Forestry and Wildlife

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Application of Operations Research in Forestry and Wildlife

Application of Operations Research in Forestry and Wildlife

The best fire fighting technique in the Amazon is to prevent them in the first place — by controlling deforestation and managing agricultural activities. And this is where the application of Operation research comes in. Operations Research techniques in forestry are numerous. The most widely used mathematical models are: linear programming, integer programming. goal programming, dynamic programming, network analysis, and computer simulation. The demand for improved efficiency , combined with multiple-use requirements, and the availability of computers, will result in a continuing increase of the use of Operations Research in natural resources in wildlife, forestry and agriculture managerial decision-making.
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Commisary of Forestry Companies in Cameroon: Instrumental in the Sustainable Management of Wildlife or Statutory Social Requirement: Case Study in the East Region of Cameroon.

Commisary of Forestry Companies in Cameroon: Instrumental in the Sustainable Management of Wildlife or Statutory Social Requirement: Case Study in the East Region of Cameroon.

Regarding the environmental aspect, it was asked whether the optimal operation of the commissary can reduce the pressure on bush meat by workers of logging companies. If not, we realize the effect, through penalties for illegalities thanks to the rigorously efforts of certified companies to apply internal rules, can allow a significant but hard to quantify reduction of pressure on wildlife in non-certified companies. Indeed, among the commendable efforts of the company to develop, validate, implement and monitor internal rules on wildlife management include the means used to educate employees and local population to the problem Wildlife (rules on hunting, consumption and developed bush meat transport; posters and brochures related to illegal activities and posters of protected species were produced for use in carrying awareness campaigns; talks educational). But eating habits hardly dies, "we like to eat porcupine for example, and its meat has no alternative. “This procurement is essential if prospectors camp during their field missions. Generally, prospectors brings with them, cables and hooks to perform hunting and fishing without discrimination of species or age of species. This extra nutrition reduces the pressure on biodiversity, and therefore the anti poaching (LAB), especially when we know that a prospection mission is made up of 20-30 people for three (03) weeks. The enforcement action is conducted under the internal rules and regulation in the field and is well respected in FSC certified companies. The permanence in quantity and quality alternative protein in the commissary does not necessarily mean reduction in the consumption of bush meat or poaching. Furthermore, poaching is not only exclusive to company workers. Indeed, there must also add local population who practice this activity. So we can say that the implementation of commissaries does not influence poaching much. This is true with commissaries of one of the certified companies. Indeed, it appears that 100 kg of meat took about one to two months to be sold. The state of sale suggests the existence of other sources of animal protein and thus intensified poaching. The example can be found at the kilogram of meat sale price: a kilogram of meat costs 2200FCFA while the price of a porcupine is 3000FCFA which weights is 3 kg that is 1000FCFA per kilogram for porcupine.
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Depletion of Forest Resources and Wildlife Population with Habitat Complexity: A Mathematical Model

Depletion of Forest Resources and Wildlife Population with Habitat Complexity: A Mathematical Model

Nowadays, management and regulation of natural resources like agriculture, fisheries, forestry and wildlife is one of the popular topics in research. The evolution of humankind is largely dependent on the quality of the environ- ment and the resources it provides; but numerous human-induced factors, and climate change may drastically alter the conditions of human sustainabil- ity. This paper deals with effect of numerous human-induced activities on the depletion of forestry resources and wildlife population with habitat complex- ity. A nonlinear mathematical model is proposed and analyzed. In modeling process, we assume that the growth rate of wildlife population wholly de- pends on forestry biomass. It is depleted by human-induced activities. Local stability analysis of the mathematical model along with the persistence of the system is checked by using theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and Butler-McGhee lemma. Analytical results obtained are justified numeri- cally through numerical simulation. Important parameters are investigated and variation of variables with change in these parameters is determined.
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Action on achieving a balance of wildlife with activities in agriculture, forestry and animal science in the hunting fund No. 3 Cenad

Action on achieving a balance of wildlife with activities in agriculture, forestry and animal science in the hunting fund No. 3 Cenad

It is recommended that the pastures are not harvested hay, since its purpose is to supplement food menu, if it still is for maintenance, hay harvested from late June valuable constituent is lower because the plants have already been exhausted. Pastures within the stands are only useful if they are regularly maintained so as they grow only plant associations that are used by the game to acceptable proportions. The location of the fields and pastures for game should preferably be made within plots, because hunting is not disturbed seen by potential bystanders, forestry workers, etc. Near them is advisable to have only one access road, the main ones is better to be reasonably remote from these food sources.
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Tiger Conservation in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: An Analysis of Social, Ecological and Management Perspectives

Tiger Conservation in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: An Analysis of Social, Ecological and Management Perspectives

