This proceedings includes papers and abstracts presented in the 2001 meeting of “Nordiska Samarbetsgruppen för Skogsinventeringsfrågor” (Nordic work group of forestinventory specialists), sponsored by SNS (SamNordisk Skogforskning – Nordic Co-operative Research Group on ForestInventory Questions). Recent achievements of the research teams represented in the meeting are reported in team and country reports. These reports include lists of recent publications (up to April 2001 at least) produced by the teams. The other four parts of the proceedings contain both original research reports and more general presentations of, e.g., modelling and planning sys- tems organised according to the main themes of the meeting: multisource inventory, other inventory topics, forestmanagement planning and forest modelling.
The LiDAR point clouds give some information about the structure of stands and individual trees, and are useful when paired with ground data (Lillesand et al., 2014). LiDAR can be used for many forest applications such as; forestmanagement (Wulder et al., 2008, Sasaki et al., 2016), forest fire management (Almeida et al., 2016, Hudak et al., 2016), forest biomass and carbon storage (Hopkinson et al, 2016, Singh et al., 2016), and forestinventory (Maack et al., 2016, Hu et al., 2016). Recent research shows that LiDAR can be used for different areas. For instance, Almeida et al., (2016) used a portable profiling LiDAR for fire susceptibility and contrasting fire damage in the Central Amazon. Hopkinson et al., (2016) monitored biomass and carbon storage change in the boreal forest using airborne laser scanning. Moreover, LiDAR and very high resolution images can be used for the horizontal structure characterization in the tropical forest canopy (Dupuy et al, 2013)
These two components, stand growth models and forestinventory information, are essential to modern forestmanagement. The inventory section is the dominant provider (and in many cases the sole provider) of these tools and data sets in BC.
The section currently comprises 30 staff located in Victoria, Nanaimo, Nelson, Kamloops, and Campbell River. The planned 13/14 operating budget (LBI, base, and research funding) is about $7.5 million. Most section activities are funded by the Land Based Investment Strategy (LBIS) and thus focussed on the LBIS priorities. The section work plan (see 3.2) identifies the main projects/activities that will be undertaken by the section in 13/14. In addition to ensuring that the activities of the Inventory Section are consistent with the guidance outlined in this document (including the ADM priorities and the areas of strategic focus outlined by the Director), in 2013/14 there are six areas to which the Inventory Section will pay special attention.
Forest tent caterpillars are important defoliators of aspens but also damage maple, birch, oak, ash, and wil- low. Larvae emerge from overwintering egg masses on branches in late April to late May. Larvae often feed, molt, and rest in groups, massing on trunks during non- feeding periods. Despite the name, no tents are con- structed. Defoliation occurs in June. Heavily defoliated trees refoliate by late July. Larval development takes 5 to 8 weeks. Mature larvae spin cocoons for pupation and emerge as adults after 2 to 3 weeks. Mating and egg lay- ing usually occur from early to mid-July. Trees are rarely killed, but growth loss can be significant.
The greatest threat to the health of forests worldwide, including those at Thirlmere, is climate change. Predictions for Britain over the course of this century include signifi- cant increases in mean monthly tempera- tures, changes in the pattern of rainfall and an increase in the number and severity of storm events. Stands of mixed species with uneven-aged structures are potentially more resilient than monocultures to natu- ral disturbances. For example, only a small proportion of trees in a mixed stand will be blown over by high winds while in mono- culture large patches may be lost. Multi- species stands are less likely to suffer serious pest damage as most pests favour one or a small number of host species. Transforming most of the forest to continu- ous cover, with stands of mixed species and
Recent reorganization of the BCMOF has resulted in the creation of three administrative regions (Coastal, Northern Interior, and Southern Interior) as of April 1, 2003, in place of the original six (Cariboo, Kamloops, Nelson, Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Vancouver). Pest management issues will continue to be coordinated by the Forest Practices Branch which has now assumed the respon- sibility for providing annual overview data on the condition of the provincial forest and relating it to historical trends and projections of future losses. Licensees will be increasingly responsible for pest management activities. They are required to produce a Forest Health Strategy for their operating area that will meet the require- ments outlined in the Provincial Forest Health Strategy. You will need to follow the new BCMOF organizational developments by visiting ministry web sites as the Forest and Range Practices Act regulations are formulated over the next two years (see: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/dfam-website/index.html).
