errors. The disaggregation method, in assuming that predictions from a whole-stand model are reliable, partitions these outputs to individual trees. On the other hand, the combination method seeks to improve stand-level predictions from both whole-stand and individual-tree models by combining them.
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Willson

Willson

Abstract. A Bayesian probabilistic modeling platform was used and evaluated for application in a relatively complex individual-tree growth and yield model for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), which was expressed as a mixed discrete and continuous Bayesian Network for annual projections. The modeling platform used a common and open-source Bayesian analysis program (JAGS v3.3.0), and was sufficiently flexible to handle a relatively complex model structure; namely, a dif- ferential form, highly dynamic, recursive, hierarchical, non-linear system of equations with rather complex error structures. This novel probabilistic modeling platform met certain desirable criteria, including: (1) accurate and tractable projections that included full error propagation; (2) flexible and comprehensive analytic capabilities; (3) full consideration of hierarchical and multi-level model structures; (4) capacity for random effects calibration; (5) allowance of hypothesis testing and updating knowledge across different system components, simultaneously with varying sources of information (i.e., new data); (6) computational efficiency; and (7) relatively simple implementation as demonstrated in a compiled scripting language. Probabilistic projections of forest growth and yield included all sources of errors and uncertainty (e.g., estimated parameters, state variables, random effects, and residual errors). Cumulative error projections over a 40-year period for three sample Douglas-fir stands were determined. Projection errors for key metrics summed across all trees, such as total basal area and stem density, had coefficient of variations between 4-6% and 7-8%, respectively. Probabilistic projections were markedly different from deterministic projections made with the same model structure. Overall, this novel probabilistic platform showed strong promise as a general platform for ecological modeling, particularly when tractable and analytically correct error projections are required. In particular, the Bayesian probabilistic modeling approach used provided a natural platform for cross-disciplinary research, particularly between social and ecological research domains. Keywords: forest growth and yield, error propagation, model uncertainty, error budgets, individ- ual tree growth models, coastal Douglas-fir, Oregon, Washington.
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Forest yield index and its applicability to the assessment of future forest yields

Forest yield index and its applicability to the assessment of future forest yields

The proposed forest yield index should serve as a simple indicator of relative forest yield, using acces- sible forest enumeration and forest valuation data. It is based on a comparison of the real observed yield of tree species with maximum possible yield achiev- able in predefined planning units, i.e. it expresses the current relative utilization of wood-production function of the forests. Methodologically, the index is based upon mathematical models of forest growth (stand growth tables), proportions of timber assort- ments (stand assortment tables), and forest revenue (final cutting yield) derived for even-aged and fully stocked stands of main tree species. Therefore, the index is mainly applicable to even-aged pure stands. The index can be applied to real even-aged mixed forest stands only if the assumption is accepted that between tree species growth interactions are neutral and relative light increment of tree species is similar. For the assessment of future forest growth, as an im- portant issue for the planning of target tree species composition, a simplified method considering the change in climate water balance in forest altitudinal
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Forestry under Climate Change  Is Time a Tool for Sustainable Forest Management?

Forestry under Climate Change Is Time a Tool for Sustainable Forest Management?

tion, rate of growth, and volume of wood in traditional forest planning and management is frequently based on yield tables or similar tools, age classes, site quality indices, and spatial distribution criteria, which do not im- plement the effects of climate changing conditions on forest growth variability and trends over time. Thus, this kind of approach cannot identify and estimate when, how, and where the forest and its parcels go through pe- riods of increasing (or decreasing) growth, which is driven mainly by climate variability. Moreover, temporal changes in silvicultural and harvesting operations may lead to an increase of carbon emissions.
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Unsuspected implications arising from assumptions in simulations: insights from recasting a forest growth model in system dynamics

Unsuspected implications arising from assumptions in simulations: insights from recasting a forest growth model in system dynamics

Vanclay’s (1989a) model for simulating growth and yield of tropical rainforest is widely cited and has pro- vided the inspiration for several other forest growth sim- ulators still in use today (e.g., Ong and Kleine, 1996; Alder and Silva, 2000), but the traditional journal article presentation of this model remains silent about some key details concerning the design and implementation of this simulator. Although this model has been superseded (Vanclay, 1994a), it retains considerable utility for tea- ching because of its relative simplicity. An alternative implementation of this simulator using the visual mo- delling environment Simile is revealing, informative and more pedagogic than the original Fortran code and jour- nal article. Although visual system-dynamics modelling tools have been available and used increasingly for over two decades (Bossel, 1991; Doerr, 1996; Garcia, 2013), their role in informing and sharing information remains underutilized. This paper discusses new insights offered through the Simile presentation of this model, and re- futes the assertion (Dufour-Kowalski et al., 2012) that visual modelling environments such as Simile are not well suited for forest growth modelling.
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Effect of pinching and foliar nutrition on growth and yield of Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata Bremek & Oberm)

