This type is less widely seen now due to selection logging prior to active forestmanagement. Large stumps indicate widespread occurrence in the past. Spotted gum and blackbutt dominate the stand; blue gum and grey ironbark (E. paniculata. Sm) sometimes are present as minor species. The understorey is most commonly a moist shrub layer with a high proportion of wattle but this feature is highly variable. The type occurs away from the ridge top in the mid and lower slope position except where relief is afforded by major topographic features. The soils are yellowish podzolics.
The paper presents the past course and achievements of the reform of the higher educational system at the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb. The reform is part of the effort undertaken in order to include the Faculty in the European Area of Higher Education (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). A three-cycle educational system has been adopted and the curricula for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate studies have been devised on a 3 +2 +3 (2) or 180 + 120 + 180 (120) ECTS points basis. Three undergraduate studies have been established: Forestry, Urban Forestry and Wood Technology, whose pro- grammes are already followed by two generations of students. The following graduate study programmes have been developed: Forestry and Urban Forestry, Nature and Environment Protection and Wood Technology Processes and Design of Wood Products. Graduate studies in the Forestry department contain two programmes: Silviculture and ForestManagement with Wildlife Management and Techniques, Technologies and Management in Forestry. An improved proposal for doctoral study has been developed in the Forestry Department consisting of three programmes (Silviculture and Wildlife Management, Techniques, Tech- nologies and Management in Forestry, and Urban Forestry, Nature Protection, ForestManagement and Protection), as well as a doctoral study programme Wood Technology. Specialist postgraduate studies have been devised in ten programmes.
systems gave prominence to tree species mixtures and biodiversity again, ﬁrst in Europe and subsequently in tropical forests. The growing understanding of system dynamics helped to overcome a dogmatic opposition to more rational, ﬂexible and adaptable approaches of traditional naturalistic silviculture. The failure of the positivistic ideologies prevailing in the nineteenth century that human beings could manipulate nature and humanity and overcome all natural obstacles opened the way to more holistically conceived, system-oriented silvicultural management systems that neither force nor copy, but mimic nature (BRUENIG 1996). To accommodate the changes in the forestmanagement objectives changes in silvicultural systems are occurring in all types of forests. Recent silvicultural management in many countries (e.g. USA, UK, Canada, Australia) adopted the concept of sustainable forestry, ecological integrity, mimicking natural disturbances and ecosystem management. The corresponding silvicultural systems are identiﬁed with another set of terms such as new forestry, re- duced impact logging, variable retention silvicultural system and improvement cutting (FAO 1999).
aBstraCt: The article deals with economic aspects of sustainable forestmanagement. The analysis stems from Plíva’s typological system. Several hundreds of variants were calculated for forestsilviculture profitability classified according to management intensity, target management system, proportion of ameliorating and improving species, proportion of natural regeneration, and set of forest types. The results show a possibility of labour saving and also marked differentiation of the effect of wood production function depending on natural and production conditions and management intensity.
the available data clearly indicates that the total amount of carbon stored in soil is many times higher than the total carbon reserve in the atmosphere. Studies indicate that the largest amounts of carbon are stored in the tropics and in high latitude ecosystems compared to other ecosystems. The carbon stock also varies within the same ecosystem from place to place due to variation in site quality, stocking and composition of forest, human activities and land use management practices. In comparison to other South Asian countries Nepal is one of the richest countries for carbon stock. A large number of studies regarding the carbon estimation were found in Nepal but these were mostly done in low land and mid hills. The community based management system is one of the successful forestmanagement systems of Nepal. It has higher potentiality on conservation of forest and biodiversity as well as it helps to fulfill demand of forest products for forest user group. Community forest users group has been generating income only from trading the forest products (firewood, timber and non-wood products) but has not been getting benefit from environmental services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed function and amelioration of climate though it has greater potentiality. In Nepal, some Community forests are highly active in management and others are focused on protection while some are passive or inactive. It is necessary to analyze the effect of different management practices and test which types of existing management practices are suitable for promotion of carbon stock and biodiversity in community forest. Nepal comprises only 0.09% of the global landmass but rich in both physical diversity and biodiversity. Though majority of studies show that there is a positive relationship between species richness and carbon stock, the relationship is not universal due to influence of species composition and application of management practices.