In 2003, 16 native and two exotic tree species ( Table 1 ) were planted at both sites in monoculture plots of 20 trees (initial spac- ing of 3 m × 3 m) with nine replicates per site ( Wishnie et al., 2007 ). Trees were 2–8-month old when planted, this variation depen- ding on the time needed for the container-germinated seedlings to be ready for planting. On the day of planting and again two months later, 115 g/plant of granular fertilizer (12-72-12 N-P-K) was applied at each planting spot. Competing vegetation was cut with machetes on a regular basis at least three times every year ( Wishnie et al., 2007 .). Species were chosen for their forest restora- tion potential, timber value, and silvopastoral use ( Table 1 ) (see Wishnie et al., 2007 for further details). After two years of growth in plantation, when some plots had achieved crown closure, all plots were thinned to 50% of their original density by cutting alternate stems in every row.
COST Action E43 has the objective to improve and harmonise NFI based common reporting on forest resources at European level. The achieve- ments within COST Action E43 rely largely on the co-operation among representatives of the individual member countries. We therefore want to thank all NFI experts that participated in Work- ing Group 1 of COST Action E43. Jacques Ron- deux (Belgium), Martin Cerny (Czech Republic), Miloš Kucera (Czech republic), Vivian Kvist Johannsen (Denmark), Veiko Adermann (Esto- nia), Kari T. Korhonen (Finland), Heino Polley (Germany), Graham Bull (United Kingdom), Ioannis Meliadis (Greece), László Kolozs (Hun- gary), András Szepesi (Hungary), Björn Trausta- son (Iceland), Christy O’Donovan (Ireland), John Redmond (Ireland), Patrizia Gasparini (Italy), Jurgis Jansons (Latvia), Ieva Licite (Latvia), Andrius Kuliešis (Lithuania), Stein Tomter (Norway), Anamaria Azevedo (Portugal), José A. Villanueva Aranguren (Spain), Ovidiu Badea (Romania), Gheorghe Marin (Romania), Ulf Söderberg (Sweden) provided important informa- tion on their national forestinventory systems and contributed valuable arguments in the numerous discussions during working group meetings. In particular, we are grateful to Alexander Korotkov (UNECE), Mark Lawrence (United Kingdom), Jacques Rondeux, Stein Tomter, Heino Polley, Karl Gabler (Austria), Patrizia Gasparini, Ulf Söderberg, Andrius Kuliešis for their important contributions. We also would like to thank COST Office and especially Mr. Günter Siegel, Science Officer at COST Secretariat, for the financial and technical support, as well as Mr. Kai Mäkisara for technical support and web page management. We thank MSc Daisy Englert Duursma for English editing and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions.
Clearly efficiencies can be achieved by cooperating with national and international efforts. For example, for even fairly simple indicators such as “extent of area by forest type relative to total forest area,” there are variable ways to proceed. Questions to be answered include which forest type definitions should be used; are shrublands, savannah, and regenerating clearcuts included; and what point in time is used to determine the total forest area. The Northeastern Area and the States will cooperatively evaluate each of the Montreal Process indicators for its value in guiding regional and State level programs and policy initiatives. Evaluation will consider things like technical soundness, feasibility of implementation at a variety of scales, and the degree to which standardization is necessary and possible among States as well.