Effect of pinching and foliar nutrition on growth and yield of Dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata Bremek & Oberm)

NAA delays maturity, reduce flower drop increase photosynthetic activity and effective translocation of photosynthates to sink thereby resulted in better development of capsules, good seed filling and consequently higher yield reported by Sharma and Dey (1986) in green gram. Foliar spray of DAP, NAA combined with micronutrients registered higher grain yield of groundnut. The causes for the increase in yield were the increased dry matter production and efficient assimilate translocation to the developing sink leading to increased pods and higher seed yield (Revanthy et al. 1997). Data pertaining to pod yield per plant (g) revealed that pod yield plant -1 was significantly influenced by both pinching and foliar applications (Table 2). Perusal of Table 2 revealed that pod yield per plant (g) in pinching treatment (26.1 g during first year and 18.6 g during second year) was significantly higher than the without pinching treatment (23.8 g and 15.4 g). Removal of terminal buds breaks the apical dominance and induces development of lateral branches thereby increasing the sites for pod development. The practice of topping has proved to be effective in increasing the yield levels of different crops like jute (Bhattacharjee and Mitra 1999) and Indian mustard (Singh et al. 2013). In both the years foliar nutrition had also significant effect on pod yield per plant. Highest pod yield was recorded with foliar spray of DAP (2%) + MN Spray (ZnSO 4
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Growth and yield of spinach (spinacia oleracea l ) under fluctuating levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers

Growth and yield of spinach (spinacia oleracea l ) under fluctuating levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers

Popat et al. (2009) reported significantly maximum fresh yield plant -1 (54.70 g at 1 st , 33.53 g at 2 nd cutting and 88.23 g total green leaf yield) and per hectare (14237 kg at 1 st , 9296 kg at 2 nd cutting). Dua et al. (2010) reported that agronomic and physiological efficiencies in spinach increased significantly in the presence of FYM in addition to balanced NPK status of soil. Najafi and Parsazadeh (2010) The greatest spinach shoots nitrate concentration was found in nitrate to ammonium ratio of 100:0 and pH of 8.0, while the greatest concentrations of organic N + inorganic ammonium and total N in spinach were observed in nitrate to ammonium ratio of 25:75 and pH of 6.5. Alamgir et al. (2011) found that addition of FYM with straight NPK fertilizer program improved the crop yield substantially and soil fertility status also improved. Islam et al. (2011) reported that increasing the application of poultry manure alongwith nitrogen at higher rates enhanced the spinach growth and increased fresh weight significantly. Sajirani et al. (2012) evaluated the effect of urea and manure on spinach yield and indicated that higher urea and manure application rates increased yield. Rani et al. (2013) found that application of farm yard manure in addition to chemical fertilizers increased the growth substantially in spinach in spinach as well as in other leafy vegetables. Sevgi et al. (2014) found that highest lettuce yield (71.8 and 76.5 t ha -1 ) was obtained with green manuring + FYM treatment and indicated that combined use of green manure and farmyard manure can be successfully used in organic lettuce production.
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Effect of various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on plant growth and curd yield of cauliflower (brassica oleracea l )

Effect of various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on plant growth and curd yield of cauliflower (brassica oleracea l )

Jana and Mukhopadhyay (2001) concluded that successive increase in nitrogen levels up to 150 kg N ha -1 increased plant height, leaf length, leaf width, days to curd initiation, days to curd maturity, curd diameter, curd depth, net curd weight and marketable curd yield. Kajod et al. (2005) found that maximum net returns were obtained with 120 kg N ha -1 in cauliflower. Camargo et al. (2009) determined that the nitrogen rates increased linearly in leaves and curds when higher levels of N were applied through soil. Katiyar et al. (2012) concluded that most of the characters and optimum head yield of cauliflower were favoured by applying 90 kg nitrogen and 90 kg phosphorus per hectare. The present research and findings reported from the past researches suggested great variation in nitrogen and phosphorus requirements for cauliflower production and these variations might be associated with the fertility status of the soil and varieties used by different researcher in different parts of the world.
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Effect of bulky and concentrated organic manures on the growth, yield, quality enhancement and soil properities of Tomato