The livelihood of the local people largely depends on timber and non-timber forest products. Many of the informants stated the importance of the forest for their livelihood by declaring that it is everything for them. Some equate the forest to a “pension card” passed to them from their parents. A range of values are attached to the forest and non-timber forest products that have socio-economic importance. Honey, wild coffee, climbers and spices are the chief NTFPs they acquire from forest. It was also stated by informants that there were very high people who planted coffee and none spices in the forest. The forest provides climbers and other non-timber construction materials and agricultural tools. The use of large trees is observed only for making traditional beehives. Although honey is a no timber forest product, the use of timber trees for making beehive is an activity that encourages deforestation. Forests are good sources of plants with medicinal values (leaves, barks, roots, fruits, etc.) and hence the linkages between forestry medicine and nutrition are extremely important. Forest provides the only medicines available to a large proportion of Ethiopia's population. Some plants contain high concentrations or particular chemicals that are the base for modern drug equivalents. Secondly, many plants chosen for their traditional medicinal qualities have high concentrations of vitamins and minerals that help counteract illnesses caused by dietary deficiencies. The natural forest in Nonno Salle area is endowed with medicinal plant species to cure different diseases. The society uses many medicinal plants both from the main natural forest near the (kobbo), and near the villages and sometimes from shrubs in the grazing lands for themselves and also their livestock’s. Some of the medicinal plants and the disease for which they are used as listed by informants are shown in damakase leaf, andode root. The forests in the South- West Highlands in general and Nonno Sale in particular have of national importance for a variety of economic and ecological reasons, but primarily because of their coffee production. Much of Cardamom and Long Pepper comes from these forests. Honey production from the area suffers from high moisture content, but when this is reduced the honey and wax are of a high quality, being free of any pollutants, and the wax especially fetches a high price when exported. The forests have been a major source of timber in the past but this has declined in importance in recent years. Apart from the
Another synergetic effect regarding provisioning ES is the increasing marketability of otherwise unprofitable wood assortments, which plays a role in all countries except Slovenia. This is evident in the views of stake- holders from practitioner groups (Finland, Germany) and economy groups (Norway, Spain) who consider that energy wood is, or could potentially become, a new source of income for forest owners. According to them, this would have positive effects, as it provides market opportunities for forest products that otherwise could and would not be mobilised. However, Finnish inter- viewees also point at the fact that procurement costs of energy wood in Finland are higher than the revenues, for instance due to long transportation distances, low price of energy wood and rising oil prices. Specific economic ideas expressed by stakeholders relate to the possible substitution of industrial round wood with birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in certain areas for energy use. Moreover, the harvesting of bigger trees for energy wood would improve the profitability of energy wood harvest- ing (Finland).
Thousands of species on the entire planet, have already disappeared, and thousands more are threatened with extinction because of pollution caused by man: destruction of the natural environment in which they live; overexploitation that is to say, hunting, gathering, fishing or catching too important for the species can reproduce and maintain its population. The history of the Earth shows that before the appearance of man, many species have become extinct. But extinctions caused by humans are not comparable to those "natural" extinction: they are occurring at a much faster rate (a few decades against several hundred), and there are fears that they irreparably destroy ecological balances. The diversity of living organisms, or biodiversity, is now seen by most countries of the world as a heritage. Wildlife (non- domesticated by man) are a natural resource. From the nineteenth century, the French Rural Code has established the management rules for animal resource. These rules were initially concerned that the game, so that hunting is prevented from reproducing (opening dates). When some species were endangered, they were protected by the ban on hunting them any time of year, sell the products of their hunting, removing animals from their natural habitat (for example, capture them into pets). But sometimes it was too late (the monk seal in the Mediterranean, for example, has received full protection when he had already disappeared). This regulation applies to wildlife was taken from the flora. It is forbidden to pick, even for transplants, rare plant species in some areas, particularly mountain areas (edelweiss, orchids, etc.). Hunting and gathering are often only aggravating factors: the main cause of species extinction is the destruction of the environment
sistent with the analysis of Jounlathone Sa-ad (2004) Was studies: Participation of people to communities forest conservation case studies Pasack communities King Ampher Mearpern district, Nakhonsavanh province Thailand found that: Receiving information to significance participation community forest con- servation, and Phaisouda Tridecy (2003) Was stud- ies: Participation of people to the community forest conservation Case studies: Thongsoung village, Ka- bee province, studies found that: Social status and receiving information had affect participation in communities forest conservation. Reasons above had conditions to participate because, the most external conditions has promote such as: Socio-position, re- ceiving information, therefore it makes people in the awareness of the meaning and importance of them- selves and make them to understand there are role as a social and importance of implementing of above tasks to be assigned duties, especially in ownership in the participate production forestmanagement in area responsibilities of them and forest benefits have to livelihood direction and indirection, cause of that the people in the areas concept to protect forests for sustainable support by another sources, especially Government. Experiment hypothesis result found that: the independent variable to used in analysis as: The position within household, the position within society and receiving information to participation significance or affect to participation of people in the production forestmanagement at Keangchon sub- forestmanagement area the significance statistics level of 0.05, but dependent variable such as: educa- tion level, household members, members of group, secondary livelihood, religious believing, depend on the forest, knowledge and understanding about forest, income, and participation training people had not significance or had not effected to participation in production forestmanagement in Keangchon sub- forest area have to significance on statistics in level of 0.05 as table below
of mature forest stands, felling volume calculated from the percentage of growing stock removal in age classes. These allowable cut indicators have some negative and positive characters for their application. It is evident in FUU with irregular or extreme age structure. It is caused by the fact that they are created for large forest parts of an area within the range of 5,00010,000 ha. An area of present FUU is within the range of 505,000 ha. A quanti- tative group ranging from 250 to 550 ha is the most com- mon. Only a few FUU have an area larger than 5,000 ha. It is important to take into consideration several age class- es for felling volume calculation in order to ensure the continuity of fellings during several decades. Gradual balance of age structure is also ensured in this way.