Most studies of biogeochemistry in southern Chilean temperate forests have been conducted in montane rain forests. Lowland primary rain forests developed on highly productive, glacial soils are disappearing much faster than higher elevation forests, however, due to logging, ﬁre and land use changes, especially in the last decades ( Wilson and Armesto, 1996; Echeverrı´a et al., 2007 ). Nowadays lowland primary rain forests in Chiloe´ Island occupy less than one-third of its original distribution. Chile belongs to the group of countries that have increased its overall deforestation rate from 1.02% during 1980s to 1.76% during the 1990s ( Jha and Bawa, 2006 ), which has greatly altered the landscape of this temperate forest region. It has been estimated that only 5% of logging of native forests is based on controlled silvicultural practices ( Lara, 1996 ). Depending on logging intensity, selective logging scenarios can substantially alter forest structure and tree species composition ( Ru¨ger et al., 2007 ), mainly because of the broad diversity of light requirements of different timber species ( Donoso et al., 1999; Gutierrez et al., 2004; Figueroa and Lusk, 2001 ).
Drinnan and Menzel, 1995 ). In a study of coffee pollination near San Isidro del General, Costa Rica (about 100 km north-northwest of my study site), Ricketts (2004) found that ten species of meliponines, along with feral honey bees (Apis mellifera) were the most common visitors to coffee ﬂowers. While foraging-strategy data are not available for all species, of the four most common meliponines in the Ricketts (2004) study, one is a solitary forager (Plebeia frontalis, the second-most common ﬂoral visitor) and another is a facultative group forager (T. fulviventris, the fourth most common ﬂoral visitor). Thus, while foraging recruitment can play a role in meliponine-mediated crop pollination services, it is not the only factor in determining the density of ﬂower visitors. It is possible that land-use change, and the concomitant change in the distribution of ﬂoral resources, reduced the abundance of mass-recruiting meliponines in the San Isidro landscape. 4.5. Management recommendations
It has been proposed that yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) decline is initiated by the freezing injury of roots when soils freeze during times of limited snowpack. To explain the unique susceptibility of yel- low-cedar in contrast to co-occurring species, yellow-cedar roots would need to be less cold tolerant and/ or more concentrated in upper soil horizons that are prone to freezing. We measured the root cold tol- erance and used concentrations of foliar cations as an assay of rooting depth for ﬁve species in one forest in Ketchikan, Alaska. Species evaluated were yellow-cedar, western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Roots were collected in November 2007 and January, March and May 2008; foliage was collected in January 2008. Soil samples from surface and subsurface horizons were analyzed for available calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) to compare with foliar cation concentrations. Across all dates the sequence in hardiness from the least to most cold tolerant species was (1) yellow-cedar, (2) western redcedar, (3) western and mountain hemlock, and (4) Sitka spruce. Yellow-cedar and redcedar roots were less cold tolerant than roots of other species on all sample dates, and yellow-cedar roots were less cold tolerant than redcedar roots in January. Yellow-cedar roots were fully dehardened in March, whereas the roots of other species continued to deharden into May. Yellow-cedar roots exhibited the highest electrolyte leakage throughout the year, a pattern that suggests the species was continuously poised for physiolog- ical activity given suitable environmental conditions. Yellow-cedar and redcedar had higher foliar Ca and lower Al concentrations, and greater Ca:Al ratios than the other species. Yellow-cedar had higher foliar Ca and Ca:Al than redcedar. Soil measurements conﬁrmed that the upper horizon contained more extract- able Ca, less Al and higher Ca:Al than the lower horizon. Considering the distribution of Ca and Al in soils, we propose that concentrations of Ca and Al in yellow-cedar and redcedar foliage reﬂect a greater proportional rooting of these species in upper soil horizons compared to other species tested. Greater Ca and Ca:Al in the foliage of yellow-cedar suggests shallower rooting compared to redcedar, but broad similarities in foliar cation proﬁles for these species also highlight some overlap in rooting niche. Our data indicate that both limited root cold tolerance and shallow rooting likely contribute to the unique sensitivity of yellow-cedar to freezing injury and decline relative to sympatric conifers.