Effect of bulky and concentrated organic manures on the growth, yield, quality enhancement and soil properities of Tomato

In today’s era, heavy doses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being used by the farmers to get a better yield of various field crops. These chemical fertilizers and pesticides decreased soil fertility and caused health problems to the consumers. Due to adverse effects of chemical fertilizers, interest has been stimulated for the use of organic manures. Porosity, drainage, water holding capacity and microbial activity are high in vermicompost. Vermicompost is produced by biodegradation of organic material through interactions between earthworms and micro-organisms. Organic plants products are recognized by some consumers as safer and better in taste than conventional ones. Unfortunately organic cultivation has a markedly negative effect on the yield (Hamouz et al., 2005); moreover, organic fruits show more visible defects in comparison to conventional ones. This can make them less attractive for the consumers (Conclin and Tomson, 1993).The growth of tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) in three kinds of horticultural potting media mixed with different concentrations of vermicomposted pig manure, i.e., composted with earthworms was assessed by Atiyeh et al. (1999). Organic manures such has cow dung; poultry manure and crop residues were used as alternatives for the inorganic fertilizers but no conclusive results were obtained to ascertain which among these organic sources of nutrition gave a higher yield of tomato (Saidu et al., 2011). Poultry manure is an excellent organic fertilizer, as it contains high nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other essential nutrients (Oyewole and Oyewole, 2011). In contrast to chemical fertilizer, it add organic matter to soil which improves soil structures, nutrient retention, aeration, soil moisture holding capacity and water infiltration (Deksissa et al., 2008). Poultry manure more readily supplies P to plants than other organic manure sources (Garg and Bahla, 2008). Although, organic fertilizers exist in readily available forms; cheap and easy to assess, they need to be applied in large amounts to meet the nutrient requirements of crops (Prabu et al. 2003). Where large hectares are involved,
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Effect of mycorrhiza fungi propagules and bokashi fertilizer combination to weed density, growth and yield of maize (zea mays l ) on marginal dry land in regency of Kendari, Indonesia

Effect of mycorrhiza fungi propagules and bokashi fertilizer combination to weed density, growth and yield of maize (zea mays l ) on marginal dry land in regency of Kendari, Indonesia

The increasing soil fertility in crop acreage of maize, it is inseparable from the existence of various types of weeds that grow in the planting area of maize. The presence of weeds in crop areas affects the crop. This happens because the weed has a high ability to compete with plants for water, nutrients, sunlight, CO2, and a place to grow (Rao, 2000). Crop yield loss due to weeds is highly variable and difficult to estimate because its influence cannot be readily observed (Fadhly and Fahdiana, 2005). The variations loss of crop yield was determined by the critical period of plant (Kevin et al., 2007). Critical period of crop started at the age of 20-45 days after planting (Moenandir, 1993), since the plant grows up to a period of a quarter or a third of the age of the plant (Ferrero et al., 1996; Hartzler and Pringnitz, 2005), and at the age of 2-8 weeks after planting (Utomo et al., 2004). The maize grown in monoculture with a low input cannot provide the optimum yields due to intensified competition with weeds (Clay and Aquilar, 1998). Therefore, a weed that grows on corn crop acreage if left without any control, then the weeds will have the potential to compete with the crop.
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Growth, Development and Yield in Pure and Mixed Forest Stands