UNDP funded project that is working in CNP area said that the biggest threat to conservation of resources of the protected areas was the ongoing conflict between parks and peoples’ subsistence needs [20]. To reduce such conflicts, UNDP focused on developing alternatives to parks’ resources, providing compensation to communities for their exclusion from parks, and creating incentives for local peoples to modify their resource extraction practices from the park [21]. The above evidence show that the focus of conservation among internat ional agencies has shifted from wild animal species to human communities [22], where local participation has been the underlying value [23]. The International agencies are mainly focusing on how to improve the local livelihood opportunities rather than wildlife conservation. Though, their main strategy is conservation of biodiversity and wildlife resources management of the park. To implement this goal they identified that their first priority to fulfil the local people basic needs and they invested maximum funds to create buffer zone forestry of CNP. So, the role of the International Organization is basically for improvements of people’s livelihoods rather than conservation of wildlife. In order to obtain conservation and development goals, international agencies needs to focus on both ways around.
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Earthworm (Lumbricidae) assemblages of forest ecosystems in the anthropogenically

Earthworm (Lumbricidae) assemblages of forest ecosystems in the anthropogenically

Kula Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: Assemblages of earthworms[r]

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Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb and Department of Forest Engineering in the Bologna Process

Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb and Department of Forest Engineering in the Bologna Process

The paper presents the past course and achievements of the reform of the higher educational system at the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb. The reform is part of the effort undertaken in order to include the Faculty in the European Area of Higher Education (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). A three-cycle educational system has been adopted and the curricula for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate studies have been devised on a 3 +2 +3 (2) or 180 + 120 + 180 (120) ECTS points basis. Three undergraduate studies have been established: Forestry, Urban Forestry and Wood Technology, whose pro- grammes are already followed by two generations of students. The following graduate study programmes have been developed: Forestry and Urban Forestry, Nature and Environment Protection and Wood Technology Processes and Design of Wood Products. Graduate studies in the Forestry department contain two programmes: Silviculture and Forest Management with Wildlife Management and Techniques, Technologies and Management in Forestry. An improved proposal for doctoral study has been developed in the Forestry Department consisting of three programmes (Silviculture and Wildlife Management, Techniques, Tech- nologies and Management in Forestry, and Urban Forestry, Nature Protection, Forest Management and Protection), as well as a doctoral study programme Wood Technology. Specialist postgraduate studies have been devised in ten programmes.
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An overview of forest management and change with respect to environmental protection in the UK

An overview of forest management and change with respect to environmental protection in the UK

The last century has seen major change in British forestry with significant implications for environmental protection. The programme of large-scale upland conifer afforestation in the period 1940-90 led to the introduction of a suite of environmental guidelines, starting with those covering forests and water in 1988. This was rapidly followed by a new policy of sustainable forestry, the introduction of the UK Forestry Standard, and a marked shift in emphasis from timber production to the many other diverse benefits that forests can provide. A wide range of pressures, including falling timber prices, agricultural reform and global warming, will continue to drive change, but protection of the environment will remain at the core of multi-purpose forestry. Evidence suggests that the advances in best practice that have taken place over the last 10-15 years provide a sound basis for the sustainable management of the forest environment by forest planners and managers.
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110 Years of University Forestry Education in the Republic of Croatia (p.109-112)

110 Years of University Forestry Education in the Republic of Croatia (p.109-112)

Croatia makes part of the ancient Mediterranean civ- ilization that has been developed in these regions for more than a thousand years. This is why the effects of re- duced forest cover have been first observed in the Medi- terranean parts of Croatia. This encouraged the resi- dents of coastal regions to protect forests by the first terms of their town statutes, starting with the 12 th cen- tury (Nin – 1103, Kor~ula – 1214, Split – 1240, Dubrovnik – 1272, Trogir – 1322, Krk – 1388, etc.). At that time, knowledge was transferred verbally, and also in writing. The beginning of forestry education in our country was first recorded with respect to forestry school of 1646 in Blato on the Island of Kor~ula (this is the time when the terms of the Venetian Senate applied for Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia). The first forestry schools in Eu- rope were established at the beginning of the 14 th cen- tury and namely: 1807 in Würtenberg (Germany), 1813 in Mariabrunn (Austria), 1816 in Tharandt (Germany), 1824 in Nancy (France), 1828 in Stockholm (Sweden), 1846 in Bánska [tiavnica (Check), 1872 in Florence (It- aly) and in Vienna (Austria), 1885 in Zurich (Switzer- land), etc.
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Global environmental governance and community-based conservation in Kenya and Tanzania

Global environmental governance and community-based conservation in Kenya and Tanzania