The basic infrastructure of Myay Thin Twin village is of a slightly higher quality than the regional average. Most houses in the village are permanent houses with zinc sheet roofs whereas the poor tend to live in non-permanent houses constituted of thatched roofs and bamboo walls (i.e. huts). All residents are ethnic Burmese and Buddhists. For education, the village has a secondary school. But, it has no doctors or clinics and the villagers travel to Taung Zin village and Nyaung U town to access clinic and hospital care. Having close access to markets in Nyaung U, and the road improvement for the implementation of the JICA afforestation project, would suggest greater opportunity for selling agricultural crops. Regarding water resources, the villagers use piped water from Ayeyarwady River for drinking and tube wells for domestic use. There is also a village pond which is used for domestic use and some households harvest rain-water in their houses in the rainy season. Though there is no public electricity in the village, the villagers mostly use community generators for sources of lighting. The main fuel source used by the villagers for cooking is firewood, and villagers are still reliant on forests for most of their energy requirements.Myay Thin Twin village is adjacent to the Myay Thin Twin Protected Public Forest (PPF). Myay Thin Twin PPF was constituted by the FD on 8 March 2006, covering about 1,800 ha of dry land forests. It is the Permanent Forest Estate under Forest Law 1992 and administered by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation. In the past, Myay Thin Twin PPF was rich in flora and fauna, and springs had even been found in some areas of the forest. Natural dry forest was thriving with a variety of species such as Than (Terminalia oliveri), Dahat (Tectona hamiltoniana), Ingyin (Pentacme siamensis), Sha (Acacia catechu), Tanaung (Acacia leucophloea), Tama (Azadirachta indica), Magyi (Tamarindus indica), Zi (Ziziphus mauritiana), Ziphyu (Phyllanthus maderaspatensis), Nibase (Morinda tinctoria) and Khaung-gale (Rhus paniculata). Wild animals such as barking deer, deer, fox, wildcat, rabbits and birds were also found in that forest area.
27.5% of the 8.0 PgC of global emissions. Furthermore, including selective logging, drought-induced mortality and fire in those calculations may lead to double those emissions  , accompanied by even higher losses of biodiversity. It is thus not surprising that the issue of reducing deforestation in the tropics has again become a central theme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This is especially true after the Thirteen Conference of the Parties (COP13) of UNFCCC adopted the Bali Action Plan in 2007 (Decision 2)  recognizing the increasingly important role of tropical forests in greenhouse gas emissions re- ductions through the reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of forests, sus- tainable management of forests, enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) in developing countries. The Action Plan encourages the parties to start implementing the REDD on a voluntary basis while negotiations for official inclusion of the REDD as a mitigation option for the post-Kyoto climate agreement  are continuing. Discussions on including reduced deforestation in the post-Kyoto agreement have been made -, while discussions on reduced forest degradation are usually ignored due to difficulties in accurately detecting carbon emissions from degradation . However, although the REDD has great potentials because of its remarkably low cost , the magnitude of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests has been highly controversial - with errors likely to be as high as ±30% to ±60%  . Most recent stu- dies by Pan et al.  estimated carbon emissions from tropical deforestation (natural forests) at 2.9 PgC but were compensated by the increase of carbon sinks from forest plantations at 1.6 PgC annually between 1990 and 2007. Previous studies suggest the need for further research on forest carbon assessment so that uncertainties can be reduced. Reducing scale of carbon assessment from global to regional or even national scale is likely to re- duce such uncertainties.