Growth, Development and Yield in Pure and Mixed Forest Stands

(Menalled et al., 1998). In general, intolerant species grow rapidly in height, allocate more growth to stem and branches, and have crowns with low leaf area density (Haggar and Ewel, 1995; Canham et al., 1994; Sheil et al., 2006; Hosseini et al., 2010). These species can form an upper canopy stratum that transmits a substantial portion of light to shade tolerant species that form a lower stratum with greater leaf area density. Canopy stratification of this kind is an important aspect of complementary resource use. Root stratification may also occur, but there is much less information about below ground processes. In species combinations where complementarity of crown or root structure is an important interaction, a fine-grained spatial pattern (i.e., with the species intermixed on a tree-by-tree basis) is necessary to maximize interspecific interactions. The proportions of the species in mixtures can have important effects on stand development. Several studies have tested the question of whether biomass productivity in mixed plantations with complementary characteristics exceeds that in monocultures of the component species (Amoroso and Turnblom, 2006). Increasing stand-level productivity using facilitation Much more research has been focused on mixed-species plantations designed to produce facilitative interactions than those designed solely for complementarity of resource use (e.g., Forrester et al., 2006a; Hosseini et al., 2008; Hosseini et al., 2011a; Rouhi-Moghaddam et al., 2011a). The facilitative production principle (Vandermeer, 1989) involves one species directly benefiting the growth of another. The greatest use of facilitation in forest plantations has been through the combination of an N-fixing tree species (those with root symbionts that fix atmospheric N2) and a non-N-fixing, valuable timber tree species that shows substantial growth responses to increased N availability. The species are grown in mixture to allow N to be transferred from the N-fixing species to the companion species. The more rapid nutrient cycling of the N-rich litter may increase available pools of other nutrients as well, but in some cases available P has been found to decrease, due apparently to the high demand for P by some Nfixing species (Rothe and Binkley, 2001). With some species combinations, there may also be a more direct transfer of N and other nutrients between trees species through an ectomycorrhizal connection if the tree species share the same ectomycorrhizal species (Simard et al., 1997; Rachid et al., 2013).
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Growth and yield of sorghum under effect of some acacia species plantation

Growth and yield of sorghum under effect of some acacia species plantation

Taking into consideration the importance of agricultural production sustainability with greater resource use efficiency in arid area, field study was conducted to investigate the effect of four, Acacia trees (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Acacia senegal and Acacia tortilis) planting combination on soil and Sorghum bicolor L. The crop planted between strips of four Acacia trees (eight planting combinations). Acacia species had significantly increasing soil available nitrogen, Soil between rows of A. torilis and A. seyal has highest nitrogen content,. Increasing of soil fertility has positive effect on the Sorghum plants grown in strips between these planting combination significantly taller with more leaves with greater fresh and dry weight compared to control plants which had least growth and yield traits. Sorghum planted between rows of A. tortilis and A. seyal, and between A. senegal and A. tortilis registered highest technical efficiency. As conclusion, intercropping of sorghum with Acacia can be alternative agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia or any area with similar ecological condition to amend soil, improve crops growth, and yield performance.
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Interaction of bacillus subtilis and trichoderma harzianum with mycorrhiza  on growth and yield of cucumber (cucumis sativus l )

Interaction of bacillus subtilis and trichoderma harzianum with mycorrhiza on growth and yield of cucumber (cucumis sativus l )

were positive which reflected in the increased the number of G. mosseae spores, percentage of root colonaziation by mycorrhiza. some studies showed that phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) such as B. subtillis and B. circulans together with AM fungi g. intraradices can increase the establishement of AM fungi in the onion root(Singh and Kapoor, 1998) Through induced the expression of some genes like GmFox2 which encoding to multifunctional protein (Gianinazzi et al., 2002). Vivas et al. (2003) suggested that should be using co- inoculated between AM fungi G. mosseae and G. intraradices with Bacillus sp. to optimize the formation and function of AM fungi symbiosis in normal and stress environments, saprotrophic fungi such as Trichodermia spp. mainly influence in the development of AM fungi symbiosis (Garicia- Romera et al., 1998). Al- Kurtany et al.(2008) found that the percentage of AM fungi Glomus spp. colonization increased when there T. harzianum in the same treatment which reflected on increased growth and yeild of eggplant which grown under feild conditions . also the result of this study showed the ability of all PGP and the interaction between them to increasing some growth parameters for shoot and root part and increaseing some yield parameters in cucumber plant. The maize plant shown response to inoculation with AM fungi through increasing of growth and yield parameters which is (biomass, length, circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield and grain size), and increased in content of some biochemical such as protein, lipid and starch (Berta et al., 2014). Bhuvaneswari et al. (2014) reported that the interaction between G. mosseae and T. harzianum give significant increase in growth parametares of chilli plant such as length of shoot and root, dry weight of shoot and root, number of leaves, number of branching and number of
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Effect of increased level of CO2 on growth and yield of wheat crop