The confinement of these resources within parks where they were not available for use represented a social cost to the communities, which cost was not paid for. Parks were promoted as single land-use areas and people denied access to the resources contained therein (Kameri-Mbote, 2002: 97-98; and see also p.91). While this observation may explain the situation in other places, it fails to capture the nature of wildlife property rights struggles in Maasailand. During the colonial era, wildlife protected areas in Maasailand were not promoted as a single land-use regime. The Maasai did not have any contest with colonial authorities over access to areas designated wildlife reserves, even though the first wildlife reserves were declared in their areas (contrary to the impression given in Kameri-Mbote, 2002: 91). The Maasai retained access to grazing and watering places in the reserves until after the colonial authorities handed over the reserves to the respective African District Councils. Indeed, the question of property rights over wildlife reserves was a contest between the colonial government, nature preservationists and hunters who wanted the Maasai kept out of Amboseli reserve, but the government never acceded to these pressures. In Maasai Mara, the issue of keeping Maasai out of the reserve did not flare up because they themselves kept off the core of the reserve; it was tsetse-fly infested up to late 1950s, when they began to invade these areas through burning (Talbot and Olindo, 1990). Thus, Maasai contestation with the colonial state over land was in spite of the declaration of wildlife protected areas, unlike in other areas, such as Serengeti, where
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The Ranking of Wildlife Habitats

The Ranking of Wildlife Habitats

Rather than preserving an area with the broad objective of maintaining species diversity, a given patch of forest may be conserved for its actual or potential value as habitat for a particular species. Kushlan (1979, p. 287) considered single-species management to be the more realistic aim for continental wildlife reserves. No doubt when more is known of the specific requirements of New Zealand's forest fauna such strategies will become possible, but with the present paucity of autecological knowledge the preservation of habitats for species richness has been retained as the basis for the ranking system. The type of research currently being undertaken on the kokako (Callaeas cinerea) by a team from Wildlife Service, Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society, and Forest Service, may point to other methods for assessing the values of New Zealand's forest habitats.
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Damage by deer barking and browsing and subsequent rots in Norway spruce stands of Forest Range Mořkov, Forest District Frenštát p. R. (the Beskids Protected Landscape Area)

Damage by deer barking and browsing and subsequent rots in Norway spruce stands of Forest Range Mořkov, Forest District Frenštát p. R. (the Beskids Protected Landscape Area)

Bark scaling by red deer and subsequent rots appear to be one of the most important problems of forestry in the Czech Republic. It is a long-term and unresolved problem. As early as 1970, it was found by inventory that browsing and subsequent rots caused 100% damage to 70 thousand hectares of the spruce stand reduced area (Č ERNÝ 2001). In the Czech Republic, 106 thousand hectares were found in 1994 and in 1999, already 220 thousand hectares of the reduced area of damaged stands. Č ERNÝ (2001) gives damage to 80 thousand hectares of Norway spruce stands by deer barking and subsequent rots in mountain regions. A report on the condition of forests and forestry in 2000 states that bark scaling caused by hoofed game remained virtually on the same level in the period 1995–2000, how- ever, the total area of stripped stands increased (MZ E ČR 2001).
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Digitisation in forest industry in Bulgaria   state and perspectives

Digitisation in forest industry in Bulgaria state and perspectives

The subject of the study is the degree of digitisation of Bulgarian forest sector enterprises based on the use of online-based applications and electronic catalogs; specialized information and communication systems and management systems; office applications and warehouse management software. The observation methodology is characterized by: use of officially reported indicators in the EU and the country (Eurostat, NSI); ability to conduct deep interviews and collect detailed, reliable and diverse data; selection of the largest enterprises in various economic activities of the industry (production of upholstered furniture, production of furniture, manufacture of wood panels, production of parquet and laminates, production of mattresses, production of toys, etc.). The used method is in-depth interviews with duration of 20 minutes. The subject of the survey is large enterprises, according to the requirements of the AA. The choice of the target group is in line with the authors' goal to study the level of implemented digital solutions and information and communication technologies among enterprises with diverse economic activities in the forest industry. Observing units are the sixth largest enterprises (over 250 employees), in the respective core economic activities of the forestry industry. The interviews are conducted in 2018. The monitoring questionnaire includes issues aiming to determine the degree of digitisation of enterprises based on the following indicators: Use of computers and Internet by enterprises (use of e-mail, website, electronic catalog, e-shop, Internet advertising); Internal processes (use of integrated ERP systems, specialized systems such as CRM, SCM, computer networks, office packages); Enterprise relationships with customers, suppliers, and third parties (use of inventory management systems, digital supply chain management and supplier relationships, electronic forms of orders or other information systems between suppliers and businesses, unique and automated product identification throughout the supply chain). The use of digital tools and solutions by large enterprises under investigation in this paper is outlined in Table 1.
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Wildlife in a Premier African Protected Area do not Perceive Ecotourists as Predators