Restoration of protected areas in boreal forests frequently includes creating substantial volumes of dead wood. While this beneﬁts a wide range of dead wood dependent invertebrate species, some of these are regarded as forest pests. Therefore, the risk of elevated levels of tree mortality in surrounding commercial forests must be considered. In a large-scale ﬁeld experiment in southern Finland, we studied the effects of restoration treatments on the abundance of bark beetles within and in the vicinity of restored areas, in particular focusing on Ips typographus and Pityogenes chalcographus. The treatments applied to managed Norway spruce forests were controlled burning and partial harvesting combined with retaining 5, 30 or 60 m 3 /ha of cut down wood. We found that the abundance of bark beetles increased by both burning and harvesting with down wood retention, being highest where burning and harvesting had been combined. The actual volume of down wood retention had no signiﬁcant effect. The effect of burning on the number of bark beetles along host tree boles was negative which suggests that burnt spruces provided a less suitable resource for bark beetles than unburnt dead spruces. The abundance of bark beetles along host trees also decreased with increasing volume of down wood retention. The abundance of P. chalographus was slightly elevated up to 50 m outside restored areas but the abundance was very low compared to that within the areas. The abundance of I. typographus was extremely low outside restored areas. We conclude that restoration treatments increase the abundance of bark beetles via increased availability of resources, but that the effect of burning is likely to be counteracted by decreased resource quality. Thus, burning might be the ‘‘safest’’ way to produce large quantities of dead wood. Furthermore, the fact that only few beetles were collected in adjacent areas suggests that restored areas pose little threat of serving as refugia in which bark beetle populations increase in sufﬁcient numbers to attack live trees in adjacent forests. However, restoration actions repeated at consecutive years within a small area might enable the populations to grow to outbreak levels.
Along the way, CFP has been involved in a number of successful joint ventures with other forest industry licensees and First Nations communities. Today, CFP operates a joint venture with the Toquaht First Nation under Echa Peh Forest Resources Ltd. CFP is operated as an independent company within the Coulson Group of Companies. The Coulson Group of Companies are private companies, owned and managed by the Coulson family under the leadership of Wayne Coulson, President and CEO.
The state of each validation plot was estimated for each image acquisition using the corresponding raster with metrics. Estimation models were trained with training plots, namely data sets 1 and 2 described in Table 1 . In order to obtain as good temporal matches as possible, sample plot data were either fore- or back-casted for short time periods to correspond to the time-points of the image acquisitions. This was done using growth models in the forestry planning and analysis system Heureka [ 1 , 32 ]. In southern Sweden, the growth of tree-shoots occurs mainly in June. Therefore, if the images were acquired after the 15th of June, the growth for that particular year was included when the field reference data were computed. For example, the last images (acquired the 23rd of May 2012) will be defined as belonging to growth season 2011, as they were acquired before the breaking point (15th of June). Therefore, we consistently denote the last estimate to be from year 2011 in this study to avoid confusion. Plots that had been subject to logging operations in the time between the field inventory and the remote sensing acquisition were identified through management operations registers provided by the land manager. Affected plots were excluded from the training data, thus resulting in a different number of training plots used for the different acquisitions. Linear regression was applied for modeling Lorey’s mean height (HL) and non-linear regression for modeling stem volume (V) and basal area (A), using the aerial imagery metrics as predictors. First, model expressions and metrics were chosen using studies of correlation and regression residuals of the reference data surveyed in 2010 and metrics from the aerial images acquired in 2010 (Equations (1)–(3)).
The third risk is that the entire debate about changing to the annual inventory approach is not a solution to the problems with the present inventory program so much as it is a classical example of a work avoidance
mechanism. Heifetz (1994) outlined a theory about how individuals and organizations react to stress caused by serious problems. Rather than confronting and fixing the underlying problems, it is often easier to make some cosmetic change that gives the appearance of dealing with the problem. This is often sufficient to convince people that Something is Being Done, and so the stress level subsides - for awhile. This cycle can be repeated endlessly, since the players on both sides tend to change over time. The distinction that Heifetz makes between adaptive work aimed at fixing problems, and work avoidance is simple: if the action reduces stress but does not solve the problem, it is work avoidance. If it solves the problem - even at the expense of raising or maintaining stress - then it is adaptive work.