Effect of increased level of CO2 on growth and yield of wheat crop

The present study was carried out to evaluate the changes in growth and yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop when grown under elevated CO2. Different chambers were used: ambient CO2 chamber and elevated CO2 chamber. Crop was grown from seedling to maturity inside the chamber under ambient CO2 and elevated (future) CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm). Crop resulted in greater biomass compared to ambient CO2. The high concentration of CO2 resulted into increase shoot length, root length and number of tillers in terms of their size and weight. Exposure to elevated CO2 cause significant increase in economic yield of wheat per plant. In this study we examine the effect of present and future CO2 concentration on the growth, biomass and yield of wheat crop.
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Influence of Growth Regulators on Shedding of Broad Bean, Growth, Yield and Seed Quality

Influence of Growth Regulators on Shedding of Broad Bean, Growth, Yield and Seed Quality

seed yield (g) /plant, 100-seed weight (g), seed yield (ton/ha) and protein %.The results showed that increasing NAA concentrations of 60 ppm significantly increased total chlorophyll, plant height (cm), number of branches/plant, number of shedding flowers, shedding %, pods and seeds number/plant, number of seeds/pod, seed yield (g) /plant, 100-seed weight (g), seed yield (ton/ha) and protein % in both seasons. From our results, it could be stated that incensing Naphthalene Acetic Acidup to 60 ppm increased total chlorophyll, plant height (cm),branchesnumber/plant, number of shedding flowers, podsnumber/plant, seedsnumber/pod, seedsnumber/plant, seed yield/plant, 100-seed weight (g), seed yield (ton/ha) and protein % by 11.47, 23.92, 92.88, 20.53, 11.87, 23.48, 14.16, 24.91, 26.15 and 13.23%, respectively as the average of twoseasons.But, reduced the shedding % by 11.91% as the average of two seasons.Foliar application of Naphthalene Acetic Acid increased the growth, viz, plant height, number of branches/plant, leaf area index, dry weight/plant and plant attributes. Plant growth regulators are known to modify the growth and development patterns of plant by exertinga profound effect on various physiological processes and hence regulating seed productivity[17].Application IAA caused a reduction in the flower abscission %,hence producinga highest number of pod set, seedweight/plant, number of seeds/pod and weight of 100 seeds[7]. The increase in seed yield/plant due to foliar spraying of Naphthalene Acetic Acid could be attributed to the more increases in vegetative growth characters, which might provide more vegetative area and increases pod set%, reduction in abscission %, increasing the seed number/pod, as mentioned by[18].These results are in agreement with those described by[6,8,10,11,12].
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Studies on the effect of high density planting and fertigation on vegetative growth, yield and quality of banana (Musa acuminata L ) cv  Grand Naine of Main crop

Studies on the effect of high density planting and fertigation on vegetative growth, yield and quality of banana (Musa acuminata L ) cv Grand Naine of Main crop

intercept the solar radiation effectively. An ideal density of plants is determined by complex interaction of factors like cultivars, soil fertility and management practices. HDP can significantly increase yield per unit area as the plants are planted closer than that in traditional planting methods (Mahalakshmi, 2000). Moreover, there was reduction in water and fertilizers to a tune of 30-40 per cent, besides appreciable increase in productivity for unit area under high density planting. As banana plant, mostly feeds from the surface of the soil, it is paramount important to maintain a high degree of soil fertility, if production is to be maintained at an economical level over long periods. The choice of fertilizers, dosage of nutrients, time and method of application, etc. vary widely with respect to agro-climatic conditions and cultivars. Banana crop gives good response to judicious fertilizer programmes and excess or deficit application of fertilizers will not exploit the full potential of its yield. Water and nutrients are the key important factors in banana cultivation and number of research experiments have clearly demonstrated that for high productivity of banana, application of recommended doses of essential nutrients at appropriate crop growth stage is necessary.
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Influence of micronutrients application on growth and seed yield in  tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL )

Influence of micronutrients application on growth and seed yield in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL )

and 105.30 kg to 181.05 kg for seed yield per plant and per hectare, respectively in Utkal Kumari while the values ranged from 6.600 g to 10.912 g and 127.16 kg to 205.70 kg, respectively in Utkal Raja. In both varieties, application of micronutrients mixture gave maximum seed yield followed by boron treatment, in respect both the parameters, while the lowest yield was obtained in the control. This indicated that all the micronutrients, either singly or in combination, have enhancing effects on seed yield. Increase in seed yield may be due to higher seed yield attributing components such as fruit set, number of fruits per plant, fruit size and weight, fruit yield, number of seeds per fruit and seed weight. In a field experiment to study to study the effect of fertilizers, bio fertilizers and micronutrients on yield and quality of brinjal, Kiran et al. (2010) indicated that application of ZnSo4 @ 0.2 % along with recommended doses of NPK, Azospirillum and PSB, recorded increased fruit yield (27.06t/ha), number of seeds per fruit (1852) and seed yield (633 kg/ha).
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Effect of zinc on growth and yield of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum cv pusa ruby)

Effect of zinc on growth and yield of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum cv pusa ruby)

Based on the findings of the investigation, it may be concluded that to improve tomato Growth and yield. Maximum plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, first day flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant and fruit yield (t/ha) were obtained in both the years by the application of Zinc 10 kg/ha and RDF with vermicompost were congenial for clay soil of Manipur.

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Effect of split application of nitrogen on the growth and yield of bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia)

Effect of split application of nitrogen on the growth and yield of bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia)

Utilization of nutrients by the plants to an adequate level largely depends upon the N quantity and time of its application, because applying nitrogen according to the crop requirement at different growth stages needs to be taken into consideration (Elfstrand and Lans, 2002). Although the farmers mostly apply nitrogenous fertilizers in almost adequate amounts; but their awareness for time and quantity of nitrogen application considering the critical growth stage is not up to the mark. Due to imbalanced nitrogen application, the plant could not grow vigorously; and the crop yields are lower than the potential production. However, there is need of balancing the nitrogen application in terms of rate and time of application (Choudhari and More, 2007). The role of nitrogen is vital and cannot be tolerated and no any other nutrient can compensate its deficiency; while nitrogen deficiency is one of the key factors to influence the crop productivity adversely. The universal deficiency of N has become more severe in regions of continuous cropping (Raun and Johnson, 1999). The plant growth is mainly stimulated by N availability in the soil. Split application of N fertilizer may substantially improve N use efficiency, particularly during wet growing seasons. During early growth stages, considerable N may be lost due to denitrification and leaching, particularly if wet conditions persist (Hamid and Nasab, 2001). Suresh kumar and Karuppaiah (2008) reported that half of the total N may be applied at sowing and remaining amount of N may be adjusted in two equal splits and such N management resulted in increased number of branches, fruits and marketable yield per vine in bitter gourd. Hilli et al. (2009) recorded significantly more vine length, number of leaves dry matter, higher fruit and seed yield when the crop was fertilized with 1/3 rd of total N in addition to all P or K at sowing.
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Age of Transplant and Row Spacing Effects on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Chilli Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Age of Transplant and Row Spacing Effects on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Chilli Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

There was no significant difference between ages of transplant in fruit yield during the 2013 cropping season although the older transplants had the highest fruit yield (Table 3). The 37 aged transplants differed significantly from the 30 and 44 aged transplants in fruit yield during the 2014 cropping season (Table 3). This might be due to enhanced initial plant growth due to high dry matter yield. Peppers require strong initial growth to promote earliness and abundant fruit set. The 30 aged transplants had the least fruit yield at the same cropping period (Table 3). This contradicts those found by (Ibrahim et al., 2013) that higher fresh fruit yield was recorded in pepper transplanted earlier than those transplanted later. The 30 x 30 cm row spacing differed significantly from the 50 x 30 cm and 60 x 30 cm row spacing in fruit yield during the 2013 cropping season (Table 3). This might be due to differences in plant spacing and plant morphology. This agrees with the findings of (Rafiei, 2009; Albayrak et al., 2011; Ciampitti and Vyn, 2011) that for most crops, plant density has a major influence on crop yield and economic profitability. Yildiz and Abak (2003) attested that plant yield can be variable in high density according to branch numbers per plant and that more plant density in comparison with lower plant density will lead to higher yield. Similar findings was reported by (Alabi et al., 2014) that total fruit yield per hectare increased with higher population densities. Some other studies showed that increasing yield will follow by increasing plant density Cavero et al., (2001); Nyambi et al., (2004). Peppers and other plants grown in denser population tend to be taller and may set fruit higher on the plant than those grown in less dense planting Stofella and Bryan, (1988). There was no significant difference between row spacing treatments in fruit yield during the 2014 cropping season although the 40 x30 cm row spacing had the highest yield (Table 3). This implies that a further reduction in the row spacing would probably not be beneficial and so the 40 x 30 cm spacing appears optimum and should be recommended for hot pepper production. Table.3: Fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit yield as influenced by ages of transplant and row spacing during the 2013 and
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