There are some important habitats in the Thirlmere catchment, including small areas of ASNW — mainly oak-birch woodland. Here the stable environment maintained by a woodland canopy over hundreds of years, and the low levels of air pollution, allow pop- ulations of sensitive woodland species, such as rare mosses, to develop. Standing dead trees and woody debris provide habitats for cavity nesting birds and many insects, espe- cially beetles. Forestmanagement in the ASNW is largely non-intervention, with the main focus being removal of hazard trees and branches near to public areas for safety. The main objective in UK forestry for much of the twentieth century was to expand the productive forest resource. This involved planting upland sites with conifers such as Sitka spruce. ASNW was sometimes felled and replaced with conifers, which damaged ancient woodland ecology. These sites are now being restored. United Utili- ties has identified sites with potential for restoration or conversion to native Deep
DefInItIon of timberland ManagementForest administration is the plan and usage of an arrangement of activities in which stands are reaped, items are circulated, cutovers are recharged, and assurance against creepy crawlies, fire and malady is given (Baskerville, 1986) These exercises are controlled in timing, sum and geographic space with the goal that their aggregate impact creates a coveted blend of advantages, for example, timber, amusement opportunity, and so on from the entire backwoods after some time. The primary destinations of the woodland administration are to discover one calendar, i.e., plan, that seems liable to create the coveted future timberland improvement example and stream of advantages, - actualize that scheduil year-by-year, - screen backwoods execution periodicalyy to search for and cure dissimilarity amongst expected and real results (Jordan, Erdle, 1989).
Faced with problems have emerged from the enforcement of state land tenure policies, local people change their livelihood strategies by their own everyday practices. The CBFM system, which strongly depends on indigenous knowledge and practices, beliefs, and customary institutions to provide equitable access to natural resources, may differ from government institutions, and can serve as a sound model for forest conservation at the community level. Successful forestmanagement cannot be achieved without participation of local community.(Xu Jianchu, Luxing, Jefferson Fox, Nacy Podger & Ai Xihui, 2000). According to Anan (1992), future development of community forest depends largely on the legal recognizarions of community based legal bodies with rights of control of forest resource. This will enable local people to effectively protect their forest against outside encroachment. In case of land tenure of the H’mong in Viet Nam, Hoan (1995) show that for all practical purposes, though, land ownership remained in the hands of rural communities. Researching and assessing work of CBFM and problems related to livelihood not new to Viet Nam in general and Nghe An province in particular, however, systematical research on CBFM connecting closely the real situation of livelihood was very
The two-period model represents the NIPF owner’s short-run decision problem, and explicitly deals with short-run timber supply rather than some state variable, such as stand age in the rotation model. This model allows for the short-run fluctuations in exogenous variables such as stumpage prices, unlike the optimal rotation model. Such variations considerably affect the for- est owner’s decisions. It addresses the main silvicultural practices of forestmanagement and can be taken to represent both thinning, uneven-aged management and even-aged management with clear-cutting. It allows for risk-management decisions, consumption-savings decisions, and their implications on timber supply. The two-period model of consumption and savings offers a natural way of incorporating uncertainty and risk preferences using the expected utility framework. It also facilitates the analysis of interaction between non-timber benefits and timber ones, and implications in optimal decisions. For our purpose, the two-period model is preferred to the optimal rotation model as a more analytically suitable framework. While the effect of risk on timber supply has been studied in previous works using the two-period model (Koskela and Ollikainen  and ), the joint problems of smoothing consumption over time and managing a forest that simultaneously produces timber and amenities under risk have been relatively little analyzed. In the two-period
sylvicultural practices. In this work, there is several contributions. First, we develop the comparative statics of harvesting and hedging strategies by studying the effect of each pa- rameter on the optimal decisions. Second, we compare two different hedging strategies in terms of harvesting when forest owners value amenity services of forest. Third, our approach is original in the sense that the risk bears on the forest growth rate while it usually bears on future timber price. Finally, we analyse the savings in a context where the financial tools are more and more considered in order to cover the important risk. In this framework, we demonstrate that, the harvesting rule, in the presence of amenity services and a random growth rate for forest, is smaller than the one predicted under the Faustmann’s rule. We also show that under some assumptions, accumulation of savings and sylvicultural practices may be seen as perfectly substitutable for the forest owners. Finally, we show that the har- vesting rule displays a specific sensitivity to price effects and/or changes in the distribution of natural hazards, depending on whether forest owners opt for the financial strategy or undertake sylvicultural practices.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Forest is a complex ecosystem that supports a myriad of life forms. Destruction of such indigeneous forests and woodlands leads to deforestation. We should study deforestation for many reasons such as land used for urbanization, mining, industrialization and trees being used to satisfy human’s greed. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are being implemented for various applications of forestmanagement. Satellite remote sensing allows a fundamental data for observation and for calculating deforestation effect. A model is developed which can be used for either database or real time accuracy assessment. Python language is used for coding in Matlab.
(table 1). These species were among the dominant tree species included with Olinia rochetiana, Olea europaea subsp. Cuspidata, Syzygium guineese subsp. afromontanum, Myrica salicifolia, Chionanthus mildbraedii and Rhus glutinosa. These dominant species have more DBH and height mean value. These species contribute about 74.59% of total carbon density. According to (Ruiz-Jaen and Potvin, 2010),the dominant species can determine carbon storage in the forest. In addition, (Neupane and Sharma, 2014)reported that the highest carbon stored in species as 48.03 t ha -1 which is