Wildlife in a Premier African Protected Area do not Perceive Ecotourists as Predators

I recorded a total of 2,145 videos: 1,101 were of identifiable wildlife based on a field guide of African mammals (Kingdon 1997), whereas the others were of vegetation moving, or of birds or unidentifiable small mammals. Of these 1,101 videos, over 60 % (672) were recorded during the first three days of pre-baiting at each site, before the playbacks were set to be triggered. As detailed in my paper describing the ABR (Suraci et al. 2017), even when the playback is set to be triggered it does not always do so, setting a delay before the playback triggers has distinct advantages, as explained in the next sentence, but runs the risk that the animal will have left the field of view before the playback triggers. Successfully recording the animal’s behaviour both before and after the playback is heard provides a powerful repeated-measures means of gauging its change in behaviour in response to the playback, within the timeframe of a given video (Suraci et al. 2017). Of the 429 videos recorded during the period when the playback was set to be triggered it did so in 245 videos, in 40 of which the animal was already out of view before the playback began, and in another 12 it did not come into view until after the playback had sounded. There were consequently 193 videos in which the animal’s behaviour was successfully recorded both before and after the playback began.
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Wildlife economics: A study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector

Wildlife economics: A study of direct use values in Botswana's wildlife sector

A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix 4.1. Respondents were asked, using open-ended questions, what their annual income was (question 1.13), what their total holiday had cost (question 2.1), and how much o f this they had personally spent within Botswana (question 2.2). They were also asked w hether they would be willing to donate money to a fund aimed at conserving wildlife in Botswana (question 2.7) and, if so, how much (question 2.8). To try and identify any consumer surplus being experienced by tourists (i.e. the most they would have been willing to pay for the experience they were having), a payment card was used to ask respondents about their willingness to pay for a similar return trip. They were first asked w hether they would be willing to return on a similar trip (question 2.4). If they said "yes", they were asked to name the cost level (in relation to their present cost) which would prevent them from returning (question 2.6). If they said "no" they were asked to name the cost level (also in relation to their present cost) that would induce them to return (question 2.5). Answers to these two questions were taken as their willingness to pay for a return trip and were used to derive two things: the consumer surplus enjoyed by each tourist, and a price - quantity demand function for the tourist population. Consumer surplus was determined as follows. For each respondent, the difference between the maximum willingness to pay for a return trip (question 2 .6) and the actual cost of the whole trip, where positive, was taken to be her/his consum er surplus. The consumer surpluses for all respondents in the whole sample were then aggregated and the mean determined.
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Sistemul informational al costurilor si rolul sau in managementul unitatilor silvice

Sistemul informational al costurilor si rolul sau in managementul unitatilor silvice

The building of a modern informational system in forestry units considers the solving of certain problems so that in the end the informational process identifies itself with the one related to making a decision. When wanting to make a decision one always starts by considering the existing result and thinking about a new aim. The necessity of making a decision is revealed when a problem occurs at the managed sub-system and needs urgent solving. The decision is also influenced by the human factor and the environment of the unit, because any political, social, economic or even technological changes should be taken into consideration both nationally and internationally, especially now when there is a pronounced tendency of globalization. This fact implies the development of the complexity of making a decision, leading to a rise in the number of variables and limit conditions regarding the decision.
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Outreach to limited resource forest landowners: creating extension materials for low literacy audiences

Outreach to limited resource forest landowners: creating extension materials for low literacy audiences

Professional foresters can provide landowners with management assistance that will increase the value and productivity of their forested acreage. More than 60 percent of North Carolina is forested, but much of this valuable resource is poorly managed or not managed at all. Many forest landowners are not aware of the benefits that can be derived from a properly managed forest - extra money from the sale of timber products, improved wildlife habitat, aesthetics, and recreation, and pride in ownership. Consulting foresters are one of several sources of assistance for landowners who are interested in managing their woodlands. What Is a Consulting Forester?
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A contribution to the resistance of combined plywood materials to abrasion

A contribution to the resistance of combined plywood materials to abrasion

Hrázský Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper was to propose the methodology[r]

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Contribution to the knowledge of Clethrionomys glareolus populations in forests of managed landscape in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

Contribution to the knowledge of Clethrionomys glareolus populations in forests of managed landscape in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

Suchomel Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: In intensively managed landscape, the dynamics of the[r]

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About phytopathological and histological aspects of Norway spruce dieback in the Orlické hory Mts

About phytopathological and histological aspects of Norway spruce dieback in the Orlické hory Mts

JANKOVSKÝ Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Brno, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: The condition was evaluated of tissues of declining [r]

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