Moreover, the further integration of the forest continuous in- ventory and the second class (sub-compartment) forest resource inventory is also an important purpose of research in this paper. Under normal conditions, on the basis of the fixed sample plots usually used for the province level continuous inventory, the county level inventory sampling system can be established to act as a control on the sub-compartment survey precision. For this reason, realization of the data of the forestinventory can make the sub-compartment management more practical. The actual situation shows that costs and workload will be greatly increased by establishing such a system. Many counties have abandoned the increased-precision sample plot system that de- pends on county level data because it brings unavoidable prob- lems of precision control in sub-compartment survey. At the same time, new requirements have been put forward for the progress of forest ecology monitoring which use mountain mas- sif or even river basin areas (combined sub-compartments) as basic units. Some specialists (She, 1998; She et al., 2007) have proposed the varied probability sampling method with the county-level data making up the main body of data, and sub- compartments as the basic sampling unit (or combinations of sub-compartments). This proposal is directed at the existing problems in second-class forest resource inventory, specifically in the south of China. With this type of sub-compartment sam- ple plot a forest resource fixed angle gauge plot dynamic meas- urement system can be established in each province. At the same time, the statistical estimations of sub-compartment class sample plots can serve as a control on the precision of the entire second class forest (sub-compartment) inventory. This method not only uses the high efficiency of varied probability sampling established in the forest resource monitoring system, but also can combine the sampling estimation method with sub-com- partment inventory. This will satisfy the requirements of eco- logical inventory by region. Sub-compartment class fixed sam- ple plots can become a new forest resource monitoring system, according to the inventory being carried out.
compartment areas vary from 3 ha for the first category to as great as 200 ha for the third category which is usu- ally used for remote and unused forest areas. Even the smallest compartments exhibit heterogeneity with re- spect to the stratification attributes. Thus, the attributes of the portion of a heterogeneous compartment that in- cludes the 500 m 2 sample plot may easily differ from the attributes from the rest of the compartment and, more importantly, from the attributes of the stratum to which the compartment and the plot are assigned. With larger compartments, the probability of such differences is even greater. This problem is further exacerbated when the compartments are poorly described. Thus, assign- ment of entire compartments, particularly large hetero- geneous compartments, to the same stratum, exacerbates the problem of plot attributes that do not match the attributes of the stratum to which they are assigned. Additional disadvantages of using compart- ments as the basic units assigned to strata are that com- partment boundaries are often not sharp or well-defined and that they change over time, meaning that plots may have to be reassigned to strata for subsequent SFI cycles. A second cause for the assignment of plots to non-matching strata is that the strata may not satisfy the statistical criteria that they both cover the entire population and are thematically mutually exclusive (Cochran 1977, sec- tion 5.1; Alekseev 2013). One consequence is that a plot’s at- tributes may closely, but not exactly, match the attributes of multiple strata. Third, non-matching stratum assignments may be due to errors in the classification of remotely sensed data and to change in the plot conditions between the plot measurement date and the date of the information used to delineate the stratum.
Saw milling is lucrative but participation by Forest Adjacent Communities (FACs) is limited. This is because saw milling is a capital intensive venture which is out of reach for the FACs. In addition, disposal of mature plantation is a rigorous process guided by a host of other Regulations not just the Forest Act. This confirms concerns that FACs are burdened with most of the work in the establishment of plantations with little benefits from the forest. Revenue collected from forest does not benefit the community and timber harvesting is still dominated by large companies (Mogoi et al. 2012). Saw millers can procure logs from any forest where KFS has advertised for sale of mature plantations or thinning. The Forest Act does not bind saw millers to join CFAs in these forests but they can access benefits from there. The poor FAC members labour to establish plantations but benefit minimally from them once they mature. This was succinctly captured by one FUG member during a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in Meru: